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=— CALCUTTA. =— 

■Utb APRFL 1800 TO THE 



Skcretary — Deacon ok the Church, 






■a OS 


Tub Lall Bazar Baptist Obapel, Caloatta, was opened for Divine 
Service on the 1st January 1809. In 1907 it was realized that its 
centenary was rapidly approachingt and as I was the Secretary Deacon and 
had charge of the records of the Church, it occurred to me that a History 
of the Church for the intervening hundred years should be written for 
the information of the members of the Church and as a contribution to 
Baptist history generally. 1 was persuaded that a great deal of very 
interesting information would be forthcoming which was unknown to the 
majority of the present members, as well as to outsiders in this country 
and to Baptists in Great Britain and America. It was suggested that 
while upon this work a list should be compiled of all the individuals 
whose names have been on the Church Rolls during the 100 years. 

As all the extant Church Rolls and Minute Books were in my 
custody there seemed no alternative but for me to undertake the work ; 
but it was with great diffidence that 1 consented to put my hand to it. 
However, as the subject was one in which 1 was much interested for 
several reasons and had had some experience in research work, I thought 
1 might be equal to the effort. 

The book makes no pretensions to literary merit, but is a bare state- 
ment of the facts ascertained. For this reason it may not be very attractive 
to some readers, as it is intended to serve as a book of reference here- 
after, my object being to bring out the facts stated prominently before 
they pass into oblivion. It does not profess to be complete, but may 
serve for others to build upon. Some readers may notice omissions of 
which I am unconscious while others may even consider it '* padded.*' Snch 
a mass of very interesting information has been collected that it has been 
difficult to compress it even into its present dimensions, which some 
probably may consider excessive. While I was about it 1 thought it 
best to put down all the information I had collected on any one subject 
so as to obviate* the readers having to go through all the books I had 
consulted in order to get at the information so collected. A large 


correspondence has also had to be carried on in order to get information 

from one and another and references have had to be made to the Secretaries { 

of the Baptist Missionary Societies in London and Boston, who have cheer ^ 

fully and readily furnished snch information as it was in their power to give. ^ 

As will be seen from the Bibliography in Appendix 8 there are 
four Minute Books and four Church Rolls extant in Calcutta, which have ' 
been gone through more than once and the necessary notes made from 
them. There is also a small Cburch Roll book extant at Serampore, 
containing lists of the members of the several churches planted by the 
Serampore Missionaries which seems to be in Dr. Carey's own small 
handwriting; under the heading *' Church at Serampore, Bengal" are I 
entered the names of the Calcutta members as well, but this unfortunately -^ 
stops at April 1811. 1 have, however, had a copy made of this list i 
which contains 242 names in all. f] 

The earliest Church Roll extant in Calcutta is one which was prepared 
in 1825, so that it has been a very laborious matter to prepare a Church 
Roll for the early years of the Church's History. The names of 148 mem- 
bers who joined the Church prior to 1825 having been brought forward in 
the roll of that year, it became necessary to prepare an independent 
roll from the very beginning, and in doing this it was found that at least 
660 persons must have joined the Church between the 24th April 1800, 
the date of the formation of the Church, and the 16th June 1825, when 
Drs. Carey and Marshman severed their connection with it. Unfortunate- 
ly it has not been possible to trace clearly the date of baptism of some per- 
sons who are known to have been members. 

In the old books it is stated that Serampore and Calcutta were two 
branches of one Church and also that' " the united churches formed one 
station." They are always linked together as ^' Serampore and Calcutta " 
and are never mentioned separately. It, therefore, became necessary to 
go back to the 24th April 1800, the date on which the Serampore Mission- 
aries first banded themselves into a Church at Serampore. Such being 
|.he case, the history of the Baptist Mission in Bengal for the first quarter 
of the nineteenth century has had to be read up very carefully.* 



Many books have had to be consulted as will be seen by a reference 
to the Bibliography which forms Appendix 8 as I determined not to accept 
a fact or a date on the authority of only one book where others were avail* 
able. Notably among the books consulted have been the Circular 
Letters of the Serampore Missionaries and the Periodical Accounts of 
ike Baptist Missionary Society^ but other books, such as the biographies 
of the early missionaries and standard works like Marshman's FAfe and 
Times of Carey ^ Marshman and Ward, and W. H. Carey's Oriental 
Christian Biography have also been consulted. 

I firmly believe that illustrations enhance the value of a history, so 
I have spared no pains or expense in getting together those which I con- 
sidered woald add to the interest of the book and I am happy to say that 
I have been more successful than I had ever hoped to be when I first took 
ap this undertaking. I would have liked to have put in about half a dozen 
' more, but refrained from inserting them from pradential reasons lest it 
might be thought that copyright had been infringed as it has not been 
possible to correspond with all the publishers concerned. It was even 
anggested to me to risk this, but 1 did not care to do so. 

I desire therefore here and now to express my sincerest thanks to 
all who have so cheerfuly and readily complied with my request for por- 
traits or for information. I must here make special mention of : — 

1. Messrs. Thacker, Spink & Oo. for placing at my disposal the 
blocks of five illustrations from their published works, one of which they 
got oat specially from England for me. 

2. The Secretary of the Baptist Missionary Society, London, for 
a similar favor in regard to six of their blocks from different publications. 

3. The Secretary of the American Baptist Missionary Union for 
three electrotypes from their blocks about Dr. Judson. They did not like 
to risk sending the originals so far so had duplicates made specially for me. 

4. The Librarian of the Imperial Library, Calcutta, for so readily 
permitting me^to have a photograph taken off of Mr. Colesworthy 
Grant's sketch of Bev. J. Penney teaching the children of the Bene- 
volent Instftution. 


5. The Principal of the DoTston College, Calcutta, for a similar 
favor in regard to the portrait of Mr. J. VV. Ricketts, the East 
Indian Patriot, from an oil painting of him which is in the Library ot 
that college. Unfortanately it has not come off very well, but it is better 
than nothing. 

6. Rev. H. Anderson, the Indian Secretary of the Baptist Mis- 
sionary Society, for all the kind services he has rendered in a variety of 
ways, and more especially in reading through the typed matter before, 
and the proofs when passing through the Press, and for valuable 
remarks and suggestions made thereon. 

7. Mr. E. W. Madge of the Imperial Library for the following 
photographs : — 

(a) That of Mr. H. L. V. Derozio, the East Indian Poet. 
(6) „ „ the tomb of Sir William Jones from a negative 
by the late Mr. Alfred Palmer. 

(c) „ „ the tomb of Hindu Stuart from a negative by 

Mr. 0. F. Hooper. 

(d) , „ the Serampore Cemetery from a negative by 

Mr. Walter Bnshnell. 
Mr. Madge has also very kindly helped me in many other ways which 
are too numerous to be specified. 

8. Mrs. S« J. Leslie o! Barrackpore for a large parcel of old books 
from the library of the late Miss Leslie, which she was kind enough to 
give me and which have been invalnable. 

9. Mrs. Walter Bushnell for permitting me to take off photographs 
from the oil paintings of the Rev. and Mrs. William Robinson. 

10. Messrs. Farquhar and Barber of the Y.M.C. A. College Branch, 
Calcutta, have furnished me with much valuable information regarding 
the Calcutta Christian Juvenile Society and the picture of the Hall. 

11. Mr. S. 0. Sanial, M.A. of the Calcutta Parliament, who very 
kindly furnished me with all the information regarding Mr. L. Mendea 
connection with the three newspapers mentioned in the biographical 
sketch of him in Chapter LII. 


I had formalated my pUos for this book when I saw — 

1. The Rev. Mr. Stnart's history of the Beechen Grove Gharcb, 
Westford, Herte, and 

2. The Rev. R. 0. Roberts' Baptist Historical Sketches in 

from each of which I culled some useful hints. In fact from the 
latter I conceived the idea of LI II chapter which I thought wonld 
be a very good subject to include in the book. 

Appendix 1 contains an alphabetical list of all the members of the 
Ohnrch from the 24th April 1800 to the present date, which includes 
over 1,700 names. The married names of ladies are entered in italics 
for facility of reference so that the individual's date of admission can be 
traced either by her maiden or her married name. Obviously the list must 
be more or less incomplete and inaccurate in regard to some of the 
entries in it, though every effort has been made to render it as complete 
•nd as aocnrate as dih'gent research can make it. 

I mast, therefore, ask the forbearance of the reader to any defects 
^^at may be noticed in the work as it has been done singlehanded and 
r^pi my first attempt at what may be considered a pretentious work. With 
I . ||B its imperfections and defects, however, I venture to send it forth to 
« . %eak for itself, so that every reader's heart may be thrilled with grati- 
; Me to God for all that Redid " in the good old days " of the Lall 
Bazar Church. 

j 8 Grant's Lane, ] 

tji Calcutta, i EDWARD STEANE WENGER* 

'■ ' December 1908. ) 


Namber. Pages. 

List of Illastrations ... 
Preface ... 
I. — Introduction ... ... ... 1-8 

II.— The Beginning ... ... ... 9-12 

III.-^Krishna Pal. the beloved ... ... 13-20 

IV. — The commencement of the work at Calcutta ... 21-25 
V — The early efforts to erect the Chapel at Calcutta 26-39 
VI. — Some of the Subscribers to the Building Fund 40-44 
VII. — The progress of the cause in 1809 after the 

opening of the Chapel ... ... 45-49 

VIII. — Biographical sketch of Mr. William Cnmberlandi 

a Deacon of the Church ... ... 50-55 

IX. — Biographical sketch of the Rev. Owen Leonard, 

a Deacon of the Chnrch ... ... 56-60 

X. — The v7ork among soldiers from January 1810 

to December 1815... ... ... 61--68 

XI. — The redoubtable Mrs. Wilson, a Hundustani 

woman of pluck ... ... ... 69-71 

XII. — The story of the conversion of Michael 

Carmoody, a soldier ... ,... 72-75 

XIII. — The story of the conversion of Alexander Wilson, 

a soldier ... ... ... 76-78 

XIV. — The general work carried on between January 

1810 and December 1815 ... ... 79-90 

XV.— The Rev. Dr. Adoniram and Mrs. Ann 

Hasseltine Jndson... ... ... 91-111 

XVr.— The Rev, Luther Rice ... ... 112126 

XVII.— The simple-minded Mrs. Jore ... ... 127-129 

XVIII.— The Co-Pastorship of the Revs. John Lawaon 

and Eustace Carey •.% \^^A.^5i 


XIX.— Mr. J. W. Ricketts,the East Indian Patriot... 146-151 
XX.— The story of Mahomed Bakar a Mahomedan 

convert ... ... .., 152-153 

XXI. — Manshi Snjaat All, Mahomedan convert and 

Christian preacher... ... •«. 154>161 

iXXII. — Close or open Communion which ? ... 162-164 

XXIII. — Licenses and Passports ••. ••• 165-171 
XXIV.— Title Deeds and TruBt Deeds of the Chapel 

property ... ... ... 172-184 

XXV. — The dark days between October 1819 and June 

1825 ... ... ... ... 185^188 

XXVI.— The Pastorate of the Rev. William Robinson ... 189-213 

XXVII.— The Work in the Villages ... ... 214-229 

XXVIII.— The Pastorate of the Rev. Robert Bayne ... 280-283 

XXIX.— The Pastorate of the Rev. W. W. Evans ... 234-245 

XXX.— The Benevolent Institution ... ... 246-256 

XXXI. — The three Serampore Missionaries, Carey, Marsh- 
man and Ward and their Associate Mack 257-285 
XXXII.— The Pastorate of the Rev, James Thomas ... 286-305 
XXXllI.— The Indian Mutiny ... ... ... 306-319 

XXXIV.— The Calcutta Christian Juvenile Society ... 320 337 

XXXV.— The Pastorate of the Rev. John Sale ... 338-353 

XXXVI.— The acting Pastorate of the Rev. George Kerry 354-359 

XXXVII.— The story of the Williams' Estate ... 360-364 

XXXVIII.— The Pastorate of the Rev. John Robinson ... 365-384 

XXXIX.— The work among sailors in Calcutta ... 385 807 

XL.— The acting Pastorate of the Kev. Dr. Rouse ... 398-405 

XLI.— The Pastorate of the Rev. H. G. Blaokie ... 406-410 

XLII.— The Pastorate of the Rev. G. H. Hook ... 411-446 

XLIII. — The Parsonage and its Donor Mr. H. Dear of 

Monghyr ... ... ... 447-454 

XLIV, — The oldest Church member and her sister ... 455 459 

XLV.— A. chapter of varieties ... ... 460-466 

XLVI.— The Title Deeds and Trust Deeds of" the 

Parsonage ... ••• ..t 467-468 


XL VII. — The sarTGy of the entire premiBes ..• 469-476 
S.LVIII. — The chaoges made in the exterior and interior of 

the Chapel and Parsonage .. ••• 477-493 

XlilX.— The Oooly Bazar (or Hastings) Chapel ... 494-500 

L. — Vernacular Chapels and Schools ... ... 501-504 

LI.— Some Calcutta Cemeteries and the Mission 

Cemetery at Serampore ... ... 505^528 

LII.— The Officers of the Church ... ... 524-532 

lilll. — The members of the Church who became 

Missionaries ... ... ... 533 570 

LIV. — The Pauperism Committee ... ... 571-575 

Appendices ... ... ... ... I — LX 

Index ... ... ..• LXI — LXXI 




Whbrb Placed. 





The chapel as it looked when opened on Ist 

January 1809. (By kind permission of 

the Baptist Missionary Society, London.) 
Portrait of Krishna Pal, the first native 

(Serampore) convert. (From a miniatare 

by the Rev. John Law son) 
The Old (or Mission) Charch, Galcatta, as 

it was in 1788. (By kind permission of 

Messrs. Thacker, Spink & Oo., Galcatta.) 
St. John's Cathedral, Calcutta, as it was 

in 1788. (By kind permission of Messrs. 

Thacker, Spink & Co., Calcutta) 
A scene in the Chitpore Road, Calcutta, in 

the early years of the 19th century. (By 

kind permission of Messrs. Thacker, 

Spink & Co., Calcutta) 
View of the east face of Government House, 

Calcutta, as it was in the early years of the 

19th century ... 
Portrait of Mr. H. L. V. Derozio, the 

Anglo-Indian Poet, (By kind permission 

of Mr. E. W. Madge of the Imperial 

Interior of a part of Fort William, Calcutta, 

as it was in the early years of the 19th 

View of the Old Alipore Bridge as it was 
in the early years of the 19th centnry ... 
Portrait of'the Rev. Dr. Judson at the age 
of 28? (By kind permission of the 
Aiperican Baptist Missionary Union) ... 


























Portrait of Mrs. Ana H. Judson, who was 
baptized in the Chapel with Dr. Jadson. 

The Ordination Service of the five Mission- 
aries — Judson, Newell, Nott, Gordon Hall, 
and Kice. (By kind permission of the 
American Baptist Missionary Union) ... 

Shetch of the brig Caravan in which 
Dr. and Mrs, Jndson and Mr. and Mrs. 
Newell came out to India in 1812. (By 
kind permission of the American Baptist 
Missionary Union) 

Facsimile of Dr. Carey's handwriting 

The Baptistery in which Dr. and Mrs 
Jndson were baptized by Mr. Ward on 6th 
September 1812. (By kind permission of 
the Baptist Missionary Society, London.) 

The Judson Memorial Tablet (with ins- 
cription) which is in the Chapel 

Facsimile of the latter part of a letter 
written by Dr. Judson to Mr. and Mrs. 
0. T. Cutter from Chummerah on the 
11th February 1833. (The original is in 
the possession of the present writer) ... 

Portrait of the Rev. John Lawson 
(enlarged from a miniature done by him- 
self which is in the possession of the 
present writer) 

Portrait of the Rev. Eustace Carey, who was 
Co-Pastor with the Rev. John Lawson ... 

Portrait of Mr. J. W. Ricketts, the East 
Indian Patriot. (By kind permission of 
the Principal of the Doveton College, 
Calcutta, from an oil painting which is in 
the Library of that College) 

Portrait of Munshi Sujaat Ali as he was 
when baptized. (From a hand-painted 
portrait which is in the possession of the 
present writer) 

Where Placed. 

















146 . 


166 * 



Where Placed 








Portrait of Manshi Sajaat Ali in mid life. 
(By kind permission of Mr. Robert Bel* 
chambers from a hand-painted portrait in 

his possession) 




Portrait of Manshi Sujaat Ali in old age ^. 




Portrait of the Rev. W. Robinson (By kind 

permission of Mrs. Walter Bushnell) ^.. 




Portrait of Mrs. W. Robinson (previously 

Mrs. Lish) (ditto) 




Heading of the Government Gazette, dated 

8th October, 1829 




Interior of the Benevolent In8titution,Oalcutta 




Portrait of the Rev. J. Penney when 
teaching. (By kind permission of the 
Librarian of the Imperial Library from 

Mr. 0. Grant's sketch) 




Portrait of the Rev. Dr. Oarey. (By kind 
permission of the Baptist Missionary 

Society, Londonll 




View of the Flagstaff Ghat, Barrackpore, 
opposite the Serampore College, as it 
was in the early years of the 19th 

century ••• •- 




Portrait of the Rev. Dr. Marshman. (By 
kind permission of the Baptist Mis- 

sionary Society, London) ••• 




Difference between Chinese wooden blocks 
and moveable metal typeft introduced 

by Mr. Lawson 




Portrait of the Rev. W. Ward. (By kind 
permission of the Baptist Missionary 

Society, London) 




Portrait of the Rev. John Mack from an oil- 
painting (throagh the kindness of the 

Baptist Missionary Society, London) 




Portrait of Mr. J. C. Marshman, C.S.I., 

in earl^ life ••• 




Where Placbd, 








Portrait of the Rev. James Thomas 




Portrait of Mrs. Thomas 




The Lectare Hall of the Calcutta Christian 
Javenile Society in Bow Bazaar Street, 
Calcntta. (By kind permission of Messrs. 
Farquhar and Barber of the Y. M. C A. 

College Branch) 




Portrait of the Rev. J. and Mrs. Sale as 
they were when Mr. Sale was the Pastor 

of the Charch 




Portrait of the Rev. G. and Mrs. Kerry as 
they were when Mr. Kerry was the acting 

Pastor of the Charch 




Portrait of the Rev. John Robinson 




Portrait of Mrs. Robinson 




Portrait of the Rev. Charles Jordan who 

was Co-Pastor with the Rev. J Robinson 




View of the shipping in Calcntta from 

Garden Rea(?h House as in 1835 




Portrait of Mis. Selina May* who was a 
fellow-worker with Mrs. Lydia M. Rouse 

in the sailor work in Calcutta 




Sketch of Mrs. May conducting a service 

on the ship Battle Ahhey ,.. 




Portrait of the Rev. Dr. Rouse 




Portrait of Mrs. Lydia M. Rouse ••• 




Portrait of the Rev. H. G. Blaokie 




Portrait of Mrs. Blackie 




Portrait of the Rev. G. H. Hook, the pre- 

sent Pastor, as he was in 1885 




Sketch of the open-air service at the Chapel 

gate with awning; 




View of the North Verandah of the Parsonage 




View of the South Verandah of the Parsonage 




Portrait of Mr. H. Dear, of Monghyr, the 

donor of the Parsonage 




Portrait of Miss C. V. Gonsalves, the oldest 

Charch member, as she was in 1870 





Whbbb Flaobd. 








Portrait of Mrs. W. Thomas, the sister of 

Miss 0. V. Qonsalves 




Plan of the entire premises ... 

xLvii : 



View of the exterior of the Ohapel as it is at 

the present time and has been since 1886 




View of the exterior of the Ohapel with flat 
roofed portico as it was from 1854 to 
1886. (Bj kind permission of the Baptist 

Missionary Society, London) 




View of the interior of the Schoolroom 
and Lectare Hall as at the present 

time, facing south 




The old reading desk whioh has been in 

use since 1809 




View of the East end of the interior of the 

Chapel, with mat fan 




View of the West end of the interior of the 

Ohapel, with mat fan 




View of the interior of the Ohapel as at the 
present time, showing gallery and electric 





The Oommnnion Service which was 
presented to Dr. Oarey by Government. 
(It is a dnplicate of the set at St. John's 

Chnrch, Oalcatta) 




View of the main walk in the South Park 

Street Oemetery, Calcutta ••• 




Tombs in the Old Presidency Burial Ground, 
Calcutta. (By kind permission of Messrs. 

Thacker, Spink & Co., Calcutta) 




The Old Powder Magazine with some of the 
graves in the Old Presidency Burial 
Ground, Calcutta. (By kind permission of 

Messrs. Thacker, Spink & Co., Calcutta 




Tomb of Sir Wm. Jones in the above ceme- 
tery. (By kind permission of Mr. E. W. 
Mad^e from a negative by the late Mr. 

Alfred Palmer) 







Whbrb Placed. 










Tomb of Hindoo Staart in the Sonth Park 
Street Oemetery, Galea tta. (By kind per- 
mission of Mr. E. W. Madge from a 
negative by Mr. C. F. Hooper) 

Interior and exterior of one of the Bev. B. 
May's native boys' schools ... 

Main walk in the Scotch and Dissenters' 
Cemetery, Oalcatta 

Main walk in the Lower Circolar Boad 

Cemetery, Oalcatta 
Main wslk in the Serampore Mission Ceme- 
tery, (By kind permission of Mr. E. W. 
Madge from a negative by Mr. Walter 

Inscriptions on the Carey Tomb in the 
Mission Cemetery at Serampore 

Portrait of Deacon Mendes. (By kind per- 
mission of his danghter, Mrs. Derozario) 





Substitute thefoUoming list of ERRATA for that previously printed. 

Page. Line* For 




*' Cathedral" (in Liat of lUustrations) 




above ^ ditto ) 

South Park Street 




Jotin V. M 




on the next page 



"Cathedral " (in the description under the 
Plate on this page) 




Omit the words '* By this effort** and 
commence the sentence with ** The 



7th February (in the description under 
the Plate facing this page) 

nth February 



7 years 

6 years 








not long 



1876 24 years 

1875 23 yeaiK 







19th August 

9th August 



Omit the whole line 







W. L. Denham 

W. H. Denham 



Omit the word "the" before "building " 



Es. 961-0 

Rs. 96-0 



Insert the word " been " before ** filled " 



below of 

overleaf of the 











Omit the word '* and " before " he '* 



Madame D'Aiblay 

Madame D'Arblay 



Insert the word *• he" before ** passed" 







Omit the words " of the " repeated for the 
second time. 


Insert the following as line 7 : with their 
infant and the Rev. W. Robinson 
narrowly escaped with 


Insert the following as line 24 : with all 
the Sailors in Port, who could be in- 
duced to attend the 



Coyners (in Appendix 1) 




Marten ( ditto ) 




McHugh, Mr. 8. 

McHugh, Mr. J 




It is necassary at the outset to have some idea of the general 
religious and other conditions that prevailed in India when the 
attempt was made first by Mr. Thomas, the Christian Surgeon- 
missionary alone, and afterwards along with Dr. Carey, to bring 
tbe Gospel tidings to the inhabitants of Bengal. 

It may hardly be credited at the present day that when Mr. 

Thomas, the pious surgeon of an Indiaman, was out here in 

1783, he tried to find some who feared God, but faikd to 

discover any. It is on record that, in consequence, he inserted 

the following advertisement in the India GazctU of 1st November 

1783 :— 

Religious Society. 

"A plan is now forming for the mora effectually spreading 
the knowledge of Jesus Christ and His glorious Gospel in and 
about Bengal: any serious persons of any denomination, rich or 
poor, high or low, who would heartily approve of joining, or gladly 
forward such an undertaking, are hereby invited to give a small 
testimony of their inclination, that they may enjoy the satisfac- 
tion of forming a communion, the most useful, the most comfortable 
and the most exalted in the world. Direct A. B. C, to be left 
with the Editor." 

On the next day he received the following answers: — 

(1) " If A. B. C. will open a subscription for a translation 

of the New Testament into the Perdan and Moorish languages^ 

(under the dire</tion of proper persons), he will meet with every 


assistance he can desire, and a compstent number of subscribers 
to defray the expense. 

(2) '* The Rev. W. Johnson, having read the advertisement of 
A. B. C. in this day's paper, takes the earliest opportunity of 
expressing his satisfaction at a proposal for the more effectually 
propagating and making known the truths of the Christian reli- 
gion in this country of superstition, idolatry and irreligion, and 
for the setting forth the excellence of that holy institution, so 
replete with the means of rendering mankind happy both here 
and hereafter, most cordially offers his services for promoting and 
encouraging so laudable an undertaking, and will think himself 
happy if he can be at all instrumental in bringing it to any 
degree of success. Mr. Johnson, from the above reasons, there- 
fore, wishes an opportunity of conferring with the advertiser on 
the occasion." 

Mr. Thomas never found out who the writer of the annoymou^ 
letter was, but Mr. Johnson was the Chaplain of the Pre- 
aidency Church, and Mr. Thomas had heard him preach. As 
he did not answer him, the matter dropped. All the same, there 
were, unknown to Mr. Thomas, two or three in the land, who 
had the love of God in their hearts, but these were all. So 
insignificant was the Gospel plant in those days in this country. 

Dr. Carey towards the end of his earthly course used often 
to say to his younger brethren : 

"You see that things are still very bad here, and 
are ready to draw the inference that nothing, or next 
to nothing, has been accomplished, but you are mistaken. 
You cannot see any change to speak of, but I, who can look back 
to the end of last century, see a wonderful change *f or the better. 
I remember repeatedly meeting some three or four Christian friendi 
and hearing them say, that with one or two exceptions, besides 
ourselves, they were not aware that a single converted character 
was to be found either in the Military or Civil Service, or in the 
nominally Christian community throughout the whole of the 
Bengal Presidency, but you yourselves can see that things are 
very different now." • 


Th& Hon'ble Frederick John Shore, Ji;idge of the Civil Court 

and Criminal Sessions in the District of Furrukhabad, in. his 

paper " On the conversion of the people " of this country to Chri»- 

tianity, which bears date 30th August 1835, and is published in 

Volume II. of his "Notes on Indian Affairs,'' writes thus: "The 

habits of the English in this country till within the last £wenty 
yaars, were, as far as religion is concerned, far below the heathen 
by whom they were surrounded. These (the latter) at least paid 
attention to their own forms and ceremonies, but the English 
appear to have considered themselves at liberty to throw aside 
all consideration on thd subject; they lived indeed, without God 
in the world, as if there were neither a heaven nor hell. Their 
conduct has been repeatedly alluded to by the natives, in reply 
to those missionaries and clergymen, who have attsmpted to make 
converts among them. 

" There is, indsed, little in the conduct of the English, whether 
the Government or individuals be concerned, which should induce 
the people of India, to respect the religion professed by us. The 
Government has hitherto been ona of the most extortionate and 
tyrannical in piactice, (however, banevolent and philanthropi- 
cal may have been its professionsi and intentions), that has ever 
existed in India. Money has been the object, and, to realize this, 
justice, and the interests of the people, have been sacrificed ;' money 
is the God of individuals, who have been but too prone to trsad 
in the steps of the supreme authority, and, to such an extent 
has the worship of Mammon been carried, that the common 
language of thd Natives in speaking of us, is " As for the English 
if you have a hungry dog you must f £ed him ; there is nothing 
to be got out of an Englishman without paying him well in some 
way or other." 

There is more to the same effect in that paper, but the above 
extract must suffice. It speaks for itself and shows what the 
state of things was in the early days of th3 Baptist Mission in this 
country. The state of things in England itsslf was scarcely any 
better as a perusal of Chapter IV. Volume I., of the Centenary 
History of the Church Missionary Society (1899) will show. 

Now, to turn to those in authority. Mr. John Marshman at 
the Annual Meeting of the Baptist Missionary Society which 
was held in London on the 30th April 1857, whsn moving the 
approval of tfie Beport, mentioned a number of historical fafet^ 


illustrative of the change which had taken place in the mind 
of the Government of India in regard to Missions. He stated 
that in 1792 Mr. Wilberforoe proposed the following Resolution 
during the discussion of the East India Charter in the House of 
Commons :— 

" That it is the opinion of this House that it is the psculiar 
and bounden duty of the Legislature to promote, by all just and 
prudent means the interests and happiness of the British 
I>omlnions in the East, and that for these ends such measures 
ought to be adopted as may gradually tend to their advancement 
in useful knowledge, and to their religious and moral improvement.'' 

This Resolution excited the strongest opposition in the Court 
of Directors and in the Court of Proprietors. The latter Court 
met in a frenzy and drew up a Petition deprecating in the strong- 
est manner the passing of Mr. Wilberforca's Resolution and it 
was cancelled before the third reading of the Bill. Mr. Marshman 
quoted the following extract from one of the speeches made in 
the India House on the occasion by one of the most influential 
and important members of the Court of Directors : — 

"He thanked God that if the conversion of the Natives was 
the avowed object of the Clause — as he believed it to be its real, 
though concealed, aim — the effecting it would be a matter of 
impracticability. He was fully convinced that suffering Clergy- 
men, under the name of missionaries, or any other name, to over- 
run India, and penetrate into the interior parts of it, would, in 
the first instance, be dangerous, and prove utterly destructive to 
the Company's interests, if not wholly annihilate their power in 
Hindustan. That so far from wishing that they might make 
converts of 10,000, 50,00TT, or 100,000 natives of any degree of 
character, he should lament such a circumstance as the most serious 
and fatal disaster that could happen." 

Mr. Fox, the great leader of the Whig party, had objected 
to the >vl»ole measure, because he thought the present age far 
too enlightened to think of making proselytes. Mr. Marshman 
then referred to the restrictions put upon Dr. Carey and his 
co-ad jutors whose operatfons were for a time entirely forbidden. 
This system had been more or less pursued for many years. Now, 
how changed was the state of affairs, the Grovernment recognizing 


that the true end for which it existed was not for a selfish purpose 
but for the welfare and improvement of tha inhabitants and that 
the missionaries werd most important auxiliaries. In proof of 
this he alluded to the offer of support made by the Government 
to the Church Missionary Society to establish a Mission among 
the SantaJs. Mr. Marshman referred , in conclusion, to the remark- 
able change which had taken place in Hindu customs and pre- 
judices, a change, to be largely, though not wholly, attributed to 
the effects of Missions. 

From the foregoing it will be seen that, at the very time that 
Dr. Carey was exerting himself to start a Mission, the Court of 
Directors was determined that no missionaries should enter the 
country. The Company which had been more or less indifferent 
to Missions in its trading days, now became decidedly hostile 
under the groundless fear of political complications arising from 
religious teaching and they were obsessed with this nightmare 
for many years. From the year 1793 may be reckoned the dark 
period of twenty years in the history of Christianity in India. 

The following extract from Stahams "Indian Recollections," 
London, 1832, bears on this subject : — 

"The moral aspect of Calcutta is much more pleasing now 
(1832), that it wasi thirty or forty years ago. When tha first 
Baptist Missionaries visited this city of palaces, they could find 
no Christian friends with whom they could unite in the devotional 
exercises of the sanctuary; and in 1803 when they first opened 
a house for religious worship in Calcutta, very few persons amongst 
the European residents paid any attention to the sacred duties 
of the Sabbath — ^so much so, that it is now often asserted in Cal- 
cutta, that the only visible- sign of its being the Sabbath day was 
the hoisting of the flag at Fort William, and by the same signal 
floating upon the ships in the river. If indeed any difference was 
made, it was only to commit sin the more greedily, river parties 
and nautches being the order of the day. Since that psriod the 
conjoined efforts of pious clergymen in the Establishment and 
the missionaries of the Baptist and London Missionary Societies 
have, under the Divine blessing, produced the most important 
change in the habits and thoughts of the European and Indo- 
British inhabitants. At the period above referred to only two 


places of Christian worship existed in Calcutta., the Presidency 
and the Mission Churches, and these were very thinly attended. 
The Kov. Messrs. Brown and Buchanan were the first amongst 
the Honourable Company's Chaplains to seek the good of souls ; and 
the following extract from the memoirs of the former will prove 
the statament to be correct: — Mr. Brown found, on his arrival 
in Calcutta, in 1786, that a deep ignoranca in religious subjects, 
and a carjlcss indifference to Christian duties, were but too pre- 
valent there: living witnesses can tsstify that the Lord's Bay^ 
that distinguishing badge of a Christian people, was nearly as 
little regarded by the British as by the natives; the most noted 
distinction l)eing hardly more than the waving of the flag at 
headquarters, excepting as it was the well known signal for fresh 
accessions of dissipation. In short, it would hardly be believed 
in Calcutta now, how the Sunday was openly neglected then. 
Some instancies might be adduced that are absurd, others ridi- 
culous. 'Is it Sunday?' Yes, "for I see the flag is hoisted" was 
ratlu^r cuHtoniary breakfast, table phraseology on Lord's Day 
mornings. A lady, on being seriously spoken to on her utter dis- 
regard of the day, maintained that she always religiously observed 
it, 'for,' said she, 'every Sunday morning I read over the Churcli 
service to myself, while my woman is c?ombing my hair! ' Another 
lady l)eing urged to attend Divine Service said, 'sh3 had been 
more than twelv:* years a resident of Calcutta, and twice married ; 
but it had been out of her power in all that time to go to church, 
because she ha/1 never had an offer from any beau to escort her 
ihore and hand her to a pew.' She was perfectly serious in urging; 
thisdiiTiculty, andon its being removed, by an immediate offer from 
a gentleman who was present to usher her into the church, 
she accopt/od the engagement to go on the following Sunday. It 
was frequently urged, that there would b? no use in keeping holy 
the seventh day in a heathen country, since the common people 
not being, as in England, Cliristians, the example was not needed. 
Tlie domestic morning work-table was nearly as regularly sur- 
rounded (^n Sunday forenoons as the card-table was on Sunday 
evenings. One lady, who inde2d professed to feel scrupulous respect- 
ing the use of her own needle judged neverthelass it would b^ 
absurd to restrain that of her liusbanB's 'daughter, since she was 
the child of a nativs^ mother and could be nothing better than the 
dunrr (tailor) and she, therefore, ought and should do her needle- 
work the sam? as they do on Sundays equally with any other day. 

"Thc«o specimens drawn from domestic life previous to 1794, 
are tak.^n from the three classes of superior European society in 
CWciitta, th* families of the Civil and Military services and the 


Agants. And if ^ as is usually thought to be true, the femak sex 
is the most noted for piety in every land, the state of the male 
part of the British i^ciety in India, it must be supposed, was <itill 
less favourable to the interests of the Christian religion at that 
period. In truth, no business any more than pleasure, was dis- 
continued on the Lord 6 Day. This, then, was ths state of reli- 
gious feeling among the Europeans and Indo-British inhabitants 
of Calcutta forty years ago/' As Statham's book was published in 
1832, forty years back, would t^ke it to 1792 just before Dr. Carey 

In the Calcutta Christian Observer of 1856, there is a remark- 
able letter from Dr. Duff, which he begins thus: 

" Change, change, change, has begun to lay its innovating 
hand on many of India's most venerated institutions as well as 
on the habits and usages connected with the outer and inn^r life 
of myriads of its inhabitants,'' and then he proceeds to contrast 
the differences between 1830 and 1856, i.e., since his arrival in 
the country, under the following heads : — 

1. Time occupied in passage to or from India., *.c.- -Sailing 
vessels via the Cape, with steamers via Red Sea. 

2. Post and Telegraphs. — Formerly 12 months elapsed before 
a reply could be received from Home; now a much shorter period 

3. Trade. — Formerly restricted by special License; now open 
to all. 

4. For merit/ no properly made roads. — Now excellent ones, 
fj. Travelling — .Three or four miles an hour by a palki; 

now by horse vehicles at double or treble that rate. 

6. Railways . — None then; now 125 miles opened from Cal- 

7. Post. — Formerly country letters and papers were slowly 
carried at exorbitant* rates of postage, whereas now they are 

*The following are instances of this: — 

1. On 23rd November 1798, Dr. Carey wrote from Mudna- 
batty, to Rev. S. Pearce of Birmingham that some one had sent 
him by Post* a Volume of Scott's Sermons from Madras without 


carried swiftly by horse vehicle at a panny stamp for India and 
sixpence for Home. 

8. Telegraphs, — None then; but recently introduced for 
conveying messages. 

9. Then no Coal mines; now there are some. 

As TO Calcutta, 

1. The printing Press was only beginning to be known; 
now upwards of 50 native presses exist. 

2. The English language was only beginning to be recognized 
as important; now thera are tens of thousands to whom English 
is familiar. 

3. Then only one Grovernment College for higher English 
education; now several. 

4. Then no Hindu educated in English literature had be- 
come Christian; now many have. 

5. Than the Government of India — Home and Foreign — 
looked askance at missionaries and for the most part ignored their 
labours as either fanatical or worse; whereas now they have 
formally and officially recognized them as banef actors of India, 
and adds: 

"Noting these changes within the past 25 years it is 
difficult to grasp what changes may be effected in the years to 
come,'' so that if the contrast is taken back to 1793 and brought 
down to 1908 the difference must, obviously, be perceived by even 
the most casual or indifferent observer. 

a letter and he had had to pay 32 rupees as postage for it on its 
arrival there. 

2. On 2nd June 1810 an officer wrotd to Dr. Carey from 
Nagpore asking for Hindustani Scriptures by the Cuttack route, 
and added : 

"If by that route I shall be able to obtain a single 
book of the Hindustani Scriptures for the expense of J^O or 60 
rupees postage, I shall be made va^ry happy and shall esteem myself 
exoeadingly obliged to you. The expense also of conveyance my 
Agent will pay you." 


The Beginning. 

It was small, as such things usually are, but the work 
developed and grew apace, and even within Dr. Caray's own life- 
time, went beyond his highest expectation. 

There is no need to go into all the troubles and anxieties that 
Mr. John Thomas and Dr. Carey experienced jointly and separately 
during the first few years of their residenca in this country. They 
were nearly of the same ago, the former having been bom on 16th 
May 1757, and the latter on 17th August 1761. They ware full 
of zeal and determination, and, moreover, in the prime of life 
when they landed towards the end of 1793. In course of time 
they took charge of Indigo Factories and carried on the Lord's 
work, and when Mr. Fountain arrived in 1796 he joined in the 
indigo work. In September 1798 a printing press was purchased 
and set up at Mudnabatty. 

But the arrival of Messrs. Marehman, Ward, Brunsdon and 
Grant in October 1799 brought about a change, the significance 
of which they did not appreciate to the full at the^time. 

These new missionaries found a hospitable shelter at Seram- 
pore under the Danish flag. Mr. Grant, however, died within 
a fortnight of their arrival. When the new missionaries realized 
the great hostility of the British Government to Mission work 
and the encouragement that was held out to them by the Governor 
of Serampore, thsy felt that it would be better for Dr. Carey to 
come dowp to them than for them to go up to him. After some 
demur. Dr. Carey was led to sell off his indigo factory at Kidder- 
pore in the District of Malda and all its belongings; and, after 
packing up his printing press, he accompanied Messrs. Ward and 
Founta:in to Serampore, where he arrived on 16th January 1800. 
Having been* received by the Governor — Colonel Bie — in a 


friendly manner on the following day the missionaries formed 
their plans for work. 

They set apart the 24th April 1800 as a Day of Thanks- 
giving for the establishment of the Mission under such favourable 
circumstances ; for the Divine goodness towards them and also for 
the receiving into the Church tha newly arrived missionaries. 
After the termination of the Thanksgiving service, the missionaries 
organised a Church. Dr. Carey was chosen Pastor and Mr. 
Fountain and Dr. Marshman were appointed Deacons. The 
address from the Society to the missionaries, dated 7th May 1799, 
was read, together with a letter from Rev. S. Pearoe, and the sub- 
stance of an address by Mr. Booth. Before they separated they 
voted an address of thanks to the Governor of Serampore for the 
support they had received from him and the Danish authorities 
at a period when, but for their kindness, three of their number 
would have been sent back to England. It is on record that 
*' it was a good day.'' Towards evening Dr. Carey preached from 
Romans xii. 12, "rejoicing in hope," and, to heighten their enjoy- 
ment, letters from England arrived in the midst of these solemn 

The following hymn, written by Mr. Fountain, who wa^ fami- 
liarly known in the Mission Circle as the Chief Musician, as he 
could sing, was sung during the exercises of the day : — 

Missionary Thanks. 

This day be sacred to the Lord 

While we in grateful lays 
Recite the wonders of His love, 

And tune our hearts to praise. 

Each individual here can say, 

(And feel his bosom glow) 
Mercy and goodness from the Lord. 

Have followed me till now. 


But private thoughts be banished hence. 

To-day our souls expand: 
We bless our God for Gospel grace, 

Shown to a Heathen land. 

We see His providence fulfils, 

What prophets long foretold, 
The growing interest of our Lord 

With joy our eyes behold. 

Yet lat this joint request be heard, 
Which we to-day present 

May we be faithful in the work 
For which we're hither sent. 
The work went on step by step as the days passed over thsir 
heads, but on ths 20th August of the same year tJie Chief Musi- 
eian was called up higher to sing the song of Moses and the Lamb. 
Within the month of October both Dr. Marshman and Mr. 
Ward began to preach to the Natives in Bengalee. 

On the 26th November an event occurred, which seemed in- 
signiiicant, but was fraught with great results. It was the date- 
on which Krishna Pal, an ordinary Hindu carpenter, had his dis- 
located arm set by Mr. Thomas and could exclaim " I am fres" 
as the result of things he had heard, to the great delight of Mr. 
Thomas. He drank of the waters of life, and on 22nd December 
threw off caste, and eventually on Sunday, 28th December 1800, 
was baptized by Dr. Carey in the River at Serampore, along with 
Felix Carey. The d;ert>ails of this interesting event will bear 
repeating. Mr. Ward says he preached on the subject from John 
V. 32. A good number of Europeans were present at the first 
service. They then went to the riverside. The Governor, a^' 
number of Europeans, Portuguese, Hindus and Mussulmans 
attended. The hymn 

Jesus, and shall it ever be, 

A mortal man ashamed of Thee, etc. 
was sung in Bengalee. Dr. Carey then spoke for a short time in' 


Bengales, d^laring that they did not think the river sacred-^ 
it was water only, — and the person about to be baptized from 
among them, by this act, proposed to put off all the dehtas and 
all sins, and to put on Christ. After prayer he went down into 
the water, taking his son Felix in his right hand and baptized 
him, using English words. After this Krishna went down and 
-was baptized, the words being in Bengalee. All was silence and 
attention. The Governor could not restrain his tears, and 
almost every one seemed to be struck with the solemnity of this 
(to them) new and sacred Ordinance. Nothing more decent and 
impressive had been seen in even the most orderly congregation 
in England. When Krishna returned from dressing, a noble 
lady (Miss Rumohr, who subsequently married Dr. Carey), 
who had witnessed the ceremony took him by the hand and held 
him for soma moments, and, though unable to make him under- 
stand a single word, thanked him from her heart for renouncing 
the worship of devils. To see Dr. Carey leading down into £he 
water on the same day his eldsst son, a missionary at fifteen years 
of age, and the first converted Bengalee, who had fortitude sufficient 
to renounce his caste, was indeed an interesting spectacle. Even 
Mr. Brunsdon, who had been dangerously ill, lay in a palanquin 
to witness the sight. In the afternoon the Lord's Supper was 
celebrated in Bengalee for the first time and at its close Krishna 
said he was full of joy. 

This solemn event has been described at length as Krishna 
Pal played an important part in the work connected with the 
Lall-Bazar Chapel and the Mission a few years later. 


Krishna Pal, the Beloved. 

(Far sucli was his surname in the Mission circle.) 

PoRTBAiT OP Krishna Pal, the First Nativk Convert at Serampore. 
(From a /niniatvre by Eev, John ZawKm,) 

He was born at Barigram, near Chandemagore, about the 
year 1764. His father's name was Mooluckchand Pal and hiij 
mother's name Nalita. He followed his father's trade, which 
was that of a carpenter. In course of time he became a follower 
of Ram Churn Pal, of Ghospara, and eventually became a gui^u 
himself. In this way he spent 16 years of his Ufa. On 5th 
January 1800, he heard a sermon from Mr. Fountain, which im 
pressed him, and, on another day, as he was going to the market, 
he met Mr. Thomas with Mr. Ward and Mr. Brunsdon preaching 
the Gospel. Mr. Thomas addressed him and invited him to attend 


^hen he would preach glad tidings. This he did and the word 
-spoken had the effect of making him think upon his course of life. 

He began daily amongst his friends and relatives to examine 
what he had heard and wanted to become acquainted with the 
jnissionarise. He was struck with the Word : it seemed to be the 
IVord of God, and so he could not help talking about it to his 
companions. Another day, later on, as he was going to bathe in 
his tank his foot slipped and he dislocated his right arm. While 
suffering from this he was informed that there was a Doctor at 
the Miseion premises at Serampora to whom he should apply for 
medical aid, so he sent his daughter and the child of a friend to 
beg this Doctor to come and sse him. Mr. Thomas and Dr. Marsh- 
man went with tracts which they distributed to the sick man and 
to the bystanders to read. He received the tracts given to him. 
Next morning Dr. Carey called to see him and enquire about his 
condition and told him to come to his house and he would give 
him some medicine by which, through the blessing of God, the 
pain in his arm would be removed. He went and obtained the 
medicine^ and through the mercy of God his arm was cured. After 
this he made a practice of calling at the Mission House, where Mr. 
Ward and Felix Carey used to read the Bibla to him and expound 
it. In course of time he could say that he believed and on 22nd 
December 1800, he and Gokool sat down to eat with the missionaries 
and thsir wives, thereby breaking their caste. The servants of 
the Mission House spread the report of their having eaten food 
with the missionaries, so when they were returning home they 
were ill-used. He was subjected to other persecutions owing to 
the excitement throughout the town and the mob was not satisfied 
till he had been taken before tha Magistrate and eventually before 
the Governor, who told them that he had not become a European, 
but a Christian and had done right ; that ha would answer all 
demands against him and forbade any to injure him. Being foiled 
in this attempt his relatives and others determined to disguise 
Tthemselves as robbers and murder both Krishna and Gokool to 


pravent their destroying the caete of others. They were, however, 
prevented from carrying out their intentions as the Governor sent 
a sepoy to guard his house. 

Thus passed away the few days that intervened till the happy 
day of his baptism, the details of which have been given in the 
preceding chapter. After his baptism, however, he had many other 
difficulties, but God raised up a friend in the person of Mr. James 
Eolt, a cabinet-maker, who employed him in his business until 
he was set apart to the Ministry. The Governor of Serampore 
also gave him the woodwork for the new church which was under 

With a view to his call, he preached by rcfcfuest on Sunday, 
29tli Januaiy 1804, a sermon to the Mission servants and others 
and delivered, what Dr. Carey himself described, as the best 
Bengalea sermon he ever heard — " fluent, perspicuous and affection- 
ate in a very high degree." He was ordained to the Ministry on 
Sunday, 5th February 1804, by prayer and the laying on of hands 
of the brethren, after which Dr. Carey address- d him from the 
words: "As my Father sent me, so sand I you " and the occasion 
was concluded by the Lord's Prayer. 

In 1805 a larga sphere of usefulness opened to him. Towards 
the close of November 1801, Mr. Ward and Felix Carey had taken 
Krishna with them and paid a visit to Mr. Cunningham, thou 
Salt Inspector at Sulkea. As they went they preachsd in several 
villages and especially at Ramkrishnapur opposite Calcutta. 
Here they delivered their Divine message, gave away tracts, and 
left a Bengali New Testament in the care of a shopkeeper for the 
use of the villagers. The perusal of this volume was blessed to 
the conversion of more than on a person. These happy results of 
a simple effort to glorify the Redeemer remained unknown till 
August 1805, when Krishna was appointed to itinerate in and 
around Calcutta. He entered upon the work assigned him with 
remarkable zeal. In crossing the river to Ramkrishnapur, he found 
several persons* impressed with the truths they had read. Among 


these were a Bairagi of considerable reputation for sanctity, and 
Sebuk Ram and Krishna Das, afterwards highly valued native 
preachers and itinerants. Prior to his location in Calcutta he had 
been twice sent to the Jessore District, also to Ganga Saugor, 
Dinagepors and even as far as Benares to break fresh ground. In 
Calcutta Krishna laboured under the direction of Dr. Carey 
whose profesBorship in the College of Fort William rendered it 
necessary for him to spend about half his time in the city. Much 
good resulted from Krishna's preaching and many converts were 
baptized and added to the Church. 

On the 6th October, the brethren composing the Church at 
Serampore, testified their esteem and affection for Krishna, by 
electing him to fill the office of Deacon. 

Between January and June he made several itinerating tours, 
and, writing of his conduct on one of these tours, Mr. Creighton said 

of him on behalf of himself and some European friends : " I am 
happy to say we feel the benefit of his preaching ourselves as 
much as most discourses from more learned preachers. He ha^ 
raised my hopes that these labours will yet prove more successful 
. and that the time is not very distant when all the vain refuges 
of the natives will be shamed away and the Gospel everywhere 
prevail. 'Krishna is a labourer worthy of his hire, but he has 
taken none, and his humble, tender, yet zealous, behaviour is an 
amiable example to the heathen.'' 

His labours in and about Calcutta were continued with good 
success and large congregations of natives assembled to hear the 
Gospel in a shed erected on a part of the ground where the Lall Bazar 
Chapel now stands. Preaching here was, however, prohibited by 
the Government in August 1806. Another congregation composed 
chiefly of Armenians and Portuguese attended Bengali services 
held on the premises of an Armenian in the Chitpore Road. Thus, 
when not employed on more distant itineracies, he was diligent 
in preaching Christ to multitudes nearer at hand in Calcutta, or 
in visiting villages round about Serampore. 

After this he was sent out to several places and among them 
to Puri in Orissa in 1808, towards the close of which, after hi& 


return from Puri he removed his residences from Serampore U> 
Calcutta. He had been long employed in frequent visits to the 
<:ity and had laboured zealously in preaching Christ within and 
around it, but now the missionaries purchased a small house for 
him there that he might with greater advantage devote himself 
to efiPorts for the spiritual Benefit of the people. Besides more 
public labours he visited numerous private houses in rotation and 
preached to as many as were assembled to receive his instructiono. 
He also went to the jail and preached to tlie prisoners. Mr. Bowe 
wrote of him on his removal to Calcutta. 

" Tbere is a large field for missionary exertions for which 
he seems well adapted. He isi in his element when he is talking 
to a multitude of souls about their everlasting concerns. He is 
much esteemed by persons of . different nations, as well as by his 
own countrymen, and numbers hear the \^?ord of Life from his 

In October 1810 Mr. Leonard gave the following account of 
his labours : 

"I could not help noting with admiration, the zeal 
and actiivity of our truly valuable brother Krishna, 
who appears to gather strength of body by his unramitted 
labours. He preaches at fourteen different places during 
the week. He has fifteen families in his circuit: 
spares no labour, and shows no fatigus, but flies wherever duty 
calls him. In addition to the above services, he regularly visits 
twenty-^sight families in the city. Indeed, were you to see him 
engaged, if not well acquainted with his manner, you would sup- 
pose him instead of being wearied in all these visits, to be a warm 
young convert, having at the same time the experience of a father." 

Dr. Carey wrote of him in September 1811 : " Krishna labours 
at Calcutta with great success. He is a steady, zealous, well-in- 
formed, and, I may add, eloquent minister of the Gospel. He 
preach)^ on an average, twelve or fourteen times every week in 
Calcutta or its environs." 

During his residence in Calcutta, which was extended to 
nearly five years, he made occasional visile to distant places in his 
great Master's service, but his strength was devoted to those labours 
in the city, which have been briefly mentioned. The success which 
was granted to* him appears to have been very great. Many who 


18 mB troKT or tbk ulll-bazar baptist church. 

were added to the Church traced their conversion to his instm- 

Krkhna Pals schedule of his work in Calcutta per week as 
recorded in Vol. IV. of the Periodical Accounts in 1811, was as 

I^rd't J Jay. — At eight o'clock I preach at the Chapel and 
a^ain at four in the afternoon. 

Monday. -At four in the afternoon I preach in the jail and 
at seven in the evening at Mr. Pogose Petruse's. 

Tuenday. — I preach at nine o'clock in the morning at Mr. 
Gilbert's, in thd afternoon at Mr. Humphrey's, and at six in the 
evening at the Chapel (as often as they can, the brethren Marsh- 
man and Ward preach the sermon at the Chapel on Tuesday 

Wednesday . — At nine in the morning I preach at Mr. Charles 
Pi got 's, at four in the afternoon at the Chapel, and at six in the 
evening at Mr. Thompson's. 

Thurnday.' - In the morning I preach at Mr. Leonard's (the 
Charity School) and at saven in the evening we have a prayer- 
meeting at the Chapel. 

Friday. — At four o'clock in the afternoon I preach at Mr. 
Jefferson's and at seven in the evening at Mr. Thomas Kaitan's. 

Saturday. — At six in the evening I preach at Mr. Kramer's 
At the same hour brother Sebuk Ram preaches at Mr. Cumber- 
land's at Cossipore. 

In this manner at present is the Kingdom of God making 

His pay while labouring in Calcutta was only Rs. 9 a month. 

His name and that of Sebuk Ram were household words in 

the early days of the Serampore Mission. 

Mr. Ward's testimony of him was: "As a private Christian 
Krishna stood high among his brethren as well as among Europeans 
by all of whom lu^ was recognised as an upright and truly sincere 
and amiable Cliristian." 

Ho greatly excelled a*s a writer of Christian hymns, and in 

the early years of the Native Church in Bengal, his hymns with 

melodies composed for them by himself, were pre-eminently valued. 

Son\e of these are unrivalled. All must be famliiar with one of 

them in its English paraphrase, which is given overleaf. All 

liia liymns are remarkable for the tone they breathe towards Christ 


and for the humble reliance on His atonement which they ezpresA. 
His first hymn was written at the beginning of 1801 and others 
followed in subsequent years. 

"There is^ a friend that sticketh cloeer than a brother." — Prov. 
xviii. 24. 

No. 2i5 in Psalms and Hymns. 

1. O Thou, my soul, forget no mor*. 

The Friend who all thy misery bore; 
Let every idol be forgot, 

But, O my aoul, forget Him not. 

2. Jesue, for thee, a body takes, 

Thy guilt assumes, thy fstters breaks. 
Discharging all thy dreadful debt: 

And canst thou o'er such love forget? 

3. Renounce thy works and ways with griel. 

And fly to this most sure relief; 
Nor Him forget, who left His throne, 
And for thy life gave up His own. 

4. Infinite tnith and mercy shine 

In Him, and He Himself is thine; 
A.nd canst thou, then, with sin beset. 

Such charms, such matchless charms, forget? 

5. Ah 1 no : till life itself depart, 

His name shall cheer and warm my heart; 
And, lisping this, from earth I'll rise. 
And join the chorus of the skies. 

6. Ah, no : when all things else expire. 

And perish in tha general fire. 
This name all others shall survive. 
And through eternity shall live. 

By the desire of the missionaries he went with a fellow-worker 
to Sylhet in March 1813 on a pay of Rs. 9 a month and on the 


Jourii>ey stripped and preached at Dacca. At Sylhet hs preached 
and distributed tracto. The judge of that place asked him to 
take an ercumion into the Ehasi country. He did so and met 
with ^reat huccefw. Four sepoys and two natives of the Khad 
iumntry and a native of Assam were convsrted by his instru- 
mentality. After this he took journies to Cutwa, Beerbhoom and 

He was attacked by cholera on the 2l8t August 1822, which 
carried him off the next day. It is stated that while he lingered 
ho edified all around him by his entire resignation; by the sweet 
tranquility which illumined his languid countenance; and by the 
many refreshing words which he uttered respecting his own safety 
aud bloNsodness. The total absence of the fear of death was most 
nonnpicuouH. lie asked that none should pray for his recovery 
tiid actually .i?nquired if his grave had been prepared. He died 
in peace fixing all liis trust in the Lord Jesus Christ. Thus passed 
away the first Bengalee convert from Hinduism. His record is 
on high. 

It IB indeed remarkable that at such a time, when the power 
of Hinduism was unbroken, and the Government frowned on 
efforts to christianise the inhabitants of India, he should have 
ventured with no protector but his Invisible Master to travel to 
Mtu^h distant places, faithfully exposing the absurdities of idolatry 
and inviting men to forsake it for Christ. Yet^ he appears very 
raivly to have suffered molestation. He had an atfectionate and 
winning address, and seems almost always to have engaged the 
friendly attontdon of the people amongst whom he went with the 
(^^|H>1 nu>M»agx\ Such was the transforming grace of God that 
a iHH>r ignorant carpenter should be able to accomplish so much. 

But we have gone much too far ahead, and must retrace our 

The commencement of the work in Calcutta. 

It came about in this way. The Marquess Wellesley planned 
his great College of Fort William in which Dr. Carey took up the 
post of teacher of the Bengali and Sanscrit languages. The first 
reference made to the College by Dr. Carey in his correspondence 
is in a letter to Mr. Sutcliff dated 27th November 1800, but he 
does not seem to have taken up his appointment in the College 
till May 1801, for the following entry appears in Mr. Ward's 
journal under date 18th April 1801 : 

"Krishna proposes to take a small house at Calcutta to 
which several of them may go alternately to visit Gokool if 
possible and talk about Jiasus Christ. We have engaged to pay 
the rent if a house can be obtained. It may open to us a door 
at Calcutta especially since Brother Carey is likely to be there 
some days in isvery week. These desires for the spread of the 
Gospel aJPord us much pleasure." 

At the close of 1801 it is stated thers were some hopeful 

appearances among the Portuguese Catholics at Calcutta, and, 

under dated the 2nd February 1802, the following entry appears 

in Mr. Ward's journal : 

"Brother Carey has begun a meeting for prayer and 
conversation at the house of Mr. Holt of Calcutta, and 
he is to begin next week to deliver the Word at the house 
of a Portuguese Christian to the family and neighbours : " Later 
in the same month Dr' Carey wrote to Mr. Morris : — 

" I have now appointed a regular time to instruct the Portu- 
guese enquirers in the city at the housd of a Mr. Rolt. We have 
also begun a weekly meeting for prayer at his house." 

On 22nd June the record runs. "This evening we had a 
conversation and prayar meeting at Calcutta, several friends were 

And again on 6th October Dr. Carey in a letter to Mr.. Fuller 

"I have great hope that the Lord will open a way for 
the spread of His Word in Calcutta. Thare are some stirrings 


Amongst several of the poor Portuguese. A society has been lately 
formed for printing and distributing small tracts to be given away 
amongst Europeans.'' 

Then came the proposal which was strongly urged by the 
Rev. David Brown of the Mission Church and the Rev. Claudius 
Buchanan to attempt the construction of a place of worship at 
Calcutta for preaching to Europeans, Natives, and Sailors and 
Mr. Buchanan promised that he and Mr. Brown would use every 
effort to prevent opposition on the part of Government, which was 
not to be apprehended. The missionaries were delighted at the 
opportunity they would have of preaching the Gospel to those 
communities, but, as it was estimated that the expense would be 
not much less than twenty thousand rupees, they would do nothing 
without first seeking counsel of God, and accordingly on the evening 
of the 27th December 1802, they had a meeting to seek counsel 
of God and to consult about building a place of worship at Calcutta. 
Friends were also consulted who advised the missionaries to rent 
a housa. A house, which was in a good position, was selected, 
and, although the owner consented to rent it for Rs. 120 per 
month, yet, when Dr. Marshman went to conclude the transaction 
on 3rd January 1803 the owner raised the figure by Rs. 50 per 
month, thereby making it prohibitive. Another house was engaged 
by Dr. Marshman on that very day for Rs. 90 a month. On the 
23rd January 1803 the latter house was opened for services, but 
only two or three religious friends attended although the mis- 
sionaries had fixed an hour when there was no service at the Mission 
Church. Dr. Carey preached in the morning and Dr. Marshman 
in the evening. Oia the 29th of that month the missionaries when 
communicating the fact to the Society in England wrote: 

"Go3 has heard our prayers and has given us an entrance 
into Calcutta. If we should not gather a congregation of Euro- 
peans, yet it opens a door to the natives, and we enter at once 
into the midst of near a million of souls, having the everlasting 
Gospel to preach." 

On the 23rd February 1803 Dr. Carey had a meeting for 
Bengalees at Calcutta at which about 10 were present, and to it 


went on, at one time 15 and at another time 14, for the next 
few weeks until 3rd April 1803 when the missionaries met to 
blees Gk)d for His mercies towards them as a gentleman friend had 
offered them the use of a large room in his house which was oon- 
veniently situated, which would hold nearly 200 persons at a 
rental of Rs. 32 less than they were paying. Mr. Ward writing 
to Dr. Byland on 11th April about this opening said: 

"I expect Calcutta to be still more favourable soil 
than Serampore. Business and intercourse with Europeans 
must have opened the mind to enquiry. Should a Native 
Church be formed there and flourish eo as to have active 
members, who would labour in the cause, the news of 
the Grospel would rapidly spread from thence into the 
remotest part of the country : It is the resort of strangars 
from all parte and the emporium of all the commerce of tha great- 
est port of Hindustan. We have already two members, promising 
young men from Calcutta, and what Providence intends, who can 
tell. Some people say thera are 1,000,000 of natives at Calcutta. 
Be assured that whatever Europeans say about the impossibility 
of converting the Hindus ; of their always having been proof against 
missionaries, etc., there v^ants nothing more as it respects human 
means, but a few men of gifts and real powerful godliness. 
The reason why this work has never been done yet, is becausd 
hitherto the means have never been suited to the end. It will 
be vain to expect that the Gospel will ever widely spread in this 
country till G<)d so blsssee the means as that native men shall be 
raised up who will carry the despised doctrine brought into the 
country by Mleechas into the very teeth of the brahmans and 
prove from the Scriptures that this is indeed the Christ that should 
come into the world. We hope to see the dawn of this, I have 
constantly made a point of recommending the making of native 
preachers as soon as possible, and I hope we may soon see two 
or three who are at least more able and eloquent than some good 
men who are employed in England. The dishonour which the 
native converts are supposed to have brought upon their families 
by becoming associated with Mleechas rouses them to render a 
reason of their hope, and show that this is what their relations 
must aTl come to. The mighty argument which silences every 
opposer is that Jesus Christ has done what no one else ever did, 
or had compassion enough to do. He bore our sorrows and made 
His soul an offering for sin. In all the examples of their gods 
tliey find nothing like this. Although their ideas of sin ar« 


«zceedingly deficient, yet this amazing instance of Almighty love 
strikes them at once, as fitted above everything, to tlie helplefisnesfi 
of man, and worthy of all acceptation. You can have little idea 
what effect this one truth has begun to mak^ on this beatbeni 
country. It does not strike a converted person in England with such 
novelty and fitness as it does here, where the wits have been racked 
for BO many centuries to find a way of life that should be accom- 
panied with some proofs of its leading to God and heaven, and 
where for so long a time th-e guilty conscience has sought in vain 
for some solid ground to rest upon.'' 

Scarcely any natives, however, attended and Mr. Ward stated 
that he did not expect more to attend until a little more stir was 
raised, or some native brother went to preach. 

The larger place of worship referred to was opened in 
June 1803, for Dr. Carey, writing on 3rd idem to Mr. Fuller, 
mentione3 about its having been opened and that thay had preach- 
ing twice on Lord s Days in English, on Wednesday evenings 
in Bengalee and on Thursday evenings in English and that he 
took the meetings on Wednesday and Thursday. Dr. Marshman 
recorded in his journal on 19th July that he considered the obtain- 
ing of this place as a token for good. 

On the 31st October the missionaries wrote to the Society 
that there seemed little increase in the European auditory and 
added "the Lord has here taught us not to despise Che day of 
small things." In this spirit they continued their eJBPorts for 
the good of this small flock, and on 25th March 1804 they wrote 
to the Society : 

*' Our worship at Calcutta is but thinly attended, yet we have 
a small congregation of Europeans and another of natives, but 
at present wie see no fruit.'' 

They were discouraged at times at the fewness of hearers at 
their meetings in Calcutta as is shown by entries in their journals 
and Mr. Ward could not help recording on 17th June 1804. " Oh \ 
it is hard work to preach to 8 or 10 persons only and that 

They continued to persevere although the soil at Calcutta 
seemed particularly hard until the 14th October of 1804, when a 



preaching party came down to Calcutta in the Mission boat com- 
prising Mp. Ward and 6 others. They had singing, preaching 
and prayer in English and Bengake. Krishna Persaud, it is stated, 
praached an excellent sermon, and, added Mr. Ward: 

" We had between 30 and 40 Hindus, Mussulmans 
and Portuguese and 2 or 3 Europeans. A Brahmin boldly 
preaching the Gospel on the day 5 years after we had 
landed in the country, at Calcutta tha Capital of Bengal, 
and the seat of the Government of the country, a Brahmin, 
too, announcing his own conversion and preaching, to the 
admiration of Europeans, a consistent Gospel sermon in fluent 
language and in that place where 3 years before he was an idolater I 
This is the Lord's doing and it is marvellous in our eyes." 


The early efforts to erect the Chapel at Calcutta. 

The inception of the idea of erecting a Chapel would appear 
to have been that of the Rev. David Brown, the senior Preisddency 
Chaplain. The facts are thus stated in Mr. Marshman's book to 
which reference is made in the Preface. Mr. Brown, the senior 
Chaplain at the Presidency, called on Dr. Carey in his rooms 
at the College towards the end of 1802 and expressed a desire that 
facilities should be created for communicating religious instruction 
to the lower classes of Christians in Calcutta and enquired why 
the missionaries could not be prevailed on to turn their attention 
to this subject. Dr. Carey replied that Ee and his brethren had 
long wished to establish some place of worship for the benefit of 
those who, though bearing the Christian name, were too low in 
the scale of Society to intrude into the patrician congregations of 
the Mission and the Presidency Churches, but they were apprehen- 
sive of giving umbrage to Government. Mr. Brown assured him 
that those fears were groundless and that Lord Wellesley had 
contemplated the transfer of the Presidency Church to Presby- 
terian ministers, whom he was anxious to introduce into Calcutta, 
and the erection of a large and more splendid edifice for the 
Episcopalians. Mr. Buchanan likewise also urged on the mis- 
sionaries the establishment of a Dissenting Chapel in Calcutta, 
assuring them that he and Mr. Brown would use every effort to 
prevent any opposition on the part of Government, which, how- 
ever, was not to be apprehended. 

Many persons seriously objected to enter the room in which 
the missionariss conducted their services for public worship as 
it was in the dwelling-house of a private individual. Moreover 
it was ill chosen. It was a large hall in the house of Mr. Peter 
Lindeman, an undertaker, and there was a natural repugnance 


in the minds of many to wade Sunday after Sunday through a 
range of coffins and other emblems of mortality. The missionaries 
were made aware of tha fact that the erection of a public edifice 

The Old (ob, Mission) Chubch, Calcutta, as it was in 1788. 
(By kind permission of Messrs, Thaeker, Spink tj* (7f ., Calc»tta.) 

was necessary to meet the wants and the prejudices of the lower 
classes and to secure a large attendance. The undertaking was 
frequently discussed with Mr. Brown at Aldeen (Serampore), 



wlio encouraged the views of the missionaries with cordiality and 
8iibscril>cd Rs. 500 towards the Chapel. Mr. Ward drew up the 
prospectus of the building and on the first day of the year 1805 
alt-ondcd a meeting of the friends of the cause at Calcutta when 
it was discussed and adopted and the sum of £380=Rs. 4,800 
ftubscriUi^d on the spot, the missionaries adding £100 from their 
own funds. 

St. ,10UN's C.VTHKPR.Vl.. T-VLOrTTA, AS IT WAS IN 1788. 

f fih Kita rf"nhfi**H v/ J/: >■*••/. Jh-ickt -, Sjt'rtk .v Co.^ Calcutta.) 

Tlio object of the missionaries was not to erect a Chapel to 
preach ihoir own sentiments, but to bring the forlorn beings in 
Calcutta, who bore the Christian name and disgraced it by their 
ignorauci^ and vice, under the influence of Christian instruction. 
They announced, therefore, that the Chapel was intended for 
the worship of all Denominations, 

On 3rd October ISOo, Kev. Joshua Rowe, wrote to the Rev. 


John Williams of New York, about the work of the Mission 
generally and added: 

"There is a Chap^ going to be built by subscription in 
Calcutta for the use of all who preach." Before the close of 1805 
the subscriptions reached j£700. 

On th3 18th February 1806, Dr. Marshman and Mr. Ward 
came down to Calcutta to meet the Committee respecting the 
Chapel to be built. The missionarise next enquired whether the 
erection of the Chapel would be disagreeable to Government and 
having ascertained that it would not, they accordingly proceeded 
to purchase the ground. 

The contract of sals for the land in Lall Bazaqr (as it was 
then called) on which the Chapel stands bsaris date 26th February 
1806 and is for 2 biggahs 4 cottahs and 8 chittacks of land. The 
contract was between Mr. James Bolt and Mr. Henry Swinhoe. 

On 6th March 1806 Mr. Ward recorded in his journal : 

"The ground for ths- new Chapel is purchased for 7,250 (Sicca) 
Rupees. It is situated in a very central and populous part 
of the City, but the inhabitants thereabouts may emphatically be 
called SinneraJ' 

Mr. Marshman in his book says that it was situated in the 
hotbed of vioe land immorality, surrounded by liquor shops and 
brothels, the haunt of sailors who disgraced their European name 
and Christian character by every excess. The ground was covered 
at the time with the abodes of prostitution which were speedily 
cleared away. 

On the 14th March 1806 Mr. Henry Swinhoe and his wife 
executed the neadful Deed, conveying the land to the Trustees 
who had been nominated, vw., William Carey, Joshua Marshman, 
William Ward, William Moore, missionaries, and Michael 
Derozio, Peter Lindeman, William Barnfield, George Samuel 
Hutteman, James Bolt and James Moffat for the erection of a 
Chapel for all Denominations of Christians. 

On the 6th April 1806 a Declaration of Trust was drawn up 
under which the Chapel when erected, was to be called The 


New Calcutta Chapel for Divine Worship of all Denominations of 

On 18th May 1806 Mr. Ward stated in his journal : 

"Having expended all our subscriptions in the purchase of 
the ground at Calcutta, we shall have some difficulty in raising 
the Chapel. For the present therefore we have engaged some 
friends to put up a mat house by next Lord's Day for Bengalee 
worship and propose that Brother Juggeimath should sit under 
this shed and give away papers to the millions of Calcutta, and 
that this should be the rendezvous for all who wish to enquire 
about the Gospel." 

Mr. Ward opened this shad on Sunday, 1st June 1806, and 
the following is the description of the opening as reoorded by 
himself in his journal: 

" A crowd of natives attended and I had much liberty 
in speaking to them of the love of Christ. Deep Chand 
also addressed them and at the close we distributed a 
number of tracts. The natives dare not come to the house of an 
European, but this bamboo shed opens the door for this and they 
freely enter. Calcutta is, as it were, a world itself, and I doubt 
not but this small beginning will terminate in the salvation of 

Some heard with attention, but others mocked and loaded 
him and the Native Christians with reproach. On Sunday, 8th 
June, Dr. Marshman had a large attendance of natives at the shed 
and stated: 

"The bamboo shed was thronged with natives and the 
appearance of Bam Mohun, a Brahmin who had become a Chris- 
tian, excited much curiosity. He and others of our brethren were 
followed by a number of persons and loaded with abuse." 

On 24th June the missionaries reported to the Society the 
purchase of the ground and the erection of the shed, stating that 
great numbers of natives flocked to the place and that their, subcrip- 
tions were nearly exhausted, adding modestly. " We hope the Lord 
will provide." 

On the 29th June Mr. Ward preached at the shed again 
and the following is what he recorded in his journal : 

"I preached twice at the shed in Lall Bazar and 


had l&rge congregations. Many heard attentively. The curio- 
sity and surprise of the people at Calcutta is very much 
excited. Multitudes followed our brethren through the streets- 
clapping their hands and giving them every kind of abuse. 
Some abused them as Feringhis, others for losing caste 
some called them Yesoo Khreest, and bowing to them, said 
' Salaam Yesoo Khreest ; ' others said, * There goes Salla, Yesoo 
Khreest.' Some came to their doors, and, pointed at them as 
th^y passed along. When they saw me walking by one said 'That's 
him — that's the Hindu padre why do you destroy these people's 
castes ? ' Another said to one of the native brethren, ' O Salla, 
why did you not oome a-begging to my house and I would have 
given you a morsel to eat rather than you should hav^ become a* 
Feringhi ' " and yet in spite of it all, Mr. Ward was able to add : — 
** At night, a lad of about fourteen, who had beard the word at 
the Lall Bazar came to our native brethren and said he would 
embracd this religion, and they took him with them to Kreeshna- 
pore. He is of the writer caste and can read." 

This was Santiram from Chittagong who was baptized on 
3rd August 1806. On the 7th and 20th July it is recorded that 
Dr. Marshman had a large congregation of natives at the shed, 
and on 27th July Mr. Ward stated that he had a crowded atten-^ 
dance of natives. 

In spite of all this opposition and abuse the missionaries were 
oheered by some tokens for good, for on 6th April r806 a Mr 
Ephraim Burford, the grandson of a Baptist Minister of that 
name, was baptized by Dr. Carey, regarding whom it was added 
that he was converted through the preaching of Mr. Ward at 
Calcutta. On 3rd August 1806, Mr. Ward was again at Calcutta 
and made the following record: — 

" A young native from Patna who heard the Word in the 
Lall Bazar came to Mr. Lindeman s ' and declared his resolu- 
tion to become a Christian,' and, he added ' I sent him up to 
Serampore in the evening.' This was Ram Persaud, who was 
baptized on 7th September 1806. On the 18th August 1806 Dr. 
Marshman stated that the attendance at Calcutta was of the most 
encouraging description. ' A congregation of from 400 to 600 
ocnstantly assembled and many of the Portuguese and Armenians 
interested themselves in the Bengalee worship, sometimes even 
taking an active part in the occasional disputatioas that arose. 


Among the millions of natives there seems to be the bent prospect 
that ever presented itself.'" 

A few days later Mr. Ward preached, when the shed, the 
compound and the street were crowded. 

All these incidents have been given in detail because of the 
importance the authorities attached to them as the narrative will 
now show with a change of scene. 

On the 23rd August 1806, the two new missionaries, Bevs. 
J. Chater and W. Eobineon arrived, and on Dr. Carey going to 
the Police office at Calcutta h& was informed that 

(1) They must not preach at the Lall Bazar, though thej 
might preach in their own room in Cossitollah, 

(2) Nor distribute tracts abusing the Hindu religion, and 

(3) The converts were not to go out preaching to their 
•ountrymen under ths sanction of the missionaries. 

This order was passed ae the news of the Vellore mutiny 
had recently reached Calcutta. The Govemment evidently looked 
upon Dr. Carey as a Grovernment officer, who should obey an 
^rder of Government, inasmuch as he drew a salary from Govern- 
ment as a Professor of the College. The harshness of the order 
was toned down a little by conversation with the magistrate, but 
notwithstanding, on the 2nd September 1806, the Government 
issued an order stopping th& preaching in the Bow Bazar until 
the missionaries could procure permission from the Court of Direc- 
tors or the British Government. On the 29th of that 
month the missionaries informed the Society that the work had 
received a check at Calcutta and added "it is a heavy blow to us." 
Mr. Ward felt it to be a cutting measure and said it had taken 
away all his desire to visit Calcutta. 

On the 25th December they wrote again and said they could 
not help sighing to think of the prohibition of the preaching to 
the mutitudes who used to hang upon their lips standing in the 
thick-wedged crowd for hours together in the heat of a summer 
sun listening to the Word of Life, and added, " we still worship 
in a private house at Calcutta and our congregation increases. 
We are going on with the Chapel.'* 


The Bengalee preaching had therefore to be confined to the 
limited space of the room at Mr. Lindeman's^ but God raised 
op some Armenian friends and one of them pidled down a part 
of his house to enlarge it and make it into a Chapel. A request 
was made for Bs. 160 to meet the cost of alteration wheraa 
the oongregation inunediately subBcribed Rs. 240. 

On 30th November 1806 Mr. Ward recorded that the oongre- 
gation at Calcutta had considerably increased and that the room 
was too strait for them and added: ''Yet the subscriptions do 
not oome in so as to finish a larger place without borrowing." The 
preaching in Bengalee and in English had therefore all to be done 
at Mr. lindeman's until the room at the Armenian's house was 
ready which was being made ready '' for the sake of the natives. '^ 
This was in Chitpore Eoad, a scene along which is given in the 
picture opposite. On 25th January 1807 this room was opened 
by Mr. Ward for public service in Bengalee. 

On 16th December 1806 Mr. Mardon was able to write: " At 
Calcutta the face of things wears a very pleasing aspect." 

In April 1807 the erection of the Chapel having made con- 
siderable progress attracted the attention of Mr. Blaquiere one 
of the Magistrates of Calcutta, who insisted on all further work 
being stopped until the permission of the Supreme Government had 
been obtained to its erection as it was a public edifice. 

The nussionaries took no notice, but Mr. Blaquiere sent for 
tihe architect a second time and threatened an immediate report 
to "Government. Consequently the sanction of Governmentto(l)the 
erection of the Chapel and (2) the reopening of the shed had to 
be obtained before any other Sitep oould be taken. Dr. Marshmsn 
accordingly waited in person on the principal inhabitants with a 
Memorial to the Governor-General in Council representing that 
tbere was no place of worship in the Town of Calcutta for Protestant 
DiasentecB, by reason whereof many persons attached to the wor- 
ship of the Church of Scotland and other modes of worship prac- 
tised by Protestant Dissenters are constrained to neglect Divine 



Service, and ©oliciting the permifision of Government to erect in 
the Lall Ba«ar a C?hapel for that purpoee. The petition was signed 
by 116 persons of respectability and within a week after its sub^ 
xniMUon, the needful permission was accorded. The work, was accord- 
ingly pushed on with, and must indeed have been pushed on 
very vigorously for Dr. Carey to have T)een able to write as he 
»did, to Mr. SutcliflP on 2nd June 1807, that he expected the roof 
to be on in about ten days and the Chapel opened by the end 
of the year. On the 25th of that month the missionaries wrote 
to the Society : " The walls of the Chapel are raised ready to 
recmve the roof. In ttie course of a few months w© hope it 
will be finished and opened ; " but this was not to be, though 
the work in the private room was being made a blessing to a 
goodly number. 

On 2nd August 1807, a British soldier from Dum Bum named 
John Axcll was baptized by Mr. Ward in Calcutta. It was the 
first baptism in Calcutta and the immersion must have taken place 
it\ a privaTe tank as the Chapel was not ready. 

This «Jolemn event was followed by the issue of a Grovemment 
order on Dr. Carey, dated 8th September 1807 forbidding : — 

(1) The preaching to the Arm^dans and Portuguese in 

{Ti All preaching among the soldiers in Fort William by 
Miuistersi not episw>pally ordained. 

T1k» onemicsi of religion triumphed, its friends were dis- 
<\>\ira^jipd and <\>mTOon r«^^rt went, that the missionaries would 
W viriv<»« out x>f the country. 

A M^MUorial w;!i;> drawn up by Dr. Marshman reviewing the 
<rirv\inv<4;iiiuMMi and |x\«ation of the Mission and subndttod to Lord 
MxnK> at T^r«K^|v^n(» on Ut October 1S07, It was read the next 
day *t tfci^ IV\*Tvi»t:ni: aud within a sisxt tiroe ^ faTotnmble 
r^uly wa$ t>^>Mx^l The M>«s»>nari«s tlien wwai dowH in j^ bodv 
t*^^ iVvHWt^i to thank l,K«\i MinK" pec^oAalhr, who rrade tbe lemjiii^ 
Ik^t ^ tK^ktn^ tt^^ar>? was^ e<v^»sanr tiaut a mci^ ^xusdz^tkn cf the 
auVJM wtw* ex^MxtMiKS iiad apjiMuredi i» a cyWkr aa^i iaTc««nble 


light/' After this the erection of the Chapel was so vigorously 
pushed on with that the funds became completely exhausted and 
the missionaries had come under large obligations to Mr. Bolt the 
Architect. It was impossible to make any further progress 
without additional aid from the public. But it appeared impoli- 
tic to attract public attention to any object connected with the 
Mission while the storm of opposition continued to rage. As 
soon as the hostility of Government appeared to have abated, Dr. 
Marshman drew up an Appeal in which it waa stated that the sub- 
scriptions already raised had amounted to nearly Twelve thousand 
Bupees of which nearly Eight thousand had been expended on the 
purchase of the ground, that the Chapel was now in a great degree 
of forwardness and would on the most economical plans cost some 
Twenty thousand Bupees more, so that there was a deficit of over 
Sixteen thousand Bupees. They therefore solicited further help 
from a generous public on behalf of ths undertaking which had 
for its sole object the general good of Society and the promotion of 
order, virtue and true religion. Dr. Marshman proceeded from 
house to housd with the subscription paper in his pocket, repre- 
sented the destitute condition of the Christian population who 
were unable to attend the Episcopal Church, and the efforts, now 
unhappily suspended for want of funds, which had recently been 
made to erect a Chapel for their benefit. With some few excep- 
tions he was received with courtesy and his application was gene- 
rally sucessful. One member of the Medical Board, a good ex- 
ample of the Indianized European told him that in his opinion 
it was a matter of perfect indifference whether a man worshipped 
God in a ]^eathen temple, a Mahomedan mosque, or a Christian 
Church, and "Siat, as for himself he had had a dozen natural 
children, arid could not subscribe. Dr. Marshman through his 
persuasive im|)ortunity, succeeded in raising £1,100 in less than 
ten days, principally from gentleman independent of Government 
and altogether unconnected with his own denomination. But this 
exhibition of his zeal did not pass without an attempt at ridicule. 



That cold season was remarkable for its gaieties. Lord Mintos 
arrival had given a new impulse to public amusements and there 
was a continuous succession of Balls and Masquerades. At one of 
the Fancy Balls, at which the Govemor-deneral was present, some 
gentleman thought fit to amuse the company by personating Dr. 
Marshman and went about the Ball Boom with a subscription 
paper under his arm, habited just like Dr. Marshman. In the 
description given of the entertainment by one of the few Calcutta 
papers then published it was announced that among other am u sing 
characters there was "a pious missionary soliciting subscriptions 
and that it was gratifying to remark that his paper had been 
so well filled." By this effort the deficit was considerably reduced 
but the money was soon exhausted. The missionaries, however, 
were determined not to allow the progress of the work to be sus- 
pended for want of funds, so they advanced the sums which were 
requisite from time to time from their own resources. 

View ov the East Face of Government House, Calcutta, as it 
was in the early years op the 19th century. 


We read' accordingly that on the 16th Deoember 1807^ Dr. 
Carey wrote that the Chapel had been erected and covered in 
and he added: "the building is 70 feet square and will have 
galleries on three sides/' 

In the meantime the attendance at the oFd room continued 
to increase. 

As to the Armenians and the Portuguese in the Chitpox^ 
Road they could only assemble and have worship among themselyos. 
They greatly felt the hardship of being deprived of the Bengalee 
preaching, so in December 1807 they submitted a petition to the 
Govemor-Greneral (Lord Minto) in Council as below: — 

"We the undersigned Armenian and Portuguese inhabitants 
of Calcutta humbly beg leave to represent to your Lordship that 
in consequence of our not sufficiently understanding the English 
language we are prevented from receiving Christian instruction 
at the English Church and are therefore deprived of the greatest 
blessing on earth. We therefore humbly entreat your Lordship 
to grant us liberty to have Divine worship in the Bengalee 
language, which we well understand, at the small Chapel, erected 
on the premises belonging to Mr. Petruse, an Armenian Christian, 
in Chitpore Road, Calcutta and we fiirther beg leave to entreat 
that the Brethren of the Protestant Mission at Serampore may 
preach to us in this languiage, as we know of no other Ministers 
to whom we can apply for Christian instruction in this language." 
Althotigh this petition was signed by over 30 persons, yet on 
the 8tli January 1808, the Government replied under the signa- 
ture of Thomas Brown, Chief Secretary, declining to let them 
hcdd the Bengalee service in the small Chapel in the Chitpore 
Bead II 

In January 1808 the missionaries insarted the following remark 
in their Circular Letter; "The Chapel is not finished as yet, 
the collecting of the sums subscribed advances but slowly, which 
considerably retards the work. We regret this as there seems an 
increasing disposition to hear, the present place being often full 
and sometimes crowded." 


In February 1808 they recorded: 

" The attendance at the old room continues numerous and 
serious. The Chapel is advancing, although slowly. We expect 
the galleriss will be errected (sic) in a few days." 

As the private room in Cossitollah became more and more 
thronged with hearers the erection of the Chapel had to be pushed 
forward with redoubled vigor and thia could only be done by 
the missionaries making further advances so that the progress of 
the work might not be suspended for want of funds. 

On 20th April 1808, Dr. Carey wrote: "The cause of Christ 
lA going on in an encouraging manner at Calcutta. The Chapel 
is nearly finished." 

In October 1808 the missionaries wrote: "The opening of 
the new Chapel is anxiously looked for by many." 

On 10th November 1808, Mr. Chamberlain after having spent 

two days at Serampore and one at Calcutta, wrote to Dr. Kyi and: 

" I was much rejoiced to see what Gk)d hath wrought in the 
Itatter place. I have preached there more than once, in 1803, to 
3 or 4 people, and now behold a fidl room, and, oh, what is more 
encouraging, a goodly number, who have put on the Lord Jesus 
Christ and are not seeking their own, but the things pertaining 
to the Kingdom of Christ." Before the Chapel was open 3d, that 
is in November 1808, Krishna Pal removed to Calcutta " where 
there is a large field for missionary exertion." 

The opening service was fixed for Sunday the 1st January 
1809 and Rev. W. Forsyth of the London Mission having expressed 
a wish to conduct the evening service on that happy occasion he 
was permitted to do so, while Dr. Carey took the morning service 
and pr-eached to a numerous audience from Psalm 84: 1 — How 
amiable are the tabernacles, O Lord of Hosts ! " It seems to have 
been a solemn and impressive day, the desire of Dr. Carey and 
his colleagues being thus at last accomplished. The Rev. William 
Robinson referring to the event as late as July 1849 was able to 
eay that that interesting day was still fresh in his memory. 

Thus, after many unforeseen and unexpected difficulties the 
chapel was erected the centenary of which has now come. A 


akotch of it as it looked on 1st January 1809 is given in the 
frontispieoBy from which the reader who knows the Chapel will 
be able to aee wb a glance the difference in its appearance at the 
present time. 

Hallelujah — Praise ye the Lord. 


Some of the Sub&cribebs to the Buildino Fund. 

A paimgri^h in the Fietition drawn up by Dr. Marsimtan 
in 1807 makes the following statemeint: "A enbscription waa 
eet on foot by a number of gentlemon, who subeciibed aa follows : — 

Sieca Ba. 
J. H. Harington, Esq. ... ... ... 500 

W. B. Martin, Esq. ... ... ... 500 

The Rev. D. Brown ... ... ... 500 

J. T. Maylin, Esq. ... ... ... 500 

Mr. M. Deroido ... ... .« 1,000 

Mr. J. Bolt ... ... ... 500 

Mr. P. Lindeman ... ... ... 50O 

The Brethren of the Serampore Mission ... 1,000 

Mr. R. Caws ... ... ... ... 400 

Mr. A. Smith ... ... ... 300 

Mr. iW. Morrison ...; ^.^ ... 300 

Mr. J. Tomkies ... ... ... 300 

Hx. G. Shaw ... ... ... 300 

Mr. W. Grant ... ... ... 300 

Mr. I. Fernandez ... ... ... 300 

Mr. Bobt. Stewart ... ... ... 250 

(N. -S.— The distinction between " Ssq." and ** Mr.'' is in the 
original document.) 

A few remarks will now be made about each of the above 
gentlemen aa f ar as possible in the order in which they stand. 

1. J. H. Habinoton. 

He was a member of the Civil Service and a good Christian man. 

He entered that service as a writer on 1st August 1780. At the 

time he gave this donation hd was one of the Puisne Judges of 

the Sndder Dewanny and in 1811 he was made Chief Judge. It 

8011ft 07 VHfi SimSCBIBEBS ¥0 THB BXltLBlNG FUKD. 41 

was at his house that the Bev. David Brown died on 14th June 
1812. On 22nd April 1825 he was appointed permanently as a 
member of the Supreme Council. He died in London on 9th 
AprU 1828. 

2. W. B. Mabtin. 

He was also a member of tEe Civil Service which he entered as 
a writer on 1st November 1798. At the time he gave this dona- 
tion he was Collector of Dinagepore, and from 1809 he held high 
posts^ being at different times Resident at Amboyna^ Hyderabad, 
Delhi, and, finally, Indore on 16th April 1832. He retired from 
1st May 1836. 

3. The Rev. David Bbown. 

His name is well known in Chiistiian circles, and his praise is 
in all the Churches. He arrived at Calcutta in 1786 to take 
charge of the Orphanage. In 1794 he was appointed a Presidency 
Cliaplain and he was also in charge of the Old (or, Mission) 
Church. He was Provost of The Collie of Fort William, and it 
was through his influence that Dr. Carey was appointed a Professor 
in it. He was of an evangelical turn of mind and exerted himself 
in every good cause and was an intimate friend of the Serampore 
missionaries. He died on the 14th June 1812 at the housie of 
Mr. J. H. Harington as already stated. 

4. J. T. Mayldt. 

Mr. Maylin was a successful trader who had been going back- 
wards and forwards to and from America and had amassed a 
considerable fortune. He was baptized in the river at Serampore 
by Dr. Carey on 7th July 1805 and in that year when the mis- 
sionaries wanted to buy additdjonal premj^ses ajb Serampore he 
advanced them as a loan the equivalent of £1,420 at 10 per cent, 

5. Michael Derozio (not Derozario). 

He is described in St. John's Baptismal Register of 178d 
as "a Native Protestant," and, in the Bengal Directory of 1795 as 
"a Portuguess Merchant and Agent in Calcutta.'' He was born 


in 1742 and wae the grandfatlier of Mr. H. L. Y. Derozio, the 
Anglo-Indian Poet and Beforxner^ by whom he is overshadowed. 
The latter was bom to his second son Francis. He and his family 
were regular attendants at the meetings conducted by the mi^ 
sionaries at Calcutta, and, not infrequently, were the only attend- 
ants. He apd his wife and two dai^bters were baptized at Seram- 
pore by Mr. Ward on the 3rd May 1807, after having attended 
the meetings at Calcutta a long time. On that date he was 65 
years of age and his wife 63. He died suddenly, while dining, 
on the 22nd August 1809 and was buried on the next day by Dr. 
Carey. No portrait of him is obtainable, but a portrait is given 
on the opposite page of his young, but brilliant and distinguished 
grandson Mr. H. L. Y. Derozio, who was nephew by marriage 
to the missionary Rev. Ignatius Fernandez. His widow died at 
Bhagalpore, on the 30th June 1832, aged 76, according to the 

6. James Rolt. 
This was the person from whom the land on which the Chapel 
was built was originally bought. When the Serampore mission- 
aries first commenced their meetings in Calcutta they used to 
assemble in Mr. Rolfs house. Eventually he became the Architect 
of the Chapel. There are interesting details on record about the 
sickness and death of his first wife. Hs then married the widow 
of Mr. Brunsdon shortly before Mr. Chamberlain arrived. He 
was an intimate friend of Dr. Carey's, who dined with him every 
day in Calcutta while connected with the College of Fort William. 
He was baptized on 4th September 1802. He gave employment 
to Krishna Pal, the first Serampore convert, after his 
baptism. Dr. and Mrs. Judson put up at his house in 
Calcutta in 1812 for 2 or 3 months from about the time Mr. Lawson 
arrived till Dr. Judson's departure for the Mauritius. He died 
on 23rd September 1813., 

7. Peter Lindeman. 
For some years befc^re the Chapel was built the meetings 

Portrait of Mr. H. L. V. Deri>zio, thk Anglo-Indian 1'oy.t, 
( By kind permission of Mr. E. IV, Madge of the ImptrioX library. , 


used to be held in a room in his house in Cossitollah, but many 
objected to the place owing to the ©mUlems of mortality which 
were all about. He was a good Christian man. Though he was 
never formally connected with this Church, he attended the meet- 
ings at the Chapel regularly after it was opened and used to 
distribute alms there. He was always full of praise and, on one 
occasion when the carriage he waa in upset, he praised God 
that things w-er© not worse. He died on 13th February 1856 at 
the age of 83 years and is buried in the Scotch Cemetery. 

8. The Rev. Ignatius Fernandez. 

He was born in the Island of Macao off China, of Portuguese 
or Italian extraction and was educated for a Roman Catholic 
priest, but being shocked at the worship of images, as he said, 
he began to examine, and the more he examined, the 
more he became inclined to Protestant principles and 
gradually relinquished the Church of Rome. He came 
from Macao to Bengal in 1775. Just before Mr. Fountain's arri- 
val in the country he heard of Mr. John Thomas and by means of 
a friend he requested some books for the purpose of religious in- 
struction and Mr. Thomas sent him Bishop Newton's work on The 
Prophecies, etc. He was an Indigo Planter, who became acquainted 
with the Serampore missionaries. He built a brick Chapel which 
was opened on 3rd November 1797. He was baptized on 18th 
January 1801 and was ordained to the Ministry on 16th January 
1804. He worked conjointly as a Missionary and a Planter till 
he died. Mr. Thomas, Mr. Fountain, Mr. S. Powell 
and the first wife of the Rev. W. Robinson, all died at his house. 
He was a liberal helper of the Mission till his death on 27th 
December 1830. 

9. A. Smith. 

He was a trader who used to go backwards and forwards to 
and from America. He was in Calcutta with Mrs. Smith at 
different times. Was originally a member of the Baptist Church 


in Cannon Street, Birmingliam, and went to America, where he 
settled down in New Tork. He lued to take in the misaionarieB 
when there and his house and heart were op^i to all. On the 
drd August 1806, Mrs. Smith presented the missionaries with 2 
plated cups for tha Lord's Supper. 

10. William Grant. 
He was a Christian Indigo Planter, of the Malda District who 
was a friend to the Mission and hepled Mr. Mardon in 1807 to 
plant schools, but died in October of that year. He left several 
thousand rupees to the Mission which came in very opportunely 
at the time the missionaries were trying to extend their work. 

11. George Shaw. 

He was baptized on Ist February 1807, but no further informa- 
tion has bsen traced about him. 

12. W. Morrison 


13. K. Stewart 

They were coach builders of the firm of Stewart and Morrison 
of that day. 

14. J. TOMKIES. 

He was Inspector of European Distilleries, but no further 
information has been traced about him. 

15. K. Caws. 
No information whatever has been traced about this gentleman. 


The PsoGRftflS of the Cause in 1809 afteb the 


Prior to 1st January 1809, 165 mombers had been enrolled, 
including the missionaries, and of these, only Soldier Axell 
had been baptized at Calcutta. The rest had all been baptized 
at Serampore or received by letter. The admissions had been aa 
below: — 

1800, 13; 1801, 6; 1802, 9; 1803, 16; 1804, 16; 1805, 
41; 11B06, 30; 1807, 17; 1808, 18. On 3rd November 1805, the year 
in which 41 had been received into the Church, 10 were baptized 
at one time in the presence of many strangers. 

Dr. Carey had been sole Pastor from 24th April 1800 to 5th 
October 1805, and from 6th October 1805, Dr. Marshman and 
'Mr. Ward were appointed co-Pastors with him. The other mia- 
sionaries at Serampore, were appointed Deacons, as also Krishna 
Pal and Krishna Persaud for the native members. 

The first baptizing that took place in the Chapel was that 
of Mr. John Turner, on 8th January 1809, just a week aiter the 
Chapel had been opened. 

The record runs thus : '' The Ordinance of baptism was adminis- 
tered for the first time in the liall Bazar Chapel when Mr. Turner 
was baptized at the close of the morning service, Dr. Marsh- 
man introduced the service by a short address and Mr. Ward 
followed, giving a short account of the conversion of the candidate. 
Aa they went into the water the congregation sang 

Lo, glad I come, and Thou Blest Lamb 
Shalt take me to Thee as I am. 

My sinful self to Thee I give 

Nothing but love shall I receive. 

The fixed attention and the tears of many of the congregation 
testified how deeply they were affected with the solemnity of this 
imjmflsive ordinance." 


The next baptismal service was on 5th March 1809 when four 
persons were baptized by Dr. Carsy himself and among 
them was Mr. William Cumberland. He was formerly in 
the Army. Referring to this baptism Dr. Carey wrote 
to Mr. Fuller on the 27tb idem as below: — 

" The work at Calcutta is going forward in a very encouraging 
manner. Last Ordinance Day I baptized four persons and next 
Lord 8 Day I expect to baptize two more. I think there are not 
fewer than ten others enquiring the way of salvation. I trust 
the Lord will raise up in this Church a sufficiant number of men 
of special gifts to convey the knowledge of the Truth through tba» 
and some of the neighbouring countries. The native "Portuguese 
and country-born people will, if converted to God be the fittest 
for this work of any others and the Europeans amongst us will, 
I trust, contribute to give substance to their ideas.'' 

The ideal the missionaries set before them was to utilize those 
in the country, who wero used to the conditions of life out here 
and it is well known to what an extent they succeeded. One of 
the two whom Dr. Carey said he hoped to baptize on the following 
Sunday was Mr. O. Leonard, who was duly baptist on the 2nd 
April. He was a prominent figure in the Church for years. 

On the 3rd April they began the monthly prayer meeting for 
the spread of the Gospel. By this date the English congregation 
had increased to 200. It was composed chiefiy of the middle and 
lower classes of Christians in Calcutta and consisted of the same 
description of attendants as thosa who had filled the Mission Church 
in the days of Kiernandsr, and deserted it when under the preach- 
ing of Mr. Brown, it became the sanctuary of the gentry. The 
Missionaries recorded the following remark in their circular letter 
of April : — 

*' The voluntary contributions are nearly sufficient to defray 
the monthly expenses of the Chapel as well as the interest of 
the debt on it, which amounts to more than one hundred and 
fifty rupees monthly." 

The Church, as already shown above, being regarded as the 

nursery of the Mission, the missionaries made use at once of those 

who seemed to have special gifts and they encouraged the East 


Indian, Portugusse and Armenian young men, to say nothings 
of the native young men, to labour from house to house wherever 
they oould obtain access, and mestings were held every evening, 
in the week at the residence of some of those who had shown a 
desire to listen to the Gospel, and those young men were thus trained 
for the exercise of their natural gifts. Two such young men were 
sent out during 1809, Mr. C. C. Aratoon to Jessore and 
Mr. John Peter (or, Peters) to Orissa. In the case of the 
former the connection with the Mission was not severed till his 
death on 24th November 1857, but the latter retired in 1820. 
This latter period though short was productive of much fruit. 

The following interesting remark is. on record in Juns 1809 : — 
''Roman Catholics born in Bengal are often surprised at hearing 
the Bible read in Bengalee ! for, though they have heard of a 
book called the Bible, yet many of them have never heard a 
syllable of it in a language they could understand.'' 

The extract below will spsak for itself in regard to the state 
of this so-called infant Church : — 

August 9th: — Mr. Rowe, in a letter to Mr. Saffery of this date 
wrote: Respecting the work of God, Calcutta is the principal 
scene of action in this part of the country. Since the Chap&l has 
been opened several have appeared to be truly converted to Christ. 
. Some of our Calcutta members are men of eminent godli- 
ness. The monthly and all other prayer meetings are well at- 
tended. The congregation keeps up and several sesm ready to 
declare themselves on the Lord's side. It is our wish that the 
members of all our Churches should possess a Missionary spirit. 
We therefore labour to inspire them with ardent thirst for the 
salvation of souls and to induce them to prosecute it not only by 
prayer and pecuniary contrlibutions, but by peirsonal labours. 
We BOB the good effect of this particularly in persons being brought 
under the Word. It is in the power of many of our members 
to do more in this way, and in several others, than we possibly 
can. A few wesks ago at the close of the monthly prayer-meeting 
it was proposed that this Church should support our Brother Car- 
rapiet, (Aratoon) who occupies a Missionary station in Jessore and 
that they should send Brother John Peter, another of its members, 
into Qrissa to occupy a Misdonary station there. Both were readily 
agreed to, and it was further resolved that two-thirds of the nionthly 
collection, which far exceeds any present claims of the poor, should 


be applied to this purpose and to be formed into a fund to be 
called "The Chapel Itinerant Fund." A few days after, our 
Brother Grordon, the keeper of the Calcutta prison, sent 500 rupees, 
or about 60 guineas towards the Fund. From this you see some- 
thing of the feelings of this infant Church respecting tiie 
Itedeemer's Kingdom. Grod supplies all our wants! We have ik) 
reason to think that Grovemment is unfriendly towards us. On 
the contrary we have understood that they have discouraged the 
agitation of the controversy here which has tak&n place in England. 

In May of this year Mr. Chamberlain had baptized at Ber- 
hampore between 20 and 30 English soldiers, who formed theifr 
selves into a Church. In August they wers ordered to the Coast 
and passed through Calcutta, and while heie, were visited bj 
Mr. Chamberlain and Mr. Leonard, and before leaving Calcnttai 
sent 75 sicca rupees for tho Mission. This was the beginning 
of a remarkable work of grace among soldiers. But i^ 
is a very singular thing that whereas the Chapel was sitoatecl 
in a quarter much frequented by sailors, nothing special appears 
to have been done at this period to reach that class, but attention 
was more especially given to soldiers. 

On I3th September, Mr. Adam Gordon, the keeper of th« 
jail, and Mr. O. Leonard were proposed as Deacons, and, on i^^ 
18th October, they were set apart as such by the laying on oi 
hands. On the latter date Mr. C. C. Aratoon and Mr. John Peter 
were set apart to the Ministry by prayer and the laying on of 
hands. Mr. Peter, who is described as Being of a }et black com- 
plexion was to get a salary of Rs. 60 a month as he had a family 
and a parent dependent on him, but Mr. Aratoon, as he was 
single, was to get only Bs. 30 a month. These details are given 
to show the spirit that animated one and all. 

Mr. Jahans, a Roman Catholic when he became converted, 
sent Mr. Ward all his Popish books to be placed with Hindu 
books. As he wish-ad that his baptism might be in a tank or in 
the river, which came nearer Scripture exiynples, rather than in 
the baptistery in the Chapel, he and Sookey, another candidate, 
were baptized on 24th Sept^nber "in a tank in the garden of 


r. Pitman, Bow Bazar, Calcutta, when a large company waa 
esent and tlie ordinance was very seriously and profitably 
tended upon." 

In spite of all the work that the Missionaries had already 
I hand they were led to add to their labours under the following 
Tcumstances : — ^Mr. Ward received a letter from Mr. King of 
lirmingham regarding some Charity Schools, which were being 
onducted in that town. This he read at Calcutta on the 23rd 
ieptamber 1809, among friends, when Mr. Leonard said he thought 
halt something of the kind might be opened in Calcutta, which 
ed to an enquiry being instituted whether a similar attempt could 
lot be made. The outcome was that on Christmas Day, 1809, Dr. 
^arshman preached a aarmon in the Chapel with a view to the 
atablishment of a Charity School for the children of the native 
Portuguese and others in indigent circumstances. His text was 
iaken from Psalm xxxvii. 3 — Trust in the Lord and do good so 
Shalt thou dwell in the land and verily thou shalt be fed.'' After 
'he sermon a collection was made, which ultimately amounted to 
ibout three hundred rupees. In regard to this the record runs: 
Although this sum may be esteemed email compared with the 
magnitude of the undertaking we feel by no means discouraged. 
)n the contrary, persuaded the Lord is able to give every needful 
upply, we have determined to persevere in the undertaking till 
I* school is actually established.*' 

This was done not long after, but after an existence of nearly 
»ighty years this useful institution which was known among the 
uissionaries as the Benevolent Institution, but among the poor 
hemeelves as Penney 's School, was formally closed in 1888 for 
^ant of funds. 

The total number admitted into the Church during 1809 
-mountsd to 27. 

It becomes necessary now to make a diversion from the nariar 
ive and to introduce to the reader (1) Mr. William Cumberland 
nd (2) Mr. Owen Leonard, who have both been referred to 


Biographical sketch op Mr. "William Cumberland, 

A Deacon op the Church, who died on 24th July 

1814, AT the age op 66 years. 

The following narrafcive is based upon the Periodical Accounts 
of the time. 

Mr. Cumberland was bom in England in 1748, and came 
cut to India in the Army in the yaar 1786. About 1794 Im was 
appointed to superintend the mating of gun-carriages, etc.. in 
the Company's yard at Kashee-poora (Cossipore), about three miles 
from Calcutta. At this time he was serving divers luBts and 
passions, far from God, and given up to almost all those vices so 
common in the Army : but he was particularly the slave of passion. 
Still, however, in this dreadful career of iniquity, while destitute 
of the means of religious instruction, his conscience often smote 
him and prevented his sinning with impunity. 

In these circumstances, he was in some way brought to attend 
on tEe Grospel preached at the house of Mr. Lindeman in Calcutta, 
and he acknowledged afterwards, that a sermon preached there 
from these words, "How shall we escape, if we neglect so great 
salvation," was made peculiarly useful in awakening him from a 
state of spiritual death. From that time, having received deep 
impressions of the extreme danger of his condition as a fallen 
sinner, and obtaining hopes of mercy through the redemption that 
there is in Christ Jesus, he continued his attendance on the wor 
ship of God, and gave his fixed attention to the discourses he heard. 

He was baptized on the 5th March 1809, and was afterwards 
chosen a Deacon in March 1812. 

From the day of his baptism to that of his death he bore 
among has brethren the character of a Humble Christian, of the 


most simple and unaffected deporimemt, commanding the affectioti 
and esteem of all, religious or profane. Nor did lie neglect 
the enlarg3ment of bis mind : he was seldom without a book in his 
band in bis leisure moments, and though his education had been 
limited, he possessed a capacity for studies superioF to his situa- 
tion in life. He had a tinge of refined melancholy in his disposi- 
tion, seldom sean in men of his rank in life: hence he erected a 
monumeint to the memory of bis son in his own garden, and over- 
shadowed it with a weeping willow, and after the death of his first 
wife he enclosed a spot of ground with a railing in the o(»iier of 
the Kiddurpoora (Kidderpore) burying ground and planted a tree 
by its side, under the shade of which his own earthly remains after- 
wards rsposed. 

The wonders of God in creation and providence were ever 
pleasing subjects of contemplation and converse to him. But his 
favourite theme was the doctrine of redemption; and he ever 
showed in conversation how much his feelings were impreeeed and 
elevated by this exalted subject, contemplated with rapture even 
by angels. He knew and acknowledged that he had been a great 
and (in his own estimation) more than common sinner: he was 
aware too, that though then reformed and supported by tha power 
of religion, he was still encompassed with infirmities. These 
things made him sensible that nothing but the boundless mercy 
of God, flcming freely through the infinite merit of the Saviour's 
sacrifice, was sufScient to save him, and he found nothing short 
cf this capable of supporting his hope and affording him consols - 
tion under the piercing views he had of his desert of hell as having 
been alie&ated from God, and in avowed and continued rebellion 
against Him. These views made the Gospel tidings of great joy 
to him, he felt that he had a deep stake in the covenant of redemp- 
tion : this was all his salvation and all his desire. Delivered from 
a state of shocking profligacy by the Divine Spirit, through the 
instrumentality of the religion of Christ, he was sensible that he 
owed the deepest obligations to the Father for His unmerited love. 


t>o tihe Son for His bitter sufferings unto death for liis salvation, 
to the Holy Spirit for those convictions and imprsssions that drew 
him from a life of sin and placed his feet in the narrow way 
that leads to eternal life. A striking proof of what he felt respedr 
ing hifi obligations on this subject was seen in tha text he chose 
for his funeral sermon. "Is not this a brand plucked from the 


These deep impressions of the infinite value and necessity of 
religion laid the foundation of the excellent character which Mr. 
Cumberland afterwards bore, and, whatever some persons may 
think respecting deep convictions on the subject of religion, pain- 
ful experience but too plainly proves them necessary, to arrest 
the mind of man, so prone to trifle with eternal concerns, to humble 
his pride, and to draw him from that fatal love of the world 
which devours so many souls in perdition. 

Mr. Cumberland was once awfully prone to violent gusts of 
passion, he lamented this after his conversion more than 
once and attributed to this vice the origin of a com- 
plaint which he carried with him to the grava. But see 
what religion does in the heart of a man who has b^un 
to mortify the flesh with its affections and lusts. A friend 

said : 

''His situation required a man of the greatest patience, 
having four or five hundred heathen to watch over daily. 
I need not inform you, what a heavy task this was to a 
conscientious man, who had not only to exert all his. powers to 
make Hindu workmen to perform their duty, but likewise to pre- 
vent them from purloining everything they could conveniently 
carry away from the Yard. Notwithstanding these circumstances, 
so trying to a man naturally passionate, by a constant habit of 
prayer, and a deep regard for the honour of. religion, he was 
enabled to act not only so as to gain the high approbation of his 
superiors, but to be esteemed as a parent by numbers 
who were under his management. He made it a rule, when he 
was betrayed into speaking harshly to any workman, even the 
poorest labourer in the employ, to go and beg his pardon in the 
most humble terms and to add a small present in money, so that 
he gained the affection of those who otherwise would have felt 


resentment, and proveS to the heathen, that they had to do with 
a true follower of a Redeemer who died for His enemies." 

The good effects of this tendemsss towards the natives was 
seen in his last sickness. One of the Deacons of the Church 
observed during his frequent visits to Kashi-poora, that there 
was scarcely an hour in the day during Mr. Cumberland's illness, 
which in the whole lasted about a month, in which some one or 
more of the Native neighbours or workmen were not seen near 
his bungalow making the most anxious enquiries about his health, 
and at the time of his departure, near five hundred of them col- 
lected about the house, and gave vent to their sorrow by loud 
lamentations, addressing sach other in such words as these: — 
"We have lost our father, he is gone never, never to return. 
Where shall we find one like him?" The friend before referred 
Ifco declared that it was one of the most affecting scenes he had 
ever witnessed : indeed so powerful an effect had it upon him, that 
he wept the whole time he was relating it. 

A man who could go thus far in apologising for an involuntary 
injury to persons deemed his inferiors, and whom many treat as 
beasts of burden, could not be unmindful of the spiritual condition 
of the beathen. As soon as he obtained leave from his esteemed 
employers, whose generous conduct to him and to his family does 
them the greatest honour, he invited native catechists to come 
weekly to teach thd workmen : and it was a pleasing sight to see 
Mr. Cumberland sitting in the midst of a crowd of heathen, 
while they surrounded one of their own countrymen, <^ening to 
them the treasures of tha Gospel, the unsearchable riches of Christ. 
Many parts of the Sacred Scriptures were put into the hands of 
those who could read in this manufactory, and let us hope that, 
in the resurrection of the just he will find that he did not labour 
in vain. Nor was he content with, these efforts, he talked himself, 
as well as he was able, to the natives; he often lamented their 
dark and miserable condition, and he looked forward with joy 
to a state of retirement, when he hoped to have more leisure to 


do good to the souls of men. Such, however, was his unfeigned 
humility, that it was a subject of deep ragret in his last hours, 
that he had done no more good in Tiia day and generation. 

What an example is this to those who have under them perish- 
ing heathen. How forcibly are they called upon by th.& voice 
of the Saviour to "go and do likewise" in a case in which the 
eternal welfare of their own servants is concerned ! How can we 
give ourselves credit for either Christian benevolence or humanity, 
if here, where these virtues are most wanted they are never put 
into exercise, and where the objects of pity are not occasional in- 
truders, but immortal beings, continually ministering to our 
wants, or increasing our riches! How awful is the consideration 
that one of those lost men may upbraid us, in eternity witli the 
neglect of what would have cost us nothing — ^warning him of his 
danger, and pointing him to the Lamb of God which taketh. away 
the sin of the world. 

We now come to the last and most important scene of his 
life his last and mos<t serious hours. What was. he then, what 
did religion do for him when the world retired, when heart and 
flesh failed, and when eternity opened upon his view, — eternity 
filled, as he verily believed, with endless joy or endless woe. 

When his partner in life perceived that there were no hopes 
of her husband's recovery, she gave vent to her feelings in a flood 
of tears, and in lamentations, which reached the ears of her dying 
husband. After recovering in some measure from the shock he 
called her to him, and suggested to her those consolations, which 
the recollection of the moment afforded, adding the memorable 
words of the prophet Jeremiah, "Leave thy fatherless children. 
I will preserve them alive, and let thy widows trust in me." 

The friend already mentioned asked him, when he saw his 
end approaching, if he was assaulted by the temptations of Satan. 
He assured him he had not been thus attacked during the whole 
of his afflictions; that death had no terror in his looks, no arms 
in his hands,; that the only sorrow he now felt, arose from his 


not baving served better that Saviour who now filled him with 
consolation when all inferior springs were dried up. 

A female icember of the Church, a short time before his 
death, asked him if he thought of Jesus? Lifting up his eyes as 
if surprised at the nature of the question, he feelingly replied, — 
"Do I think of "Evrnt Yes, He is never absent from my thougbts. 
Who supports me, think you, in these trying moments, except 
the dear Redeemer?" 

When one of his pastors last visited him, in reply to a ques- 
tion respecting the state of his mind, he said, " I am calmly wait- 
ing the will of God." 

He gave orders for his funeral with the utmost composure, 
and having languished till Lord's Day morning the 24th of July, 
he quietly fell asleep, aged 66 years. 

Let it not be supposed, however, from what has been said, 
that it is wished to hold him up in any other light than as a saved 
sinner, as a rough stone taken out of the quarry, and polished 
hy the Great Master-Builder, nor eulogise him as a saint 
of the highest order. He was not this, he would not if on earth 
thank any one for a false character. If a friend could have per- 
suaded him to speak with a degree of confidence respecting his 
Cbiistian character, still he would have affirmed *' By the grace 
of God I am what I am." His sense of his infirmities made him 
bate himself, and fly for refuge to Him who is a Befuge from the 
storm and tempest: and no doubt his present language is what it 
was on earth. " Not unto us, not unto us, but unto Thy Name 
be all the glory. — To Him that loved us, and washed us from 
our sins in His own blood, to Him be glory, both now and for 
ever. Amen." 


Biographical sketch of the Rev. Owen Leonard, a Deacon of ths 

Church who subsequently became a Missionary, and 

died on 23rd November 1848. 

He was born neax Langford in Ireland of Romisli parents in 
1772, but even in his boyish days he entertained doubts of eome 
of the Romanist doctrines. His parents were poor and he was 
brought up to the humble trade of a shoemaker. At the age of 
fifteen he enlisted as a soldier in the service of the East India 
Company. He arrived in India about 1787 and was posted to 
the Oompany^e Artillery, which was then stationsd at Calcutta, 
but used to be sent to Dum-Dum in the cold season for practice. 
He married when very young the daughter of a French Officer, 
who survived him after a married life of over 50 years, but the 
exact date of the marriage is not known. He was always a steady 
man and took great pains to improve himself. He was first 
employed as a writer and later on promoted to the rank of 
a petty officsr. At an early period of his Indian career he be- 
came acquainted with a pious man in the Artillery named Points 
whom he described as one "faithful among the faithless." Points 
was very anxious for Leonard's spiritual welfare and watched over 
his conduct with a holy jealousy. When the Rohilla war began 
in 1784, Leonard was required to take the field and in the bloody 
battle of the 26th October* of that year he was exposed to imminent 
danger out of which, however, the Lord delivered him, and after 
the engagement was over he retired to a solitary place to return 
thanks to God for his deliverance. After this he was at Dum- 
Dum and was there raised to the rank of Sergeant in the Artillery 
and when it was determined to send an Army against Seringa- 

* There is a Cenotaph in St. John's Churchyard, Calcutta, to the memory of 
those who were kille<l on this occasion. 


patam a detachment of tlie Bengal Artillery was ordered to 
Madras to join the besieging Army : Leonard was on the occasion 
made Seirgeant-Major and sent with the d^atachment. In the 
Army was Sir Arthur Wellesley, afterwards Duke of Wellington, 
under whom Leonard served. He was present at the siege and 
took an active part in the opsrations there, but did not happen 
to be present when the place was actually taken on the 4th May 
1799 as he had been detached to some other duty. After about 
three years he returned to Bengal and was again sent up-country. 
He was soon after appointed a Tutor in the Upper Orphan School 
at Kidderpore. That Institution was at that time under the 
superintendence of Mr. K. T. Burney, who was a good man and was 
very kind to Leonard, and while trying to maka him comfortable 
in his new situation, also sought his spiritual welfare. By his 
influence Leonard was brought under the evangelical ministry of 
the Rev. David Brown, who used to preach at tho Old Church on 
Sunday evenings. 

Thus his sarious impressions became deeper and he was recom- 
mended to open his mind to Mr. Ward, so for this purpose he went 
to Serampore in the year 1806. From that time he began occa- 
sionally to attend the preaching of the missionaries at 
their meatings which were held in a private house while the walls 
of the Lall Bazar Chapel were slowly rising. He was attracted 
by the manner of preaching and by the doctrines preached. 

Mr. Burney about this time reprinted and publishad a 
pamphlet against Immersion and in favour of Paedobaptism and 
sent a copy to Serampore with a challenge that he would defend 
the arguments contained in it even against Chamberlain. 
He was so very much afraid that his friend Leonard would become 
a Baptist that he put a copy of this pamphlet into his hands, 
taking from him a solemn promise that he would read it through, 
to which Leonard readily consented. The perusal of this pamphlet 
as promised, set Leonard a-thinking and ha began to lean towards 
baptism, and, when he saw Mr. Ward's little pamphlet on the 


same subject, he became quite decided. Mr. Burney's object failed 
and the perusal of his pamphlet by others caused Baptist senti- 
ments to become better known, as hitherto the missionariss had 
aimed at making Christians rather than Baptists. 

Mr. Leonard's physical sufferings were very gi*eat and 
he had to increase the dose of opium he used to take 
to have the desired effect of alleviating them, till he even- 
tually made an attempt at suicide. He went to a shop 
and boufi:ht a pistol for the purpose, but could not get 
the shot necessary for it. However, he directed his steps 
to one of the Calcutta burial grounds and there made the attempt 
to shoot himself by placing the pistol against his» right ear. The 
pistol was apparently held with a trembling hand and not pointed 
directly into the ear. It was loaded with a coarsD kind of small 
shot, two of which entered, but "afterwards one fell out and was 
preserved for years by Mrs. Leonard. The other touched his 
upper lip near the corner of his; mouth. There was consequently 
a slight curvature of that lip, but it was so slight as not 
to be always observed by strangers. His right ear, however, 
became dsaf and never got cured. He was taken to the 
General Hospital where he remained several weeks and where God 
met with him and he was brought to trust in the Saviour and 
had much peace and joy in believing. 

After his. recovery Mr. Leonard did not return to the Kidder- 
pore School, owing to his attempt at suicide. He, however, 
obtained the post of Tutor in the Classical School of the Rev. 
Peter Morse, a clergyman of the Protestant Church of Ireland. 
He had to teach Arithmstic and gave his employer much satis- 
faction. He had a discussion once with Mr. Morse on the subject 
of baptism. Mr. Leonard remained with him till his death which 
occurred after a short illness. 

He was baptized on 2nd Apiil 1809, shortly after the opening 
of the Chapel and was solemnly set apart to the Office of Deacon 
on 18th October of the same year along with Mr. Adam Gordon, 


and soon made himself useful. Two Deacons were chosen, as none 
of th^ Pastors were resident in Calcutta, though Dr. Carey was 
there two or three days in each week, and it was considered desir-^ 
able to have several Deacons, who being on the spot might attend 
to the int«r^ts of the Church. 

After Mr. Morse's death his school was dissolved, but at this 
time the Serampore Missionaries were projecting the establishment 
of their Benevolent Institution on behalf of which Dr. Marshman 
preached his inaugural sermon on Christmas Day 1809. Mr. Leo- 
nard was appointed one of the first teachers in this school as he 
was considered a very suitable x)erson for the post and he brought 
it up to a considerable degree of efficiency. He used to help Dr. 
Carey at his conference meeting at the Chapel on Tuesday evenings 
and on Thursday afternoons at his meeting for enquirers. 

After a while he felt a desire to make himself useful among 
those who did not understand English, and though he spoke 
Hindustani fluently, he had not learned to read it, so he set him- 
self to learn the Nagri character and in course of time by dint of 
perseverance he at last acquired fluency in reading it. After a few 
years the Serampore Missionaries having received him as a Mission- 
ary determined to send him to Dacca. All the time that he was 
an officer of tha Church he was in deed and truth the Calcutta cor- 
respondent of the Missionaries as is testified by his numerous letters 
in the Circular Letters of the Mission, in which he f aithf idly reported 
to his Pastors at Serampore what was taking place at Calcutta. He 
did not acc8-pt the term " missionary " and he supported himself in- 
dependently of the Mission by keeping a school. 

H^e went to Dacca in 1816 to open up the work there. The 
Mahomedans endeavoured to get him turned away as they had 
succeeded 10 years previously in getting Hr. Moore and Mr. 
William Carey, Jr., turned away, but failed. He set himself to 
establishing schools at an early stage and at one time had as many 
as 26 schools in the city and adjacent villages, including a large 
school in his own house which was kept up to the day of 


his death in 1848. The Rev. William Robinson joined him at the 
beginning of 1839. He became superannuated and though he 
wanted to labor he coidd not for years before his death. In 
1838 he baptized 26 individuals. He died on 23rd November 
1848 just after he had exclaimed "Where is Brother Robinson t" 
The simple epitaph on his grave says : " His record is on high." 


The wobk among Soldiers prom January 1810 to December 1815. 

The additions to the Church during these six years were: 
1810, 39; 1811, 54; 1812, 72; 1813, 65; 1814, 48; 1815, 44; 
making a total of 322 in all, which was practically half the entire 
number admitted between 1800 and 1826. They are therefore im^ 
portant years. 0ns interesting feature of the time was the work 
among the soldiers of the different regiments that came to Calcutta 
within these six years. Thus, in 1810 seven men were baptised 
from the 14tb and 22nd regiments; in 1812 fourteen from the 24th 
regiment; in 1813 forty from the same regiment, making 54 in 
all; in 1814 five from the 66th regiment; in 1815 nineteen from 
the same regimant and in the latter year (1815) two also from the 
59tb regiment, or 87 in all. From this it will be seen that 
men of five different regiments, viz., the 14th, 22nd, 24th, 66th, 
and 59th came under the influence of the missionaries. The good 
work went on in the succeeding years, but this period is specially 
taken as Mr. Leonard was so intimately connected with it. He, 
however, left in 1816 for Dacca and was succeeded by others who 
did not seem to have quite as much influence over the men. 

On the undermentioned dates within this period the mission- 
ariee were privileged to baptize more than six persons at one timei, 
viz: — 

29th July ... ... ... 1810—7 

30th April ... 

27tb October 

26th January 

31st May 

13th September 

27th September 
[This last date was that on which Dr. Judson preached h» 

. . .1 . 

xuxv 1 

. 1811—7 

• . •: • 

. 1811—7 

• ••• . 

. 1812—9 

... . 

. 1812—8 

. 1812—8 


. 1812—8 


celebrated sermon on Baptism which was subsequently printed and 
went through several editions]. 

27th December ... ... 1812—12 

30th January ... ... 1814— 7 

29th May ... ... ... 1814— 8 

25th September ... ... 1814— 7 

16th July ... ... ... 1815— 8 

But to proceed with the narrative. On the 23rd Feb- 
ruary 1810 Mr. Leonard wrote thus to Mr. Ward about 
an enquirer : 

*' It was the fear of causing scandal to his Christian prof assion 
that drove him to the Chapel, some of his companions having 
accused him of going to the Lall Bazar Chapel for wicked purposes, 
this being a street notorious for lewd practices." 

On 17th June Mr. Ward received two soldiers who were 
baptized on the 24th idem. They were Russell and Beard of the 
Regiment from Berhampore who turned out sterling men in couree 
of time. 

In July, a Regimental Order was issued at Berhampore prohi- 
biting every Non-Commissioned Officer or Private from attending 
religious worship either in the Barracks or out of them, except 
when ordered to Divino Service, and, it was added: "Such who 
dare to transgress will be severely punished." In a day or 
two, however, this order was modified by another " which limited 
their meetings to such times and places as the Chaplain of the 
station should be present at." This is inserted here to show the 
opposition to all such meetings, and is not unlike orders which 
issued ere long at Calcutta also. 

The men whom that order affect sd within a week or two left 
Berhampore for Calcutta en route to the Mauritius, as their 
regiments had been told off for the Expedition against that Island. 
•On the 30th August move than 30 Christian soldiers had break- 
fasted at Mr. Leonard's house where a prayer-meeting was held. 
After the morning service at the Chapel, Mr. Chamberlain (who 
ihad been instrumental in their conversion) administered the Lord's 


Supper, to them for tlie last time. Before the men left Calcutta 
they collected littla articles for a present to a blind fellow-member 
of the Church named Gomes. They embarked at Calcutta on 10th 
September and when leaving addressed farewell letters to the 
missionaries. God watched over His people, for they were able 
to write later on that though all the Christian men had been 
engaged in the taking of the Mauritius and of Java none of them 
had been killed or even injured.* 

On tbe Slst December 1810, Mr. Leonard recorded the follow- 
ing interesting incident in his latter to Mr. Ward of that date: — 

There is a soldier and his wife who attend very regularly at 
Chapel. He says that on going out of the Fort into Calcutta for 

a day, he is obliged to apply to Captain for permission. 

The firet time he applied to this gentleman it was for a whole 
Sabbath day's liberty to go out and hear in the city. He readily 
granted his request, but enquired with some earnestness, what 
Church he frequented. ''The Chapel in the Lall Bazar, Sir." 
" K you continue," said the Captain sharply " you will have your 
brains turned : I would recommend you to go to your own Church." 
The soldier answered, '* He had received much good from his short 
attendance at the Chapel ; that the pure Scripture doctrine was 
preached thera, and that there was no danger of that which he 
apprehended. "You know, Sir," he continued, I have more than 
onoe incurred your displeasure by drunkenness. You once wamsd 
me against the company of a certain man. That man and I agreed 
to go, intoxicated as we were, to hear what was going forward at 
this CEapel. Mr. Ward, Sir, preached from these words, " Bejoice 
O young man in thy youth, and let thy heart cheer thee in the 
days of thy youth and walk in the ways of thine heart and in 
the sight of thine eyes, but know thou that for all these things 
God will bring thee into judgment." A part of the sermon 
pointed particularly at drunkenness, shewing its destructive conse- 
quences and representing it in such odious colours that I hava never 
got drunk since, and I trust that by the mercy of God I never shall. 
"Well" said the Captain, "if you have received benefit thus far 
that is all that you ever will receive. If you continue your attend- 
ance there T shall one of these days, T assure you, have to provide a 
room for yon in the mad hotise." 

* There is a oenotaph In the grounds of Government House, Barracki>ore 
to the memorr of the officers who were killed in these expeditions in 1810 and 
1811 respectively. 


The 14th and 22nd Regimente having thus left Calcutta we 
shall now see how the Lord opened the way for the next regiment 

the 24th — to.oome under the influence of th« missionaries. Here 

is the first referencs to them, which is taken from the CircuIadP 
Letter of January 1811 : 

" A friend in the Fort has opened his house to us for public 
worship in English and Bengalee, and a good niunber attend, 
among whom are some soldiers of the 24th Raiment who heard 
the Gospel at the Cape." 

Mr. Leonard that same month was able to record that "Not 
a corner is to be found in the Fort where the Gospel has not foimd 
a reception." 

But now came the counterpart, for, on 15th February 1811^ 
he records: 

" We have to deplore that the devout young men of 
the 24th Regiment are prohibited passing the gates of the Fort 
on the Sabbath or any othsr day to hear the Word at Calcutta." 

The following simple entry under March 1811 has a great 

deal in it. "An opposition was raised in Fort William 

against the Gospel by a Colonel . On this occar 

tion a Mrs. W., a Hindustani woman, who had married an 
English soldier interceded with the General with effect, and libei'ty 
for a time was granted to the soldiers to attend at the Chapel ard 
at occasional meetings which did not interfere with their Military 
duties, but this did not continue long." 

This is given in full detail by Mr. Leonard in Jun© whose 
record runs thus: 

"About the middle of this month a new interruption 
took place with respect to the preaching in the Fort, 
The Town Major positively prohibited any meetings in future 
under penalty of a Garrison Court Martial, there being an old 
Garrison Order against such meetings. He said he would bring 
any person to a Court Martial who should encourage them and 
that if any of tha Missionaries were seen in the Garrison in future 
they would be turned out. Application was made to the Colonel 
and the order was revoked, but in a very short time after it was 
renewed. The real movers in this business are unknown to us, 
and the cause of this hindrance to the Gospel is yet a mystery. 
None of the Officers of His Majesty's 24th so much as once- 
attempted to call any of their men to account for their zeligioik 


nor do we know anything that could attract the attention of the 
Officers who have interfered except the marked change of the men 
under them from vice to virtue, from habitual Sabbath breaking, 
drunkenness and gambling to becoming Christian conduct. One 
objection offered to the soldiers was that they were not such sin- 
ners as the Ministers represented them. An Officer in conver- 
Bation with friend W. adduced his power of turning him out of hia 
situation if ever he would be convicted of admitting any assembly 
under his roof. I am happy, however, to inform you that our 
persecuted friends suffered these oppositions with Christian meek- 
ness., at the same time in no instance sacrificing a jot or tittle of 
their faith." 

Notwithstanding all this opposition, Mr. Leonard was 
able to report on 12th July that there were " large meetings 
and an increase of enquirers among the Bengalee hearers in the 
Fort," and on 24th August Dr. Carey was able to inform Mr. 
Fuller that there, were "a goodly number who fear God in His 
Majesty's Regiment stationed in the Fort." 

Mr. Leonards record of 22nd November runs thus: 

"I went into the Fort on Friday seven-night at the usual hour 
but found our place of worship shut up by orderof Colonel M., and 
all our dear friends walking about with sad countenances. Since 
the former loss of our place of worship there was a very pleasing 
increase of hearers who appeared desirous of the Word. At our 
last meeting, I believe the number was not far short of 80." 
After detailing the cause of this interruption Mr. Leonard adds, 
'' These Christian Soldiers bore all these things with resignation 
and unanimously agreed Co assemble on the plain (Maidan) in 
future, until the Lord should provide a covering for them. The 
night was cold, but hearts warmed with love to Christ little r^arded 
this. We devoted the usual time to singing, praying and 
endeavouring to illustrate Romans 14 : 17. " The Kingdom of God 
is not meat and drink, but righteousness and peace and joy in the 
Holy Ghost." It was a happy season to us all, but even here the 
way is stopped up in future. Some one carried the matter to the 
Colonel at an early hour next mornfng and he sent a verbal order 
by the Adjutant that there should be no more Soldiers' meetings 
in any place whatever." 

On the 6th December things had not improved, as Mr. Leonard 

"The state of things in the Fort continues to wear an 



^unfavourable aspect. One of the Christian soldiers visited me 
ithis morning after having waited on Colonel M. with trembling 
heart and faltering tongue to beg permission to meet for the 
worship of God but to no purpose." 

Think of that ! Things were even worse in Madra^, for a letter 
from a Christian man of the 14th Regiment who had been traoft- 
f erred to Madras informed the Missionaries that their services 
had been interrupted and six had even been committed to the 
guard house for having met of an evening for the worship of God ! 
In the June previous the men from the Mauritius had written to 
say that they had been forbidden to assemble so they used to 
retire and in th3 open field commemorate the death of Christ ! 

On the 27th D-aoember 1811 there was a disturbance in the 
Fort among the soldiers of the 24th Regiment, but none of the 
Christian men were implicated. It would seem to have been 
about an increase of pay. 

As a result no soldiers were baptized during 1811, but in the 
early part of 1812 the Officers relented, for we read under date 
of 20th March. " The men of the 24th Ragiment were permitted 
again to attend the services." 

On the 13th September 1812, eight soldiers were baptized at 
Calcutta by Mr. Ward. They had been awakened by the preach- 
ing of thos3 who went to the Fort. 

We now come to the year 1813 during which 40 Soldiers from 
the Fort were baptized. The restrictions would seem to have been 
quite removed for in February 1813 the Missionaries record: — 

Our congregation here (Calcutta) is on the increase, especially 
from the soldiers in Fort William, about 50 of whom sometimes 
attend on the Lord's Day morning. 

On the 4th. of that month Mr. Leonard recorded : — " I was 
in the Fort about sunrise this morning when I found Brother 
Daniel's house qidte crowed at that early hour with persons 
•who appeared to be hungering and thirsting after the Word." 

On 19th March Mr. Leonard wrote: "The Fort. is now 

becoming a most pleasing place without the shadow of opposition, 

'^th a congregation of about 120 most serious hearers,.' I found 

work' among soldiers from JAN. 1810 TO DBG. 1815. 67 

examining the Church Book (which unfortunately is not extant 
the present day) yesterday that tHe number wno have joined 

B Church belonging to His Majesty's 24th Foot amounts to 30. 

ne of. whom have given the least cause of pain since they offered 

emselves to the Church." 

On 23rd April Mr. Leonard wrote : " One hundred and two 
Idiers had passes signed by their Colonal to attend at the Chapel 
jt Sabbath morning. Numbers are looking forward to joining 
e Church." 

With reference to the concluding remark it may be here 

&ntion3d that on 25th April 5 soldiers were baptized, on 27th 

ay 2, on 27th June 3, on 25th July 5, on 15th August 6, on 22iid 

ugust 6, on 31st October 3 and on 29th December 1, making 30 

On 14th May Mr. Leonard wrote: "There were 105 of 
e 24th Kegiment at the Chapel on Sabbath morning last, 
:clusive of a goodly number of wall disposed European women: 

the same Eegiment. The Artillery has arrived in Fort William 
id begin to attend. I hope the Gospsl will have its course 
nonget the lattsr for they are in a~most deplorable state." 

On 22hd June Mr. Leonard wrote: "The goodly ntimber 

54 soldiers from the 24th Regiment in the Fort have now joined 

have baen proposed to the Church and about a hundred and 
ty (and as many more as wish) are permitted to come to the 
lapel on Sabbath days." 

On the 9th January 1814 the men of tha 24th Regiment at 

irt William formed themselves into a separate Church composed 

58 members and chose 3 Pastors and 6 Deacons. Tbsse were 

I designated to their Offices by the laying on of hands on the 

me day, when Dr. Marshman and Mr. Ward addressed them 

the morning service at the Chapel on the duties of Pastoral, 

sacons and Church members. 

On th© 17th February Mr. Leonard wrote to Mr. Ward that 

e men from the Fort informed him that morning that they had 

ceived permission from the Colonel, Adjutant and Serjeant-Major 

hold their meetings as oft^n as they pleased in the publicf 

xracks and that a place \\aA accc^K^iugly been set apart for this 

work. ^Eallelujah. Frtiisie jp the Lord! 


On the 13th April he was able to write thus to Mr. 
Ward ae to the work in the Fort : 

"In fhe Fort there are meetings every morning and evening 
throughout the whole week either for prayer, preaching or con- 
Buitations upon Church concerns, i.e., religion may truly be said 
to be followed when© Satan once ruled without the 
shadow of opposition and where the vilest practices 
were carried on in the face of open day without a 
blush. Our brethren have the sanction of the Colonel, 
the Adjutant, and the Serjeant-Major, to carry on their 
meetings in the public barracks, whers, on their preaching nights, 
seldom less than three hundred hear the sound of the Gospel, many 
of whom, before this liberty was granted by their much-beloved and 
indulgent Colonel, would have shunned a place of worship as they 
would a house wherein a contagious disea^ raged. I shall ven- 
ture to add, as one who has had an active part in more sieges and 
field engagements than one, that if our Brethren, called into the 
Field with their present Commander at their head, were to see 
his life in danger they would form an imp3netrable rampart about 
him who has stood their friend in their heavenly warfare, and 
fall to a man for his preservation. May the Lord incline the 
hearts of all who are at the head of Regiments thus to favor the 
cause of God, and become instruments to help forward the salva- 
tion of the souls of those over whom they are placed. There were 
one hundred and eighty of the 24th at the Chapel last Sabbath 
evening." Think of that! 

In August 1814 it is recorded that 200, or more, of the men 
used to gather in the barriacks for meetings and that in the hot 
weather they were in undress. 

On the 25th September the first batch of men, comprising 
only two, from the 66th Regiment,, was baptized at Calcutta by 
Dr. Carey, but among them was Mr. Alexander Wedderburn, who 
became the Pastor of the Church in that Regiment when it was 
formed. In October Mr. W. Smith, a discharged soldier, was 
taken on as an itinerant. In October 1815 the 77th Regiment^ 
which had come from the Cape, returned there. 

A picture of the interior of the Fort is given on the opposite 

The redoubtabl:e Mrs. Wilson: A Hindustani woman op pluck. 

The following is what Mr. Leonard reported about her in his 

letter to Mr. Ward dated the 5th March 1811 :— 

"Our friend Mrs. W. of the Fort, who invited the mifieion- 

.ariee to preach at her house, paid a visit yestiarday with some others 

for the first time. I was greatly gratified by the zealous spirit which 

she evinced as well as by her anxiety to join the Church. She has 

hitherto waited to se3 if the Lord would bless her endeavours to 

draw her hus'band into the right way. See what a blessing this 

native woman s^ms to be to her European husband. She was, if 

I mistake not, a Hindoo before he took her as a slave of the vilest 

description. The man was Sergeant of Artillery in the late War 

under Lord Lake and had an active part in most of the bloody 

•conflicts of the time. This woman's attachment to her partner 

was so strong that she accompanied him in the heat of every battle 

and often lent him a hand when exhausted and supplied his place 

at the guns! In one of these actions Mr. W. rsoeived a musket 

ball about the temples which penetrated nearly through his skull 

carrying a part of the brass hoop on his head along with it. He 

instantly dropped down to all appearances dead. She, however, 

neither lost, her fortitude nor her affection even in that trying 

moment, when, in addition to the situation of her partner, the 

-shots were falling like hailstones about her own hsad, she took 

him upon her back with the intent of performing the last friendly 

office, that of burying him and carried him clean out of the scene 

' of action. It pleased God to restore him, and, to make the most 

grateful return he conceived himself capable of, on his recovery, 

li© made her his wife." 

The following is Krishna PaVs own account of the conversion 
of this remarkable woman under his preaching : — 

" Worship was performed at the house of Mr. Thomas Kaitan 
^or, Cytano). Mrs. Wilson used to come, but did not give her 
^d to what she heard. One day I read and preached from the 
Sth Chapter of John, about the woman taken in adultery. Mrs 
•W. had formerly lived an improper life with an European, 
^e words of our Lord to this woman ' Go and sin no more,' im- 
pressed Mrs. W. Througji this word Gk>d turned her mind and 
«he has since been baptiaed in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ.'' 


The date of her baptism cannot be traced s& not infrequently 
the record runs: "Two Hindustani women baptized," without 
any names being given. 

And now for the sequel regarding the removal of the restric- 
tions through her instrumentality. Mr. Leonard in his letter 
of 18th March 1811 wrote: 

She said " When the Europeans and natives oame to our house 
at the UBjUal hour, not doubting! but that they would 
heaar the Word from the minister whose turn it was 
to come, I informed them that all was at an end. The 
Colonel had ordered my husband to discontinue the meetings 
and, on pain of his displeasure, not to allow anything 
of the kind in future. It was of no use to remonstratd, 
the order must be complied with. This was sad news 
indeed to those who had come expecting to hear the Word 
of God, as fully appeared by the tears both of Europeans and 
natives who were particularly affected by the short interview and 
prayer with Mr. Marshman. They supposed that this would 
have been the last opportunity they would have of meeting together. 
Knowing that I was engaged in the cause of my Saviour and 
trusting to Him for success, I this morning came to the resolution 
of waiting upon the General to make known my distress. I found 
him engaged in a conversation with two Officers but my business 
was too urgent to admit of much ceremony or delay. I therefore 
begged a hearing, which the General very kindly granted and 
invited me to take a chair and come out of the heat of the sun. 
This I objected to, telling him I was the wife of a poor man, and 
therefore could not think of accepting of such an honor, and that 
neither the heat of the sun nor even being burned to death appeared 
a matter of any consequence when compared with the business 
I had come about. 

I then told him the story of the meeting at my house from 
the beginning to the present time. He asked me who preached 
there. I answered the missionaries. But (says he) you do not all 
understand English sufficiently to benefit much by their preaching. 
I told him that most of us understood a little, and that the 
discourses were very plain, and agreeable to the Scriptures, and 
besides this that we were amply blessed by being provided for even 
in case of our not understanding English, as the Bible was trans- 
lated into Bengalee, and was expounded once a week, in addition 
to English preaching twice. It pleased God to grant me favour 
in the sight of the General. He not only smiled all the time, 
bat expressed his hearty approbation of what I had narrated. 


granting full permission to continue tlie meeting, and promising 
that no one should interrupt it. I felt at a loss for words to 
express my sense of this favor. The business, however, 
was not yet finished. The Colonel knowing nothing of 
my petition, nor of the General's answer, I suggested 
the necessity of his being informed of it. This the G>&neral 
commanded me verbally to make known to him. I sub- 
mitted to him, however, whether a few lines from himself would 
not better establish what lie had so kindly granted. He then 
wrote a note requesting the company of the Colonal at Head- 
quarters. This happily completed my wishes, as I had now an 
opportunity of hearing the Coloners objections. I found these 
to be grounded on a surmise that the soldiers met to get liquor, 
and that my husband procured it for them. This I soon cleared 
up to the satisfaction of both the Greneral and the Colonel. The 
h^ter then stated another objection, much more unexpectsd than 
the first, viz., that he Rupposed the missionaries and myself received 
money. To this I answered that a house as large as that which 
I then stood in (Headquarters) with a thousand rupses a month 
would be considered of no value when compared with the news 
of salvation through a Crucified Eedeemer, which I heard preached 
in my house: — ^That my husband and myself now resided in a 
house under his control, and were receiving a salary of 
thirty rupees per month in his gift, for all which we felt 
thankful to him, but that if he were determined to shut out the 
Word of eternal life we should as freely resign his favor as we 
at first received it. After the latter of these remarks the two 
gentlemen retired and conversed a few minutes out of my hearing. 
After this they came and told me to continue the meetings, without 
the least apprehension of being interrupted in future. I then 
expressed my fear that at some distant period, if they should be 
out of the way, some other superior Officer might interrupt us, 
but both the General and the Colonel passed their word that I 
might be easy on that head, and that the late interruption was 
purely the effect of a misunderstanding." 


The Story of the Conversion of Michael Carmoody, a Soldier 
OF the 24th Regiment, as told by himself. 

The following letter was sent by Carmoody to Dr. Carey on 
the 26tli March 1812. It is taken from the Periodical Accounts 
and is given in ertenso as it would lose in force if curtailed. It 
will speak for itself: — 
Reverend Sir, 

Situated as I am in tha Army and not allowed the liberty 
of waiting upon you to speak the sentiments of my mind, I take 
the liberty of relating to you part of my past and present state 
of mind respecting Kvine things. I am descended from Roman 
Catholic parents, and was always a strict observer of the rules and 
customs of the Romish Church. On my arrival at the Cape four 
years ago, I had some conviction that I was not in the right way. 
My prayer to God at that timo was that I might be directed to 
some Roman Catholics. I did not disclose my thoughts to any 
one, but would have done so, could I have met with a Romish 
Priest, whom I very diligently sought wherever I went, but it 
would seem from thd subsequent dealings of the Lord with me, 
that He determined that I should not see any of them till I had 
been brought into the right way. I fasted every Friday, and, 
unknown to anyone, I used to go to the mountain at the Cape 
to pray that I might be directed right : and though I could not 
• read at this time (and if I had been able I durst not open the 
Bible), I continually carried in my bosom my Romish Prayer-Book, 
thinking thsre was some virtue in it. I sometimes also secretly 
travelled through the streets of Cape Town in hopes of meeting 
with a Priest and used to listen at the houses I passed, if I could 
liear any masses. Shortly after this I fell ill and was sent to the 
Hospital. I was during this illness much troubled in mind, as 
I was certain I was in an unprepared state. I therefore earnestly 
prayed that God would not take me away amongst strangers, 
where I could not obtain a friend to teach me Divine things, nor 
yet a Priest to confess to. 

The thought that the judgments of the Lord were now at 
hand with me greatly alarmed me, and I was also much dejected 
at the idea of dying in a strange land, away from my parents and 
my friends. When nearly restored to health I was distressed in 


mind at going yet further from home, and especially into a heathen 
land. After recovery I came out of Hospital, and though a 
wretched sinner seeking salvation, was overcome by the temptations 
of Satan, and fell into the inexcusable sin of drunkenness. Aft^r 
I got sober, and had considered that I had but lately experienced 
the sparing mercy of God, my convictions "Secame stronger daily : 
and I looked upon my past transgressions as ingratitude of the 
woret kind. When our regiment left tlie Cape for Bengal I was 
on board the Astell Indiaman where I experienced a fresh 
instance of the gracious dealings of the Lord. We were ordered 
to be drawn up for engagement* with the Fraach Frigates; and 
I had such horror and dread as I never felt before, — not that I 
feared to die for my King and country, but because all my open 
3ja.d secret sins were brought to my mind, and especially my recent 
fall at the Cape. I expected to be judged of God, whom I dreaded 
to meet as I was now certain I was not in the right way. But 
the Lord in His abundant goodness, delivered me from the awful 
scene of battle with only a slight wound. After the battle we 
landed at Madras, where I again searched in vain for a Romish 
Priest. It would seem, that it was ordained by the God of our 
salvation that Fort William should be the place where I should 
first hear the glad tidings of salvation, not from Priests of the 
Maas, but from the faithful ministers of the Gospel. Nothing 
more occurred worthy of remark until my arrival at Fort William 
which was in September 1810. Here I again began to search for 
a Romish Priest and happening one day to see the Bazar Serjeant's 
wife witli beads round her neck, I was greatly rejoiced in meet- 
ing at last with a Roman Catholic and felt sure a Priest could not 
be far off. I immediately went up to her, and asked her if I could 
see a Priest and she consented to send for one into the garrison. 
How she mistook a minister of the Grospel for a Priest of the Mass 
I cannot say, but instead of such a Priest as she faithfully pro- 
mised to send for, the Rev. Mr. Ward and Mr. Leonard came 
over on Friday evening. I was not able to be present on this 
occasion: but I rejoiced to hear that they intended to renew their 
"visit on the Friday following, which still left me some hope of 
meeting with a Priest of my profession. I communicated with 
a glad heart the cause of my rejoicing to a great number of my 

* This engagement took place on the Srd July -1810, when &e tliree 
Indiamen Windham. Ceylon and Astell were bringing the men of the 24th Regi- 
ment from the Cape. The Astell was the only one that escaped, the other two 
being captured by the French. It was thouglit at the time that the Astell also 
had been captured bat she mnr'e good her esca])o at night. For full details of 
this engagement see pp. 60-62 of Volume XIT of the Apiatio Annual Register 
for the year 1810-1811. 


companions in tha barracks, and especially those of the same 
religion with myself which enabled me to bring together a very 
good congregation of Koman Catholics. On our entrance we were 
very graatly struck at seeing the Rev. Mr. Marshman and Mr, 
Leonard, with a Bible lying upon the table. We knew from thia 
they were not our Priests, and my companions whom I had 
assembled began to think it was a trick of mine to maJbe them 
hear the Gospel instead of Mass for which alone we came together. 
After this meeting my Catholic friends gave me very abusive 
language for deceiving them as they thought, but bo far from that 

1 felt the disappointment more than any of them, as I had been 
earnestly seeking a Romish Priest for four years past. Another 
meeting was proposed to be held on the Friday following, and I 
was once more somehow or other induced to attend it. The 
Rev. Mr. Ward cams again, with Mr. Leonard: and the former 
discoursed on the Prodigal Son, when I was made to see myself 
a great sinner, one who had strayed from God all his life time. I 
now for the first tima felt a sincere sorrow and shame for my past 
transgressions and a desire to turn to God, through faith in His 
son J esus Christ : the more I heard of the Gospel the sweeter it 
appeared, and from this time I began to love to hear the ministers 
of the Gospel, and to dislike the Romish Priests, and I never 
before in all my life felt such sweetness in prayer as now, through 
what I heard of the truths of the Bible. Now and then my faith 
in the Gospel would be shaken, because it was contrary to the 
Romish faith to hear it, but I continually prayed to the Lord to 
teach me and to lead me in the right way, and then I felt easy. 
Mr. Ward promised to coms into the garrison on the Friday 
following, which he did, and preached from Isaiah 1:18, "Come 
let us reason together, saith the Lord, etc.'' I thought he said 
much applicable to my case, and one thing I shall ever remember, 
that persons on a bed of affliction sometimes seek much the 
mercy of the Lord : but when they recover they forget Him who 
was once so desirable and begin to sin again as they regain their 
strength. This immediately brought strong conviction to my 
mind, that I was tha very person alluded to, and that my conduct 
at the Cape was such as he had mentioned. I believe it was the 
Friday following that Mr. Chater came in, and discoursed from 

2 Cor. VI and part of the 2nd verse. " Behold now is the accepted 
time, behold, now is the day of salvation." I found great comifort 
from this discourse, and my mind began more and more to rest 
in the faith of the Gospel. Mr. Chat&r mentioned that in the 
14th and 22nd Regiments there were many serious persons, who 
when they first began to seek the Lord, could not read: but by 
practice they were soon able to examine the Word of God for 


themselvcB, he then advised hie hearers to do the same. I took 
the advice, and the next day borrowed a spelling-book and a 
Bible. On opening the Bible I was onoe more tampted to desist 
from searching the Scriptures for salvation^ but I sought the 
Lord for direction, and pursued my study: and, by the blessing 
of Crod in two months I was able to read the Word for myself. 
It is now 14 months since I first received this advice. One day, 
when I was able to read, I took up the Sacred Volume, and the 
28th chapter of Samuel fiifit opened to my sight: on reading 
it I was much struck at the conduct of Saul. T Thought I alao 
was disposed to forsake the God of heaven and earth, and take 
refuge in departed saintei and images. I had a violent . struggle 
for four days, when I was relieved by a discouTtse from Mr. Chamber- 
lain whose text was from 1 Tim. 1:15. "This is a faithful say- 
ing, and worthy of all acceptation, that Jesus Christ came into the 
world to save sinners of whom I am chief.*' This discourse, and 
the 19th chapter of St. John, removed much of my unbelief, and, 
as I found that in proportion as I read or heard the Word of God 
and prayed, my mind became more and more fixed and established 
in the true faith, I have negelcted no opportunities of doing eo. 

Mr. Leonard lately came into Fort William and expounded 
the 5th chapter of GaJatians. I was from this led to see much 
in me that did not accord with walking in the Spirit, and also 
i>o pray earnestly that the fruits of the Spirit might be shown in 
my walk and conduct. I have also derived much profit from my 
attendance at the occasional prayer meetings in the garrison, and 
public worship at the Chapel. 

Now, Reverend Sir, having stated in the best way I could the 
dealings of the Lord with me, I beg to express my earnest defin're 
to be admitted into Church-fellowship with the Church under 
your care. I do not think that either Baptism or the Lord's 
Supper are essentially necessary to salvation, but I much wish 
publicly to confess that my hope of salvation is in the Lord Jesus 
Christ alone and, though others may disregard His commands, I 
wish to obey them with a heart full of love aiid gratitude. 

I take this opportunity of returning my most grateful acknow- 
ledgments to the Baptist Society for sending the words of eternal 
life to me. May the Lord prosper all that Siey set their hand to^ 
and may millions have cause with me to rejoice to all eternity in 
the salvation of God preached to us through the means of this 

I remain, etc., 

(Sd.) Michael Carmoody. 


The Story of the Conversion of Alexander Wilson, a Soldieb 
OF THE 24th Regiment, as told by himself. 

The following is his experience which was recorded verbatim, 
as received from himself, by Mr. Leonard and communicated to 
Mr. Ward in his letter of 23rd April 1813 in the Circular Letter 
of that month. 

Some time about the middle of August I was living in a 
desperate state of wickedness, committing everything ^at waa 
^jontraxy both to the laws of God and man, particularly drunken- 
ness and profane swearing, in which I knew no man my equal 
It was in this depraved state the Lord was pleased to meet me and 
stop me in my mad career and show me my error by the following 
incident. A fellow-sinner and companion in vice proffered m© 
a small reward if I would refrain from damning my eyes and 
limbs for the space of three days (so nauseous was my conversation 
even to him), which I readily undertook to do, not thinking any- 
thing serious about it at the time, but within the abov>SnSta;ted 
time I began to reflect upon my abandoned course of life per- 
ceiving that it was hurtful even to my companions in iniquity. 
This brought conviction home so powerfully to my eoul as to alarm 
me very much as I was then in a bad state of health, and had been 
so for some time, which caused me to think that if the Lord should 
be pleased to call me hence in the state I was then in hell must 
be my portion. What to do I knew not for I had no Bible ,nor 
any other good book to read, neither money to purchase any, and, 
to go to the Brethren, or Methodists (as I was then in the practice 
of calling them) false shame preventsd me. However, I at last 
thought of a countryman of mine who had a Bible, and, knowing 
that he made little or no use of it, I begged the loan of it, when 
he immediately asked me if I was going to turn Methodist. I 
replied it was high time to turn to something or other different 
from what I was. He then gave it me, wishing I might make a 
good use of it. Having had o knowledge of the Scriptures I con- 
tinued to search them, believing from what I had heard, that 
eternal life was to be found in them ; however, finding that it was 
in and through what Jesus alone had done and suffered that I was 
to hope for it, I found myself at a great loss what to do. I found 
prayer was the only .means to draw me to Him to which I was 


as great a stranger ae any benighted soul could be. This and znan^f 
other things, such as shaking off my old companions in vice, the 
dreadful thought of death and eternal misery, added to my already 
weak state of health, brought me very low indeed, so much sa 
that I was compelled to go into the Hospital. Before I was long 
in Hospital 1 heard the Kev. Mr. Thomason preach from Rev. 
22: 22: — Behold I come quickly, etc. He enlarged much upon 
death and judgment, which alarmed me much and revived my 
convictions: he made his discourse appear in so plain a light to 
me, that I was convinced, if I died without an interest in Christ 
I must perish for ever. He then explained the plan of redemption, 
but I could not persuade myself that Christ would pardon such a 
wicked wretch as me, but hearing that all manner of sin and 
blasphemy would be forgiven those who sincerely repented and 
believed m the Lord Jesus Christ, I experienced much comfort. 
At another time I heard the Rev. Mr. Thomasou expound the 
10th Psalm, showing forth the real character of the ungodly, the 
whole of which so fully agreed with my past life that I conceived 
it all intended for me alone. This, however, cast me into a state 
of deep dejection. About this period one of the Brethren of the 
Baptist Society came into the Hospital, who succeeded in reviv- 
ing my hopes in Christ again. I now began to think of leaving 
the Hospital when a friend informed me that many schemes were 
laid in the Barracks to effect my downfall. This caused me some 
uneasiness. I sent word, however, that I hoped One would 
accompany me who would enable me to withstand all their 
temptations. There were two of my old companions whom I 
dreaded more than all the rest, but as soon as I arrived in the 
Barracks I found they were both close prisoners in the Barrack 
Guar3. However, they had a bottle of spirits ready for me an3 
put it into my hand, which the Lord enabled me to resist. From 
the length of time I had been in the Hospital I had saved a sum 
of money, and, knowing while this continued in my possession, my 
old companions would haunt me, I came to the resolution of getting 
rid of it immediately by purchasing whatever necessaries I stood 
in need of, and whatever remained I spent in the best way I could 
devise, as one means of escaping temptation. Yet they continued 
to force liquor upon me, till on my r&fusing them, they immediately 
brought before me the wickedness of my past life, which caused 
me great confusion of face knowing they were talking nothing but 
the truth. Christmas Day being a period devoted in the Barracks 
to drunkenness, swearing, fighting and every ill, proved a very 
trying day to me, for after I returned from worship in Calcutta 
to the Barracks I found the whole of the men mad with liquor. 


The moment I entered I was beset on every side by old com 
panions who would have forced liquor down my tbroat if 
possible: however^ I escaped out of the Barraclss and con- 
tinued meditating alone unHl Retreat beat, when I was 
enabled to retire in peace to rest. Since that peidod the Lord has 
enabled me to persevere to the present day and I humbly trust will 
continue His mercies to me to the end of my life. I am fully 
convinced of my own inability to withstand the least temptation, 
but He is faithful who has promised that those who trust in Him 
shall never be confounded. My only hope of salvation is buiU 
on the grace of God, through the crucified Redeemer. 

He was baptized at Calcutta by Dr. Carey along with four 
others of his Regiment on the 28th March 1813. 

These two instances must sufQce and we must hasten on to 
■other matters of interest of another sort. 


• The general work carried on between January 1810 
AND December 1815. 

It has been stated in Chapter X that practically half the entire 
inber admitted between 1800 and 1825 wera admitted within 
2se six years, viz., 322 out of 660, and that of them 87 were soldiers 
)m five regiments which had been stationed at Calcutta within 
At period, so that 338 members have yet to be accounted for. 
lis it is not proposed to do in detail in regard to numbers, but 
a general way. Some may ask who were these 338 and how 
yre they convsrted and led to accept Baptist principles? 

By the end of 1809 the names of nearly 200 persons were on 
le Church Roll, most of whom resided in Calcutta. The Mission- 
-ies felt that they could not do justice to legitimate pastoral 
ities as they were fully occupied themselves and were extending 
le operations of the Mission, so in October 1809 they had to call 
it two of the resident members as Deacons, viz., Mr. Adam Gordon 
id Mr. Owen Leonard to assist them in the ovsrsight of the 
lembers. Mr. Leonard, too, had other work put on him as being 
le most suitable man for it from March 1810 whan he was appoint- 
i one of the Teachers of their Charity School (Benevolent Institu- 
on). Having been in the Army he instinctively took a deep interest 
L the work among the soldiers in the Fort, so that it would have 
een as well if more Deacons had been appointed which would 
ave been necessary had not Mr. Leonard been a host in himself. 

On 26th March 1810 the Missionaries in their Quarterly Letter 
> the Society wrote thus: — 

" At Calcutta more than 20 are now inquiring after the good 
ray, nor is this confined to one nation or name — English, Portu- 
aese and Bengalee, Protestants and Catholics, Hindoos and 
iussalmans, all seem to share the blessings of salvation." 

On the 29th March there were some baptisms by Dr. Carey 


at Calcutta *' before a crowded congregation. Many went away, 
because they could not get seats.*' 

A programme of the work carried on at Calcutta is given in 
the Circular Letter of April 1810 which runs thus: — 

" On the Sabbath Day at the Chapel, besides a morning prayer- 
uieeting (which isj thronged) there is preaching at 8 in Bengalee^ at 
11 in English, at 4 agpin in Bengalee, and at 6 and again at 8 in 
English — ths- latter sermon by Mr. Forsyth. We also preach 
every Sabbath at the Jail. Besides the monthly prayer-meeting, 
on other Monday evenings, there isi a prayer meeting at the Chapel^ 
on Tuesday evening preaching in Bengalee at 6, then an ex{>arience 
meeting, and then the conference. On Wednesday, preaching 
in Bengalee at 4, and English by Brother Carey at half past seven 
Brother Carey has meetings at his house for conversation with 
enquirers on Thursday evenings, and on the same evening, rather 
later, Brother Leonard holds a prayer meeting at tha school. On 
Friday evenings our friends have two prayer meetings in different 
parts of Calcutta, and on Saturdays at Mr. Lindeman's." 

This programme was obviously more than the three Mission- 
aries oould carry out in addition to all their duties at Serampore. 
They wanted to draw out the latent gifts of the members of the 
Church which comes out in the following remark made by Dr. 
Marshman in a letter to Dr. Ryland, dated 30th May 1810 : 

"We inculcate perpetually on the Church at Calcutta that 
God has converted them, not merely to take them to 
heaven, but for the sake of their heathen and Mahomedan 
neighbours, and, — if their business in life prevents their 
going out into the country, — to support, as far as they 
are able, such brethren as God may stir up among them 
to devote themselves wholly to the work. Indeed they 
do it to the utmost of their ability though they are in general 
a poor people. Yet the congregation raises for interest on their 
delDt, for lighting, for itinerant brethren, etc., little less than 
Rs. 300 a month. This, however, they can do as their Pastors put 
them to no expense, not even for their journies, and, I hope, never 
will, till Hindustan is filled with the Gospel. We also add what- 
ever we can spare from our labors, beyond our own support and 
the translations, to the Church Fund for sending out the Gospel." 

This extract is rather long, but it explains how the Mission- 
aries were able to draw forth the best talent in the 
Church. Still, the Missionaries set the members a living 


example of hard work as will be seen from the following extract 
from Mr. MaBshman'3 book. "Of the exltraordinary pereonal 
labors of Mr. Ward, even at the most oppressive season of the year, 
we have a description in his Journal of the 17th of June (1810). 
In the morning he received two soldiers into the Church on their 
confession of faith, and then preached to a large English congre- 
gation in the Bow Bazar Chapel, and subsequently held a meeting 
in the Vestry to catechise as many children as could be accommo- 
dated there. He then went to the house of an enquirer and pro- 
ceeded from thenoe to the gr^at Jail, a distance of three miles, and 
preached to the prisoners, firat in English and then in Bengalee and 
held a religious serviod with three soldiers in the Hospital . After dusk 
he went into the Fort and addressed a congregation of soldiers in 
a close and suffocating room. In the evening he met a number of 
friends at the house of one of the members of the Church and 
passed an hour in social and religious conversation, closing the 
labors of the day at ten with devotional exercises. The only remark 
he makes on exertions which appear too severe for any European 
constitution in a tropical climate is " Preaching in black clothes 
in thifik climate is a sad burden. My clothes have been saturated 
with perspiration three limes to-day and the very papers in my 
pocket are dyed black. Thus you see, the heat of the climate 
does not prevent a hard day's work." 

After this, some such entries as these occur. Dr. Carey bap- 
tized — in the presenoei of a large congregation, or, Mr. Ward bap- 
tized — before a crowded congregation. 

On the 24th October 1810 Dr. Carey was able to write to Dr. 
Ryland: "Last Tuesday evening I had 20 persons with me, all 
of them being desirous of being admitted into the Church. Two 
others who are likeminded were absent. This is very encouraging. 
Indeed, the Lord is doing great things for Calcutta, not merely 
by us, but by others of his servants. Thoiigh infidelity abounds, 
yet religion is the theme of conversation or mspute in almost every 

During the year 1810 three promising young men had been 
sent out from this Church into the Mission field, viz, : — 
Mr. C. B. Cornish, 
Mr. H. Peacock, 
Mr. A. Petruse, 

but xK)ne were sent out in 1811. 



On the 29th December 1810 six persons were baptised of 
whom it is said they were converted throngb the Bengalee preach- 
ing. In January 1811 in their raview for the preceding year the 
Missionaries state that Calcutta had become the principal scene of 
labor, and that it was there that the greatest increase had 
been experienced and that the prospects of good were very 
gi^at. On 1st February Mr. Leonard wrote to Mr. Ward: 
" Appearances continue very gratifying and promise an abundant 
harvest,'* and he was not mistaken ; for on 31st March there were 
four baptisms, on 30th April 7, on 26th May 2, on 30th June 6, 
on 28th July 6, on 25th August 5, on 29th September 6, and on 
27th October 7, and none of these were soldiers, as it has beeo 
already stated in Chapter X that no soldiers were baptized in 

The contagion for meetings spread, for on 5th March it is 
recorded : " The Boys of the Benevolent Institution have estab- 
lished prayer meetings among themselves without the knowledge 
of their Teachers.' 

On 29th May Dr. Carey wrote to Dr. Ryland : " We have every 
month some additions to ths Church at Calcutta. I expect to 
baptize this next Lord's Day (which he did), and six are proposed 
for the next month (six were baptized in June). About 20 others 
appear under hopeful, impression. (Some 24 were actually 
baptia&ed). We preach every week in the Fort and in the public 
prison in English and Bengalee." 

On 1st September Dr. Marsbman wrote to Mr. Fuller: "Among 
the young members in the Church at Calcutta there are five or 
six who are learning the Bengalee and Hindee characters that 
they may read the Word of God to their heathen servants and 
neighbours, and even the Darwan of the Chapel, a Native Chris- 
tian from Jessore, who is well acquainted with the Scriptures 
which lie reads incessantly, having much leisure, improves it in 
communicating Divine Knowledge to enquirers." Several young 
men were drawn out such as De Bruyn, Thompson and N. Kerr. 

In March 1812 Messrs. Leonard and Thompson were called 
to the Ministry. 

In April 1812 it is recorded: "Work was started by Mr. 

Thompson at Barrackpore. Several ^persons of the Begimiental 


Band ware desiroua of religious instruction, and one person having 
promised the use of his house, the MiesionarieB used to go over 
early every Lord's Day moming. Between 20 and 30 sepoys 
were encouraged by an officer to read the Hindi Testament, but 
the Missionaries wera not allowed access to the men." 

On the 25th April Mr. Thompson was set apart for the work 
of God at Patna by prayer and the laying on of hands. Dr. 
Marshman introduced the service Dr. Gaa^ey offered up the ordina- 
tion prayer and Mr. Ward delivei^ed a short address from Col. 4:17. 
In May Mr. D'0ru2, who had been a teacher in the Benevolent 
under Mr. Leonard, waa sent to occupy Goamalty and Mr. De 
Bruyn was sent to Chittagong. Mr. Mackintosh was another 
member said he was sent up to Agra. 

In June the brig Caravan arrived from America with Dr. 
Judson and Mr. Newell with their wives, an event which was 
fraught with peculiar significance to the Church, giving it a name 
far and wide in America. 

During the course of June Dum-Dum began to be 
visited by Sebuk Ram, and on the 14th of that month, the Rev. 
David Brown, of the Mission Church, one of the etaunchest friends 
of the Missionaries, died and was buried in the South Park Street 

On the 10th August Messrs. Lawson and Johns arrived in 
the Harmony, This event also bears on the history of the Church. 

On the 6th September Dr. and Mrs. Judson were baptized 
in the Chapel by Mr. Ward. There is a tradition that Dr. Carey 
preached the sermon at the evening service, but no evidence can 
be traced confirming this. On the 27th September Dr. Judson 
pr-eached his great sermon on Christian Baptism and Dr. Carey 
baptized 6 candidates. 

On the 25tb October Bev. Luther Rice, one of the American 
Missdcinaries, who came in the Harmony y informed Dr. Carey 
that he had made up his mind to be baptized and in acoordanoe 


with that request wae duly baptized by Mr. Ward on 1st November. 
This interesting event had far-reaching results. 

Towards the end of this year Government began persecuting 
the Missionaries who had recently arrived, as. they had no licensds 
and succeeded in driving most of them away. Mr. Lawson was 
allowed to remain to complete Chinese punches and types and Mr. 
May because he had an English Congregation. 

Before the year 1812 had closed Messrs. Mackintosh and W. 
Thomas, members of the Church, had been sent out as Missionaries. 

Sebuk Ram was stationed in Calcutta for Bengalee work, 
and the details given in his journals show how many services he 
used to conduct in the week. He was quite as indefatigable in 
his labors as Krishna Pal had been. 

On the 27th December 1812 a sea Captain, named John Miliar 
was baptized. He had caught the contagion in regard to work 
for the oonv-afrsion of the heathen, for, we read that although he 
was 68 years of age yet he had such a great wish to go out as a 
Missionary among them that in spite of his age and infirmities he 
began learning Bengalee. The good old man died, however, on 
13th Augus^t 1814. 

In February 1813 preaching was commenced at Achanak. 

On the 7th of that month Dr. Marshman wrote to Dr. Byland: 

" All the brfethren at Calcutta are endeavouring in one way or 
another to recommend the Grospel to those around them, ^lis 
I esteem a precious token for good." 

It was stated in November 1813 that five Native Freachen 
were employed in Calcutta, and in December that the indefatiable 
labors of Mr. Leonard were crowned with, much success. 

In January 18-14 Mr. Jabez Carey was set apart for his work in 
Amboyna, and in February Messrs. Eeily and Albert were sent 
to Batavia to assist Mr. W. Eobinson. 

On the 13th April Mr. Leonard reported to Mr. Ward 
on the work in Calcutta as below: — 

I embrace an opportunity of sending a short account of the 


present state of the good cause in and about Calcutta. We have 
Doteetings every night in the w-eek (Saturday excepted) for those 
who understand English, but as our private meetings have been 
altered sinc^ I wrote to you last, it may not be superfluous to 
particularize the meetings of each night. The meeting on Monday 
tiight is held in the Vestry, which is frequently pretty well 
attended. On Tuesday night Mr. Carey conducts the conference 
in the Chapel as usual and preaches on Wednesday evening to a 
pretty full congregation, which has much increased during the 
last month. On Thursday, he receives enquirers and gives advice 
bo any member who wishes to call upon him, and I am happy to 
Inform you that a goodly number of both descriptions were to be 
seen at his house last Tnursday. 

Hitherto the Thursday night prayer meeting has been held at my 
bouse, but the brethren and sisters (at least B,uch as have houses 
suited for the accommodation of a pretty large party) requested to 
have it in rotation at their own houses. We have therefore fixed upon 
the five following houses, namely, Brother Ward's (of the Gleneral 
Hospital), Sister Andrews (who has a very large family and other 
Donnections), Mr. and Sister Gatton's, Sir. Scott's, and my place. 
We are pretty well divided through the city, therefore are favourel 
with pleasing opportunities to invite a friend or neighbour to 
spend an hour or so with us after tea and the busy scenes of the 
day. On Friday nights we meet at Brother Gordon's and on 
Saturday nights I go into the Fort. The meetings at Gatton's, 
Andrews's and Gordon's are the best attended, as they have not 
jnly the most extensive acquaintances, but are also the most 
Active in winning parsons over to join them in these moments set 
a.part for social worship and religious converse. Sister Gatton 
collected a party at her lasi meeting which amounted to between 
10 and 50, among whom I obsarved a number of strange faces. 
There is another meeting established on Friday nights for the 
accommodation of our brethren and friends wno reside at the 
Bast end of the city, as it proves very inconvenient to them to 
join constantly, the distance being very considerable. 

The labors of the native preachers are indefatigable. It 
would take a whole day to do justice to a week's work of these 
men. Sebuk Ram preaches in twenty different places during the 
week, some of which are seven miles distant. He crosses and re- 
crosses the river every day. Bhagvat preaches at eleven in and about 
the town. Naeloo at about ten, and Manik at six. The Brethren 
Jahans, Cathan and Petruse speak occasionally in other 
ijuarters of the city. The first four Brethren preach regularly 
luring the weak in forty-seven different houses, and are invited 


to many more, but their time doea not admit of their acceptiiig 
thoee invitations. 

To take a general view of CaJoutta at the prsisent day, and loc^ 
back merely at the short period of two yeais, who can help 
wondering at the vast progress which the Qoepel has made amongst 
all ranks from the very highest to the loweat orders. It is no 
novelty now to see a Bible upon a European's table, or for a Hindoo 
or Mussulman to read and admire that blessed Book, or for the 
praises of God to be sung and the voice of prayer to be heard in 
the families of the great." 

In October a number of friends presented Sebuk Ram with 
£10-15-0 as a testimonial of his unwearied labors. 

In January 1815 the congregation at the Chapel was stated 
to ba between 200 and 300. 

In September 1815 Mr. Lawson removed from Serampore 
to Calcutta and took up tbe English work of the Church, reporting 
from time to time to the Serampor>3 Missionaries the state of woA 
in place of Mr. Leonard who was about to remove to Dacca. The 
work seemed to Mr. Lawson to be very encouraging. Mr. Eustaoe 
Carey also removed to Calcutta and took up vernacular woi^. 

In the same month the Serampore Miserionaries observed in 
a letter: — 

"Our Brethren Lawson and Eustace Carey have chosen 
Calcutta as the scene of their future labors, and we hope they 
will be made a blessing to this large city. Brother Lawson went 
to Calcutta to obtain medical aid for his eldest daughter, and was 
detained there several months, during which time^ from a number 
of unforeseen and unexpected events, he perceived such an opening 
for labor that he was induced to accept the Co-Pastorship with 
Brother Eustace Carey and the three elder Brethren." 

Extracted from Vol, VI. of the Periodical Accounts, 

During the course of this month (October 1815) Brother Law- 
son has favoured us with the following remarks, which may ser^ 
to illustrate the state of religion among the members at Calcutta 
who now have a meeting every night in the week in some part of 
the city. 

15th October. — "Monday night there were more at the prayer 
meeting than I have seen before, although it had not been announc- 
ed from the pulpit on Sabbath Day. Tuesday evening was so 
unfavourabK^ as it respects the weather, that*^ many oonld not 


Attend. Last er^iing, at tlie Fort, I preached to above two hun- 
dred soldiers besides others; a great many stood on the outside. 
ToHlay the soldieiB are going to petition for a place to themselves. 
Iliirty of them want Bippon's hymn boc^: I have about two 
doien. Please send down some more, and I will send them 
to the Fort, or carry them the next time I go. Last night there 
wae a very ftdl meating aJt Eustace Carey s. It seem^ that nearly 
all the church was there. 

"Last night Eustace and I went together into the Fort. I 
suppose about one hundred and fifty attended. I preached from 
'Be sober. Be vigilant, etc.' Some of the brethren of the 24th 
Begiment have arrived as invalids. They attended worship last 
evening. This morning we had a pretty good congregation at the 
chapel, and about forty or fifty frcwi the Fort were there. 

"I hardly know what to communicate thiii time respecting 
our labour. Tuesday evening I understand the members were 
very unanimous in the business which was then transacted. The 
next day we had a deputation frcwi the Church, communicating 
their wishes to us. We accepted of their proposal by word of 
mofuih, for I supposed the ceremony of a formal letter was unneces- 

"Wednesday evening, I understand, the meeting at Eustace's 
was not quite so full as before. But I think a place is full enough 
whan there k no more room to sit down, which was then the case. 
At the Fort I had a large congregation at Brother Daniel's. They 
wpeaik. in the highest terms of Brother Trowt. I think they are 
a very pious body of men. 

"One drcumstance has particularly pleased me since my 
residence in Calcutta: I have found, from enquiry, that three of 
our young people have for a long time past been in the habit of 
eazTjing on family worship alternately with their parents. This 
oiglit we are to have a prayer meeting with these young people and 
any who like to attend in the vestry. We had no sooner planned 
and mentioned it than it was highly approved. It will be our 
constant aideavonr to lead the young by the hand. To be enabled 
to do tUs the better we widi to collect a number of good plain 
infceroating books, which we shall form into a 'Library for the 
Toang.' We doubt not you will assist us in this. 
"TjmA Sabbath evening at the Chapel we had a better congre- 
gation than I have seen lately. I had some conversation with a 
yoimg man, who related to me his experience, and whose character 
aeems to be very hc^^eful. 

*I muattdl jofi a little more oonceming what we are doing. 
lAst Friday evening I had a pretty good congregation at the Jail. 


After worship wae over, I proposed to Brother Gordon and others, 
while we ware talking that if every Friday evening preceding the 
Ordinance Sabbath were devoted to particular prayer, it might 
be the means of solemnizing our minds. They were convinced d 
the propriety of such a plan, and we shall act upon it. If any 
address be given, it will bear particularly upon the subject. 
Saturday evening the vestry room was nearly full. Sabbath morn- 
ing I went to the Jail to preach, and had a considerable number 
to hear. They arc building a very handsome place of worship 
there.* In the evening I preached to the soldiers in the Fort. 
The Colonel has given them a better place of worship than th&y 
have ever had before. It is spacious and airy, but still so crowded 
that many stand without. Our brethren tall us that the Colonel 
sent his compliments to the Missionaries and requested them to 
come to the Fort every Sabbath morning to preach a sermon to the 
soldiers, as it would prevent them from walking out in the heat 
of the sun. To-day I have sold all the hymn books in my posses- 
sion, and should ba very glad if you would send down more. The 
soldiers want to form a little library amongst themselves, which 
may be very useful to them : they have collected about one hundred 
rupees, and if you have any books at Serampore that would suit 
them, they would be glad to purchase them." 

Extracted from Vol. VI, of the Periodical Accounts. 

The following is a letter from the brethren of the 72nd Eegi- 
ment to Brother Lawson on their departure from Fort William: — 

Fort William, 4th November 1815. 

"Reverend Sir, — We with grateful hearts return you thanks 
for the many blessed sermons that we have heard from you and 
your brethren of the Mission in this place. We are led to believe 
that your ministry has done much good among us ; it has been the 
means, through the influence of the Spirit, of convincing some of 
the hardened sinners of this regiment of the necessity of coming 
to Christ for salvation and of building up and comforting those who 
have already embraced the glorious Gospel of our dear Redeemer. 

"Now our humble prayers are that the Lord, the King and 
Head of His Church, may grant that, while you are employed in 
His service, you may have the comfort of His Holy Spirit and 
heavenly grace; that you may have the peace of Grod that passeth 
all understanding, keeping your hearts and minds through Christ 


* No further information can be traced about this handsome place of 
worship. . . 


Jesus; that you and the brethren of the Mission may have great 
succeGiB among the Heathen in this country ; that the Lord may add 
daily to His Church such as shall be eternally saved and that the 
time may soon come, when ths knowledge of the Lord shall cover 
the earth as the watdrs cover the great deep; when all nations, 
kindreds, and tongues, shall join in one universal song of praise^ 
to the Lamb that sits on the throne, and crown him Lord of all. 

" Now since it hath pleased the Lord, of his infinite wisdom 
and providence, to call us once more to see his marvellous^ works 
in the great deep, we sand this to you, as a small tribute of our 
gratitude for your labour among us since we came to this place, 
and may the Lord reward you an hundredfold in this life, and 
give you a crown of righteousness in that day, when they that turn 
many to righteousness shall shine as the stars for ever and ever. 

" Signed in the name and on behalf of the Church in the 
72nd Kegiment, 

(Sd.) David Long, Elder." 

Extracted from Vol. VI. of the Periodical Accounts. 

5th November 1815. — On the last Sabbath in this mouth,- 
Susanna Mayo, Benjamin Holland and Hugh Kiely of the 29tb 
Kegim&nt, quartered in Fort William, were received into the 
Church at Calcutta by Mr. Lawson. He has, at different times, 
communicated the state of things at Calcutta as follows: — "Last 
evening and this morning, I preached in the Fort to a pretty good 
number of soldiers ; but the place is naked now, our Cape brethren 
have departed. The brethren told me, last night, that every 
Sabbath morning at six o'clock the whole regiment is drawn up 
into a square, and divine worship performed according to the rule 
of the Church of England; and they suppose this regulation to 
have proceeded from the desire which many manifested to attend 
the means of grace in Calcutta. 

"Our missionary prayer meeting was pretty well attended 
last Monday evening. Last evening but few attended th^ lecture 
at the Chapel. This evening, Eustace's room was but about half 
full: Eustace preached at the Fort; the congregation increases 
there. We have to mourn that our Calcutta meetings rather 
decline; but we do not despond. We see more than evef that 
all our help must come from Grod. It is ours to labour, and His 
to bless. 

" I have no particular news to communicate this week. I . 
hope, and believe, that there is a little revival amoijg jouv people. 


.'Several new faces I occasionally see at our different meetings. Last 
Monday the vestry rooms were well filled, and some sat in Chapel. 
Last evening Mrs. Andrews' room was very well attended indeed. 
Threa blind men were there, who had travelled a good distance 
to come among us. I see them very regular in their attendance 
at the Chapel. Our brethren in th© Fort are going on very well." 

"15th December. — Brother Lawson says: — ^We are very low 
when we consider th& state of things at Calcutta, where some 
members have walked irregularly for want of more constant in- 
spection; but I hope we shall be able to labour unremittingly. 
There is comfort in trying to advance tfie cause of our Redeemer 
even though our attempts should prove unsuccessful. We are 
gratified to see new facas occasionally at our meetings." 

Here tlie narrative for this period must close and the account 
•of the co-pastorship of Revs. John Lawson and Eustace Carey witii 
:the three Elder Brethren (eft for another chapter. 

1 Rev. Dr. Adonibam and Mrs. Ann Hasseltene Judson. 
F IB not intended to give a detailed biographical acoount of 
•f th^se remarkable aervante of God as that would swell out 
arrative to an inordinate length. But as we are most con- 
l with the incidents relating to their change of sentiment 
ard to the Ordinance of Baptism, prominence will be given to 
Dr. Judson 's baptism being a theme of great interest to all 
lean Baptists who visit Calcutta. 

Portrait of the Rev. Dr. Jxtdson at the aoe of 28. 
?y kind 'permusion of the American Baptist Missionary Union,) 
hey were both American. He was born on 9th August 
aind she on 22nd December 1789 so that there was not any 
disparity in age between them, and they were both from the 
of Massachusetts. The Doctor graduated at Brown Univer- 
1 1807 and in the latter part of 1808 was admitted into the 
ary at Andover. Mrs. Judson was educated at the Academy 
adford. The latter, early in her religious life, showed her 
to be useful to others by engaging herself in the occupation 
tructing a school in New England impelled mainly by that 

She was afterwards engaged for several years in teaching 

lools in Salem, Haverhill and Newbury. Dr. Judson during 

last year of his residence in the Andover Seminary 

in 1810) met with the Rev. Claudius Buchanan's 



0erzuon entitled "the Star in the East." This first led 
his thoughts to Eastern Missions and hd was deeply impressed with 
the importance of making some attempt to rescue the perishing 
millions of the East, so in February 1810, he resolved to be a 
Missionary. He now imbibed largely that spirit which had 
for several years been glowing in the breasts of Nott, Hall, Mills, 
Eichards, and Eice. There being no Missionary Society in 

Portrait or Mrs. Ann H. Jxjdson, who was baptized in thb Chapel with 

Dr. Jtjdson. 

America to which they could look for assistance and direction. 
Judson wrote in April 1810 to the Directors of the London Mission- 
ary Society, explaining his views, and requesting infoamation on 
the subject of Missions. He received a most encouraging reply, 
and an invitation to visit England to obtain in person the neces- 
sary information. These students while in the Goll^e had formed 
a Missionary Society and they were accustomed to meet together 
at night beneath a haystack near the College grounds. On the 27th 
June they addressed the Association of Congregational Churches 
at Bradford and the letter is signed by Judson, Nott, Mills and 


Newell the names of Luther Rice and Eichards being struck out 
for fear of alarming the Association with too large a number of 

Dr. Judson sailed for England on 11th January 1811 in the 
English ship Packet which was captured on the way by a French 
Privateer and was subjected to imprisonment and compulsory 
detention in France. He reached London on the 6th of May 
and the Directors of the London Mission give him a most courteous 
and affectionate greeting, but the joint conduct of the Mission 
did not seem practicable to them. They were willing to receive 
and support Judson and his associates as their own missionaries, 
but did not feel ddsposed to admit the American Board to a parti- 
cipation with them in the direction of the work. On the 18th 
June he embarked at Graveeend for New York which he reached 
on 27th August, from which it will be seen that he was scarcely 
six weeks in England. 

On the 18th Septembsr the American Board of Commis- 
sionei^ for Foreign Missions met at Worcester, Massachusetts and ' 
advised him and his associates not to place themselves at present 
under the direction of the London Missionary Society. It was 
aJso voted that: 

" Messrs. Adoniram Judson, Jr. (his father s name was 
also Adoaiiimn Judson), Samuel Nott, Jr., Samuel Newell, and 
Gordon Hall be appointed missionaries to labour under the direc- 
tion of this Beard in Asia, either in the Burman Empire, etc." 
Thus was Judson's way opened to realize his ardent desire to 
become a missionary to the heathen. During the sessions of the 
Association, Judson met Miss Ann Hasseltine, as the ministers used 
to meet for dinner under her father's hospitable roof. Sha was 
the youngest daughter but Dr. Judson proposed to her to 
accompany him in his miscobnary enterprise. She had no example 
to guide her and all her advisers discouraged her, but she over- 
came an obstacles and decided to go, so they were married on 
5th February 1812 at Bradford. 

The Gazette, a Salem Newspaper, for January 31st, 1812, 
contained a Notace of a Missionary Ordination to beheld on the 6th 



February, which was signed by Banmel Worcester, tbe first Secre- 
tary of the American Board. It stated that Adoniram Judaotir 
and the others^ are to be : 

"' Set apart by fioleinji Ordinance as Christian Misaionarries 
bo carry the Gospel of Salvation to the Heathen, The 
public <?xei-cise3 are to be hoi den at the Tabernacle in the 
town and to commence at 11 o'clock A.M. A collection mil 
he made on the occasion in aid of ths Mission, which, to embrace 
a very unexpected opportunity for oonvsyance to India, is bow 
fitting out with all possible dispatch/' 

The ordination duly came off on the 6th February when the 
Eevs. Drs. Spring, "Worcester, Woods, Morse and Griffin took part 
in the service laying hands on Messrs* Judson, Newell, Nott, Gordon 
Hall and Luther Rioe B& shown in the picture h€low : 

Thk Oboinatjon Sbevick of THji FiYhi MissiONAftiESi Jtjbsoit, Nhwbll, 

NuTT, Gordon Rall .wn> Rice. 

iBy hind jjermiwdmi of the. American BaptUt MUsionary Unitm,) 


The brief raport in the Gazette merely said : *' The audience:^ 
was crowded, the performancds solemn and impressive and the con 
tribution in aid of the mission munificent/' viz., 221 dollars. 
Dr. Grifi&n offered the introductory prayer, Dr. Woods preached 
the sermon. Dr. Morse offered the consecrating prayer, Dr. Spring 
gave the charge, and Dr. Worcester gave the right hand of fellow- 

On the 19th February 1812 Dr. and Mrs. Judson and Mr. 
and Mic^. Newell sailed from Salem in the Brig Caravan (Captaia 
Heard) bound for Calcutta, regarding which the following notice 
appeared in the Gazette: ''On Tuesday last sailed from 
this port the Brig Caravan, Heard, for Calcutta. Passengers 
Rev. Messrs. Adoniram Judson and Samuel Newell, Missionaries 
to India^ with their ladies:'' A picture is given below of the 
Uaravan for the double reason tbat it was the sister ship to the 

Sketch of the Bmg "Cahavan" in which Db. and Mrs. Judson ant> 

Mb. and Mrs. Newell came out to India in 1812. 

(By kind permission of the American Baptist Missionary Union,\ 


Harmony which belonged to the same owner, Mr. Eobert 
Ralston, of Philadelphia, and which carried Messrs. Nott, Hall 
and Kice, in addition to Messrs. Lawson and Johns, B. May and 
Miss Green. 

We now come to the crucial period in the lives of this remark- 
able couple, viz., the change in their sentiments on the subject 
of baptism. The facts may be thus summarized from tbe letters 
of Mrs. Judson. The examination of the subject began on the 
Caravan whila taking the long voyage from America to India. 
Before embarking Dr. Judson had commenced a translation of 
the New Testament and continued it during the voyage. 
While so translating he used frequently to say to Mrs. 
Judson that the Baptists were right in their mode of administer- 
ing the Ordinance. He had many doubts respecting the meaning 
of the word Baptism. This, with the idea of meeting the Baptists 
at Serampore ,when he would wish to defend his own sentimentfi, 
induced a more thorough examination of the foundation of the 
Paedobaptist system. The more he examinad the more his doubts 
increased, and, unwilling as he was to admit it, he was afraid the 
Baptists were right and he wrong . After they had arrived in Calcutta 
ion the 18th June, the very date on which President Madison, 
of the United States, declared war against Great Britain, his 
attention was turned for about two or three- weeks from the subject 
of Baptism to the concerns of the Mission and the difficulties with 
JGU>vernment. But as his mind was still uneasy he a^ain renewed 
the subject. Mrs. Judson was afraid he would become a Baptist 
so she frequently urged the unhappy consequeiices if lie shoxdd, 
but he replied that duty compelled him to satisfy hie own mind 
and embrace those sentiments which appeared most concordant 
with Scripture. She always took the Paedobaptisjb side in reason- 
ing with him even after she was as doubtful of the truth, of tbeir 
system as he was. She tried to get him to give up the enquiry 
and re§jb satisfied in his old sentiments and frequently told Wm 
that if he became a Baptist she would not. He, however, replied 


that he felt it his duty to examine closely a subject on which he 
had so many doubts. All this occurred during the period of their 
residence in Serampore in June and July 1812. About a week or two 
before the arrival of their fellow-laborers in the Harmony, they left 
Serampore and came to live in Calcutta and put up in the house 
of Mr. Holt, the Architect of the Chapel, and as they had nothing 
particular to occupy their attention they confined it exclusively to 
the subject of Baptism. They found in the library in their room 
many books on both sidcBi which Dr. Judson detarmined to read 
candidly and prayerfully and to hold fast or embrace the truth, 
however mortifying or however great the sacrifice. Mrs. Judson 
now commenced reading on the subject with all h^r prejudices on 
the Paedobaptist side. They had with them Dr. Worcester's, 
Dr. Austin's, Peter Edwards' and other Paedobaptist writings 
They procured the best authors on both sides, compared them with 
the Scriptures, examined and re-examined the sentiments of 
Baptists and Paedobaptists and were finally compelled from a con- 
viction of truth to embrace the former after closely examining the 
subj-ect for several weeks and constrained to acknowledge 
that the truth appeared to lie on the side of the Baptists. 
It was exceedingly trying to reflect on the consequence of their 
becoming Baptists. The most painful circumstance attending the 
change was the separation which must necessarily take 
place between them and thedr missionary associates and 
their Christian friends in America. Thsy knew that 
they might find themselves without food in a heatEen 
land, for how could the Baptists of America who were 
feeble, scattered and despised undertake to support an expensive 
mission in distant India. Such things wera very trying to them 
and caused their hearts to bleed for anguish, but Dr. Judson's 
character was of too positive a kind to afiPect a compromise between 
conviction and action. 

As a consequence, on the 27th August 1812, he wrote the follow- 
ing fetter which is taken in extenso from the Circular Letter of 
September 1812:— 



Calcutta, 27th August, 1812. 

To— The Rev. Messrs. Carey, Marshman and Ward. 

Sirs, — As you have been ignorant of my late exercises of mind 
on the subject of Baptifni this communication may occasion you 
some surprise. 

It is now about four months since I took the subject of Bap- 
tism into serious and prayerful consideration. My enquiries com- 
menced during my voyage from America, and, after much painful 
trial, which I will not now detail, have issued in the entire con- 
viction, that the immersion of professing believers is the only 
Christian Baptism. 

In these exi^rcises of mind I have not been alone : Mrs. Judeon 
has been engaged in a similar examination and has come to the 
same conclusion. Feeling, therefora, that we are in an un baptized 
state, we wish to profess our faith in Christ by being baptized in 
obedience to His commands. 

(Sd.) A. JuDSON. 

On tlie 31st August 1812 he sent a copy of the above letter to 
Dr. Baldwin, an influential Baptist Minister at Boston under 
cover, of a few liiici exprc^.'Hing his grateful acknowledgmsnts to him 
for the advantage he had derived from his publications on Baptism. 

Th:n lie wrote tn the American Board sending them a ccpyof 
the above letter to Dr. Carey informing them that ha ceased 
to be their missionary. He sent a further letter on 1st September 
to Dr. Baldwin announcing his change of views on this subject 
and added : " Should there be formed a Baptist Society 
for tha support of a mission in these parts, / shall be ready to con- 
sider mifsdlf their Missionarj/," and enclosed in it a letter from 
Dr. Marshman urging the Baptist Ministers to- move in the matter. 

On 1st September 1812, Dr. Judson wrote to Dr. Bolles, of 
Salem, reminding him of a short interview he had had with him 
in Salem at which he had suggested tha formation of a Society 
among th^ Baptists of America for the support of foreign missions 
in imitation of the exertions of the English and informing- him 
that he expi^cted to be baptized next Lord's Day. 

AcGOtdingly, on the 6th September 1812, Dr. and Mrs. Judson 


were baptized in thia Chapel by Mr. Ward, the record regarding 
which runs thus in the Circular Letter of September 1812 : — 

On the 6th instant were baptized at Calcutta, by Brother 
Ward, the Bev. Adoniram Judson and Mrs. Judson. Dr. Judson 
was sent out as a Missionary by the American Board of Commis- 
sioners for Foreign Missions formed from Congregational Churches 
in the States of New England, and a few days before his baptism 
sent us the following note : — 

(Here follows the letter of 27th August 1812.) 

Brother Judson is at present under agreement with Govern- 
ment to proceed to the Isle of France. 

On the 20th October 1812, Dr. Carey wrote to the Rev. John 
Williams in detail about the baptism of Dr. and Mrs. Judson 
a-nd about Mr. Rice thinking closely on the subject. A copy of 
this lett&r which, is taken from the " Unpublished Serampore 
letters: — New York, and London, 1892," — is given below as the 
details are so interesting. 

My dear Brother, — It is a long time since I wrote to you. My 
numerous avocations must be Miy apology, and indeed this apology 
is the true one for want of will is not the cause. I shall, however, 
now write you a short note to make amends for my long silence, 
and request a continuance of your correspondence. 

You as well as myself are acquainted with the circumstances, 
•of five brethren having been sent from America to begin a mission 
in thd East. They have all safely arrived at this place. Govem- 
meut, however, have absolutely refused to let them stay here, 
a.nd have peremptorily ordered them to leave tha place, and not to 
settle in any country belonging to Great Britain or her allies. We 
Ibave tried our interest, but have succeaded no further than to gain 
permi^ion for them to go to the Isle of France, to which place 
Brother and Sister Newell went before the arrival of the othet three. 
It soon appeared that the mind of Brother Judson had been much 
employed upon the subject of believar's baptism and in a little 
while after his arrival, he and Sister Judson wished to be baptized, 
with which we complied, and thay were both baptized publicly at 
Calcutta in the name of the Blessed Trinity. I enquired of Brother 
JudBon what could have induced him to take this step to wlSch he 
replied that on his voyage he thought much of the prospect of 
meeting with us at Serampore. Hs knew that we were Baptists, 


and supposed that he might probably be called to defend infant 
baptism. This led him to examine the evidence for it^ and the 
further he proceeded in this examination the clearer the evidence 
for baptizing believers only, and tKat by immersion, appeared. 
He frequently convi-rsed with Mrs. Judson upon the subject which 
was the occasion of her thinking as he did upon that Ordinance. 
Since his baptism he preached a very excellent discourse upon the 
Ordinance which wa. intend" to print, with an account of the change 
in his views in his own words. 

Since his baptism, I hear Brother Rice has been thinking 
closely upon the subject, and to-night I was informed that he had 
made up his mind to follow our Lord in His Ordinanca. He dis- 
putes the matter with his other Brethren, and it is difficult to 
say what will be the effect' of his conversations. 

Now, what IS to be done, Brethren ! They expect to be 3ifr 
carded by the Board of Commissioners for Oriental Missions. We 
shall advance then temix)rary supplies, but we are not able to 
invite them to b3come Missionaries for the Baptist Missionary 
Society without first writing to England and receiving our 
brethren's consent. Our Brethren Judson and Rice would also 
be glad to be American Missionaries. 

Cannot our Baptist Brethren in America form a Missionary 
Society either auxiliary to our Society in England or distinct from 
it, as may appear most eligible, and take these brethren as their 
Missionaries ? I believe they ara of the right stamp. They intend 
to settle eventually on the Island of Java; but must first go to the 
Isle of France, en account of tli3 orders of Government. One of 
our brethren is also going thither, viz., to Java. We will give them 
advice and everything else within our power. 

I think this circumstance opens a new scene of duty to our 
Baptist brethren in America: and though I am persuaided that 
their proper sphere of action is among the Indians of North and 
South America, and in the West Indian Islands, yet thisi extra- 
ordinary call should not be lightly passed over. 

The Lord is still carrying on his work; about 20 are now 
expecting to join the Cfhurch at Calcutta, and to be baptized in a 
month or two mora. 

I am, very affectionately yours, 

(Sd.) W. Carey. 

Calcutta, SOfh October 1812. 


Below id a facsimile of Dr. Carey's handwriting taken from 
tlie foregoing l>etter. 


On receipt of Dr. Judson's communication, Dr. Baldwin and 
the other ministers at Boston sent out the following Circular, dated 
23rd March 1813, to other Baptist Ministers at New York and 
elsewhere, which is also taken from the Unpublished Serampore 
letters : — 

Boston, 23rd March 1813. 

Dear Brethren, — By the arrival of tha Reayer in this Port, 
last Saturday, from India, letters have been received from several 
of our friends in Calcutta, particularly from Mr. and Mrs. Judson, 
Dr. Marshman and Mr. Rio^. The latter like Mr. Judson, haa 
been constrained to examine the subject of Christian Baptism and 
has come to the same result. He was not baptized on 22nd October, 
but expected to be soon. 

This change of sentiment, he has stated (as he informs us) to 
Dr. Worcester, the Secretary of the Board of Commissioners for 
Foreign Missions. Ha has also concluded by the advice, or in 
concurrence with the Baptist brethren at Serampore, to go with 
Mr. Judson to the Island of Java. Dr. Marshman and both of 
thd above brethren unite in urging the formation of a Baj^tist 
Mission Society in this country, in order to take up these brethren 
and direct and support them independently of our English 
brethren, or as an auxiliary to the Baptist Society in England. 

The events which have taken place in relation to the 
foregoing missionaries, are highly interesting and important. 


The voice of Divine Providence in them seems loudly to call for 
our speedy attention and assistance. We huve already two Socie- 
ties formed, as you will perceive by the accompanying Circidar, 
which have this objective view. But, dear brethren, we want your 
advice and assistance. We would gladly engage all our Churches 
throughout the United States in this great work of sending the 
preached Gospel among the heathen. The difficidty seems to be, 
in part at least, to fix ui>on a proper plan. Can you devise and 
propose any plan for forming an Executive Committee, with suffi- 
cient pov/er to carry into effect our united efforts? There must 
be somewhere a common centre, a general treasury into which all 
the money in whatever way raised may flow. We have no anxiety 
whether this deposit should be at Salem, Boston, New York 
or Philadelphia, provided we can only fall upon a plan that will 
unite all hearts. 

The Society in Salem have already collected more than $500, 
and have voted one half for the su])]>ort of Mr. Judson and the 
other for the translations. 

Our infant Society in Boston has almost without any elTorl 
received csubscriptions to th? amount of nearly § 400. It will soon 
be increased, no doubt, to several hundreds more. 

Will you, dear Brethren, give us your advice on the following 
p«iwts, riz. : — 

1. Will it be best at present to request our Baptist Brethrsn 
in England to take these young men under their patronags and 
to consider us only as an auxiliary Society? 

2. Shall we attempt to appoint and support them ourselves; 
if so, who shall appoint them ? 

We cannot doubt, but the subject must impress you in a 
sianilar manner as it does us, and hence hope for your cordial co- 
operation. We hope your late efforts in raising money for repair- 
ing the less at Serampora, by the late fire will not discourage you 
in the present undertaking, as we will most cheerfully advance the 
first necessary instalment. We are, dear Brethren, very respect- 
fully yours, in the Gospel of a precious Saviour. 

(Sd.) Thos. Baldwin. 


Revs. Jno. Williams. 
,, Jno. Stainford. 
,, Archibald MacCay. 
,, Daniel Hatt. 
„ Cornelius P. Wykcoff. 

Lucius Bolles. 
Danl. Sharp. 


As the outcome of tha above Circular, the following letter from 
Dr. Sharp, dated 6th May 1814, was received by Dr. Marshman 
which is taken from tbd Periodical Accounts: — 

We have heard with pleasure of the arrival of our missionary 
brethren at Serampore. Thd same vessel brought us the intelli- 
gence that Mr. Judson and his wife had changed their views on 
the subject of baptism, and had expressed a desire to be immersed 
in the name of the Lord J€s,us. We have since been informed 
that Mr. Riod has been led to embrace similar views of the same 

This intelligence has made a deep impression on our minds. 
We cannot bear the idea that our brethren shoidd be negkcted or 
left to suffer, because of their attachment to the truth : they look 
to us for aid, and we Sitand ready to support them. We have 
formed a Society as you will see by the accompanying circular (no 
copy giv^n) named " The Baptist Society," etc. 

But it has occurred to the brethren here that it would much 
advance the cause, and that Messrs. Judson and Rice would be 
much more happy and useful in the service, if they were under 
the direction and intimately connected with our beloved brethren 
at Serampore. Your acquaintance with the country, the manners, 
prejudices and superstitions of the people, your knowledge of what 
mode of procedure is likely to ba most efficient with the blessing 
of Grod, a knowledge the result of twenty years' experience, thesa, 
and many other considerations, which crowd on our minds, render 
it desirable that our brethren should be numbered among the Misr 
sion family. We shall esteem it an honour and a pleasure 
to render them the pecuniary aid, which from time to time they 
may need. Indeed, we anticipate that our exertions will not be 
limited to the support of our American brethren, but that wo 
shall be enabled to forward to Serampore our annual mite for 
the promotion of the general cause. 

I remain, Dear Brother, 

on behalf of the Society, 

Yours, etc. 
P. S. — Will you please communicate this information to 
Messrs. Judson and Rice. 

On the 27th Saptember 1812, Dr. Judson preached his sermon 
on the subject of Baptism from Matthew xxviii. 19-20. Dr. Carey 
referred to it in his letter of 20th October 1812 as "a very excel- 
lent discoursa,'' and Mr. Leonard in his letter to Mr. Ward of 



2nd idem, '' as one of the best discourseB lie had heard oai Bi^tism." 
He completed it for press at Port Loiiis on Ist April 1813. It 
was subsequently printed and went through several editions in 

After the delivery of the »ermon there was a baptizing service 
when six person were baptized by Dr. Carey himself. Of these 
five were native Portuguese women, who had been brought to th*» 
knowledge of the Truth through the labours of Sebuk Ram. Of 
thsse five women, one was nearly 90 years of age, (think of that !) 
and the other four were all over 60 years of aga. One of the five 
was also deaf. 

A picture is given below of the Baptistary in which Dr. and 
Mrs. Judson were baptized by Mr. Ward on the 6th September 
1812, and Mr. Rice on the Ist November of that year. It is the 
earliest that can be obtained. 

The Baptistbby in which Db and Mbs. Judson wkbb baptized on 

6th Septembeb 1812. 

(^By Jt'md permission of the Baptist Missionary Society^ London.") 

* The preseat writer has a oopy of the fifth American edition which was 
printed at Boston in 1846. 


It is the very same to-day as it was then although on the 
21st August 1877 : 

"It was unanimously resolved that the gallery at the east 
end of the Chapel should be removed, that the pulpit should 
he removed from its present jx>sition to the east end, and 
that a new Baptistery should be built in front of that pulpit, and 
that the old Baptistery ba filled up, care being taken to have the 
site marked with marble tiles." 

Although the work was ordered to be put in hand at once it 
was never carried into effect, which can only be regarded as Rvine 

During the course of a visit, which the Hon'ble Mr. John 
Wanamaker paid to Calcutta in the cold season of 1901-02, he 
wrote on 31st January 1902 to Mr. Hook offering to put up 
a Tablet in the Chapel to the msmory of Dr. Judson, which prac- 
tically was intended to commemorate his baptism. The tablet was 
duly prepared and on 24th February 1903, it was unveiled by 
General Patterson, the Consul-General of the United States. The 
unveiling ceremony was a great success and all passed off well, 
tbd Chapel being\ full of people, different Ministers and Mission- 
aries of Calcutta taking part in the service. Dr. Downie of Nellore 
gave a special address on this occasion. The cost of the tablet 
was Rs. 400, the whole of which was paid by the Honourable 
gentleman. The picture overleaf shows what it looks like and 
also the inscription on it. There is oub line, however, in the 
upper part which unfortunately escapes observation. It runs 
thus: — "As my Father hath sent me even so send I you.' St. 
John XX. 21. 

At the time of his baptism. Dr. Judson was under 
an agreement with Government to proceed to the Isle of 
Frano3!. The passports from the Government of Massa- 
chusetts, which Judson and Newell had brought out were 
not accepted by tha leading Magistrate of Calcutta — Mr. Charles 
Fuller Martyn — when they w^re presented before him so he im- 
mediately reported to Government that two missionaries had 
arrived in the Caravan who pretended to b^ Americans by birth 



tliough he suspected they were British subjects. He taought 
they made this statement so as to escape deportation to 
England as "unlicensed British subjects." Negotiations with 
Government led to their being granted permission to go to 
the Isle of France, v^hich although a British possession was not 
under the jurisdiction of the East India Company. The only 
vessel that was available was a very small one which oould accom- 
niodate, but one family and in it Mr. and Mrs. Newell embarked 
on 4th August, Dr. Judson and his wife being left bahind for the 
next opportunity. But before that opportunity occurred th^ 




Hli»13 *^ Ott Jt^tt l|t mi^t tft| 4»r# AMI ltil3IIi.T1IL iif|b.^jr>4 *li»l»J|1 

VMS Urmn^trn tt^ij 4[|(lrii4t( ttifti \r\io injUnLV lii iSli. Il|i» A^ttrictfi 

The Judson Mkmokial Tablet (witfi inscription) which is in the 

Ifarwoinj arrived on the 10th August with the other batch of 
missionaries. Messrs. Hall, Rice and Nott preseaited a memorial 
to Government for permission also to go to the Isle of France which 
was granted. But there was a delay and that delay was Mr. 
Marty n's opportunity. The details though interesting are too 
long for insertion here but they are givan in Mr. Marehman's book 
and in Mrs. Judson*s letters. Suffice it to say that Messrs. Hall and 


Nott escaped to Bombay in the ship Commerce, and Dr. Judson: 
i^nd Mr. Rice eventually left on 30th November 1812, for the Isle 
af France. But there is one incident to clear up and that is about 
blie order wiiich reached them practically at the very last moment. 
tdirs. Judson says: — 

" We had just sat down to supper, when a letter was 
banded to us. We hastily opened it, and to our great surprise 
and joy, it was a pass from the Magistrate for us to go 
:>n board the Creole the vessel we had left. Who procured this 
pass for us, or in what way, we are still ignorant, we could only 
i^iew in it the hand of God, and wonder." 

Mr. Marshman's book, however, accounts for this incident 
bJius : — 

" It appears that when Mr. Marty n reported that lie had 
>rdered the vessel in which Mr. Judson and his wife and colleague 
iad embarked for the Mauritius to be detained, Lord Minto, 
i^meiilibering that he had previously given them permission to 
)toeMd to that island, did not deem it advisable £o interrupt their 
>rogresB« At any rate they would be out of the territories of the 
BCotloiirabla Oompany." 

Anyway they proceeded on their voyage and after a lengthened 
paonjjlje arrived in safety at the Mauritius on the 17tli January 
181S.- ' They found that Mrs. Newell had died there on the 30tli 
Ke^il^ber 1812 the very date that they had bft India. Mr. 
Kewi^ left the Mauritius for Ceylon on 24th February 1813, and 
, ftnaBy left for Bombay where ha joined Hall and Nott on 7tli 
^ Uarcli 1814. 

Messrs. Judson and Rice commenced preaching to the soldiers 
and to the patients in the Hospital and continued doing so until 
the beginning of March when Mr. Bice's health failed and it was 
thougbt best that he should return to America for the double 
purpose of recruiting his health and exciting the Missionary zeal 
of the Baptist Churches in that country. He accordingly sailed 
for the United States on the 11th of that month. 

After mucTi deliberation. Dr. Judson resolved to attempt a 
Mission at Penang so took a passage to Madras in May whencs 
they hoped to get a passage to Penang, but they failed to get 


one. As they feared to remain long in Madras^ l^t they should 
be deported to England, after a few days' stay there, they sailed ); 
on the 22nd June for Rangoon, where they arrived on 13th July 
and occcpied the Mission House erected by the Serampore Mission. 

It was not till 5th September 181& that Dr. Judson reoaived 
intimation of the formation of the Baptist Board of Miseionfl 'n 
America and their appointment of him as their missionary. Dur- 
ing the interval he had been shown as an Agent of the Serampore 
Mission at Rangoon. 

When the Judsons arrived at the Mission House, Mrs. Felix 
Carey was. in it, but Mr. Carey had gone to Ava by order of the 
King. In August Mr. Carey and family embarked in a brig for 
Ava, but the vessel was upset in the riyer and he alone was saved 
with difficulty. After the fii"st twelve months of their stay Mrs. 
Judson's health began to decline, so in January 1815 she embarked 
for Madras where she recovered entirely and accordingly returned 
in the April following. A son was born to her on 11th September 
1815, but died on 4th May 1816. In October 1816 thsy were 
joined by Mr. and Mrs. Hough from America who brought out 
a printing press. In December 1817 Dr. Judson left Rangoon 
for Chittagong for the purpose of benefiting his health, but owing 
to misadventures lie got carried away to Madras, which he c«^uld 
not leave till 20th July for Rangoon. While he was away Mr 
Hot^gh received a menacing order to appear immediately at the 
Court House to give an account of himself. This he did, but was 
detained there three days when he and Mrs. Judson drew up an 
appeal to the Viceroy, which Mrs. Judson herself prasented to him 
and he immediately commanded that Mr. Hough should receive 
no further molestation. Mrs. Judson started with Mr. Hough 
and his family to r:iturn to Bengal as there was no news of her 
husband, but changed her mind. The latter went on but she 
returned to Rangoon, and, a few days afterwards, the Doctor 
found his way there. On the 19th September 1818, Messrs. Cole- 
man and Wheelock arrived with their wives. On the 27th June 


1819, i.e., seven years after their arrival in the East the first 
Burmese convert was baptized. 

In June 1820 Mrs. Judson's health became very low and a 
ica voyage to Bengal was undertaken. She arrived in Calcutta 
HI 8th August and remained at Serampora till the end of the 
rear. On the 5th January 1821 they arrived at Rangoon but as 
ihe had not derived much benefit by the change, by the oommdnce- 
xient of August she was again laid low. She embarked for Bengal 
4nd thence for England. She reached England safely, and was 
'>liere till August 1822, when she proceeded to the United States 
irhere she arrived on tha 25th September of that year. While 
ilie was at Washington the Baptist General Convention held a Sae- 
oon in that City and at her suggestion several important measures 
were adopted. 

But she did not like being away from her husband so on the 
hid June 1823 she again sailed for India with Mr. and Mrs. Wade 
jrho were coming out to strengthen Judson'si hands. They arrived 
in Calcutta on 19th October 1823 and after a few weeks sailed 
for Rangoon. 

Dr. Price, a medical missionary, had arrived at Rangoon 
with, his wife in December 1821 and when Mrs. Judson reached 
Calcutta in October 1823 she found that war might break out at 
any time with Burma and that the Emperor had ordered Dr. 
Judson and Dr. Price to take up their residence in Ava. In May 
1824 an English army under Sir Archibald Campbell arrived in 
Rangoon, which was taken on the 23rd idem, but previous to that 
Mesars. Hough and Wade had been bound with chains, imprisoned 
by the Burmese and subjected to much suffering and insult. On 
8tb June, Dr. Judson, Dr. Price and others (at Ava) were seized* 
and imprisoned. The sufferings and hardships of the missionaries 
during this war of 1824-25 form a narrative of thrilling 
interest which, though intensely interesting, would be out of place 
here. Suffice it to say that if it had not been for the special 
support that Mrs. Judson received from aBove to carry her through 


all the heroic effortBi she made on behalf of her husband and the 
others, they would all have miserably perished. It is not permitted 
to every Christrian lady to perform such heroic deeds. After an 
imprisonment of one year and seven months Dr. Judson found 
himself free. The treaty of peace was signed on 24th February 
1826 and on the 6th March Dr. and Mrs. Judson and infant girl 
Isft for Rangoon where they arrived on the 21st idem. On the 
9th April 1826, Dr. Judson left Rangoon with Mr. Crawford, the 
Conunissioner on an exploring expedition and eventually fixed upon 
the site of a town on the Salween River which they called Amherst 
after the then Governor-General of India. Dr. and Mrs. Judson 
settled at Amherst on ths 2nd July 1826, but after only a few 
months, during the absence of Dr. Judson from the station, Mrs. 
Judson was attacked by fever and died on the 24th October 1826 
and soon afterwards, her little girl who was aged two years and 
three months died also. Dr. Judson returned to Amherst 
on 24th January 1827. After this Dr. Judson's station wa^ 
Moulmein where he was employed chiefly in the work of 
translation. The last leaf of his translation was finished on the 
31st January 1834, and a rsvised translation was put to press in 
1840. The prospects of the Mission became very ©ncoura^ng. 
On 10th April 1834, he married Mrs. Sarah Boardman, the widow 
of one of his colleagues. Her hsalth visibly declined in 1844, so 
a voyage to America was determined upon and Dr. Judson, with 
the three children, accompanied hsr on the 26th April 1845, but 
she died at St. Helena on 1st September 1845. Dr. Judson con- 
tinued the voyaga and arrived safely in America on 15th October 
1845. On the 2nd June 1846 he married Miss Emily Chubbuck 
and on 11th July they embarked for Moulmein where they arrived 
on the 30th Novamber 1846. In the early part of 1850 his own 
health began to fail so a sea voyage was determined upon and on 
3rd April 1850, he embarked on a French barque aceompajiied by 
Mr. Ranney of the Moulmein Mission, but he breathed his last 
•on the 12th April and was buried at sea. Immediately preceding 

'■■ ■• ■■.■.■)••.•■,■>.-■■...• "••■•■■•<'•>.■•■: v 


...".', 'rt J.,:. ^■. ;-w. . \ ■ • » . • \ 



death he gave instructions to his servant in English and 
rmese to take caraof poor mistress. His companion, Mr. Ranney, 
J stated that his death was like falling asleep. All Dr. Judson's 
^es were singularly talented women. 

The present writer has in his possession an autograph letter 
dch Dr. Judson wrote to his fellow-workers, Mr. and Mrs. O. T. 
itter from Chummerah on the 11th i^ebruary 1833. This letter 
& never been published so he gives on the opposite page 
fascimile of the concluding portion of it which may interest 
me of the readers of this book. 

The Rev. Lutheb Rice. 
He was born at Northborougli, Wbroester County, Massa- 
cliuiietts, on the 25tli March 1783. His parents were members of 
the Cougrcgational Cluirch, his mother being a woman of renuui- 
able intellectual vigour. He attended the public Bchools of the 
neighbourhood, and was apt in acquiring knowledge. While Btill 
a mere youth the wonderful self-reliance, for which he was always 
distinguished, displayed itself, for, at the age of sixteen, he entered 
into a contract to visit the State of Georgia, to assist in obtain- 
ing timber for shii>-building, without oonsuRing his parents, and 
was absent six months. Soon after this he became greatly con- 
cerned alK)ut his soul, and suffered the acutest mental agony for 
many months. At the age of nineteen he united witli the Con- 
gregational Church of Northborough on the 14th March 18Q2. He 
was from the beginning a most active and consistent Chiisti'ao 
worker. He infus€^d a new and higher type of piety into Mi 
family and the Cliurch, and made it a special duty to oonveree 
frequently with ths impenitent. He was from the start of h» 
Christian career deeply interested in Missions and Missioniary pub- 
lications. During all this time he was labouring upon his father'i 
farm. His mind was now directed to the Christian ministry and 
he resolved to secure a college and theological education. He spent 
three years at Leicester Academy and paid his expenses by teach- 
ing school during the vacation and giving lessons in singing at 
night. He made such rapid progress at the Academy thai he was 
able to complete his collegiate studies in three years, having 
entered Williams College in 1807. While in College he became 
even more deeply interested in Missions and infused the same 
enthusiasm into the minds of his friends Mills and Richards. 

On the 7th September 1808, when a student at Williams Col- 
lega, he with four young men formed the Sodety of " The 


Brethren " a secret organization the purpose of which was " to 
effect in the persons of its members a mission or mieisions to the 
heathen.'* Two of the original five of the " Haystack prayer- 
meeting *' were members of this Society. 

A Society of enquiry on the subject of missions was formed 
through hisi instrumentality, and, about the same time a branch 
Society at Andover Seminary, where Judaon and his friends caught 
the new awakening. They must preach the Gospel totha pagan 
nations. After graduating from Williams College he with the 
other members of tha organization, entered the theological Sem- 
inary at Andover. There among others, Adoniram Judson was 
added to the roll. Judson, Nott, Mills, Newell, Richards and Rice 
prepared a Memorial to the General Association of all the evange- 
lical ministers of Massachusetts convened at Bradford in June 1810 
urging the pressing claims of the heathen and asking for an appoint- 
ment in the East. The names of Richards and Rice were omitted 
from the Memorial at its presentation, the number being so large. 
On the 29th June 1810 as a result of the appeal which these 
young men placed before the General Association (Congregational) 
at Bradford, Mass, the Foreign Missionary Society in America came 
into existence with the election of the American Board of Commis- 
sioners for Foreign Missions, and, later, the Baptist General Con- 
vention of 1814, The American Bible Society, The American 
Tract Society, Tha Baptist General Society, The Columbian Col- 
lege, the Newton Theological Seminary and other kindred 

In a letter written on 18th March 1811 ha says: — "I have 
delibarately made up my mind to preach the Gospel to the 

Judson, Nott, Mills and Newell were appointed by the Board 
as missionaries, Bice and Richards being omitted. But Rice had 
Bet his heart upon going, and, as soon as the way opened, promptly 
applied for appointment and was accepted upon the condition that 
he would himself raise the money necessary for his passage an3 

8 . 


outfit, which he did within a few days. The following is from the 
Memorial Volume of that Board : — 

In the meantime Mr. Luther Rice, a licentiate preacher 
from the Theological Institution at Andover, whose heart 
had long been engaged in the miissionary cause, but who 
had been restrained from offering himself to the Board 
by particular curcumstances presented himself at the Com- 
mittee with good recommendations and with an earnest desire to 
join the Mission. The case was a very trying one. The Com- 
mittee were not invested with full powers to admit missionaries, 
and they still felt a very heavy embarrassment from the want of 
funds. In view of all the circumstances, however, they did not 
dare to reject Mr. Rica, and they came to the conclusion to assume 
the responsibility and admit him as a missionary, to be ordained 
with the four other brethren and sent out with them." 

The Harmony (Captain Brown), proposed sailing on short notice 
from Philadelphia to Calcutta and could take the missionaries as pas- 
sengers. In the latter part of January the Resolution was taken. 
The Ordination of the missionaries was appointed to be on the 
Thursday of the next week — the latest day which would leave 
time for them to get on to Philadelphia in season. Notice was 
immediately given to the friends of the mission in the vicinity 
and means were put in operation with all possible activity, aud 
to as great an extent as the limited time would allow for raising 
the requisite funds. 

While these preparations were in making, it came to the 
knowledge of the Committee, that the brigantine Cara/variy of 
Salem, was to sail for Calcutta in a few days, and could carry 
out three or four passengers, and after attention to the subject, 
it was deemed advisable that two of the missionaries, with their 
wives, should take passage in that vessel. 

This lessened the general risk, and was attended with several 

"According to appointment, on the 6th of February, 
the missionaries were ordained at the Tabernacle in Salem. A 
season of more impressive sc^emnity has scarcely been witnessed 
in our country. The sight of five young men, of highly raspectaUo 
talents and attainments, and who might reasonably have promised 


lienLselves very eligible situations in our Churches, forsaking 
arentSy and friends, and country, and every alluring earthly 
tx>spect, and devoting themselves to the privations, hardships^ 
ad perils of a mission for life, to a people sitting in darkne^ and 
I the region and shadow of death, in a far distant and unpropi- 
OTis clime, could not fail deeply to affect every heart not utterly 
estitute of feeling. Nor less affecting were the views which the 
liole scene was calculated to impre^ of the deplorable condition 
f the pagan 'world, of the riches of divine grace displayed in the 
k)6pel, and of the obligations on all on whom this grace is con- 
jrred, to use their utmost endeavours in making the Gospel 
niversally known. God was manifestly present; a crowded 
nd attentive assembly testified, with many tear®, the deep interest 
rliicH they felt in the occasion ; and not a f aw remember the scene 
ri€h' fervent gratitude, and can say, it was good to be there." 

Mr. Rice was among the five thus ordained on 6th February 
812 at Salem. Dr. Judson and Mr. NewfeU with their wivea 
ailed from Salem in the Caravan on 12th February and Mr. Bice 
tnd the other two Nott and Hall (not Richards) went to Phila- 
klphia and from there sailed in the Harmony for Calcutta in com- 
>any with some English Baptists. 

Th-e subject of baptism was discussed during the voyage, Mr. 
Mee taking a firm stand for the Paedobaptist view. From the 
ournal which Dr. Johns kept of the voyage and which was printed 
it Serampore during 1812 it appears that Mr. Rice himself fii^st 
ntroduced the subject of baptism on the 15th of March and Dr. 
Tohns had some conversation with him. On the 25th March Mr. 
Etice acknowledged that the labours and successes of the Baptists 
01 India excited the attention of tha Americans and directed the 
^W8 of the Paedobaptists to that part of tlie world. On 7th 
^pril Dr. JoISob recorded : — 

"This evening Brother Lawson with myself and our Paedo- 
baptist brother Rica had a long conversation on our difference 
>f sentiment. It continued to a late hour*' and on 19th April 
le recorded, "This evening Mr. Rice resumed hie extracts on 
lie swbjsct of baptism. From some conversation he and Mr. Hall 
leld whilst I was present I can see that there is not perfect satis- 
action on the subject at least with Mr. H." and on 5th June it 


is stated that a littb book of Dr. Johns' led to some little discus- 
sion on baptism. From the foregoing it will be seen that it was 
thought that the most impression had been made on Mr. Hall, 
and, in fact, Dr. Carey said that Mr. Rice was thought to be the 
most obstinate friend of Paedobaptism among the Missionaries. 

The Haimony reached Calcutta on the 10th August. At Gal* 
cutta, Mr. Bice joined Dr. and Mrs. Judaon, and in Septemba 
1812, Mrs. Judson wrote thus about him: — 

"Soon after w© were baptized. Brother Rice, oompalled from a 
sense of duty, began to examine the subject more thoroughjy then 
ever before, although he had had his doubts respecting it for some 

The following letter, dated 25th October 1812, was accordingly 
penned to Dr. Carey and speaks for itself. It is taken from the 
Circular Letter of November 1812. 
Reverend and Dear Sir, 

Having been much occupied of late in attention to the subject 
of baptism, I take the liberty to apprise you of the issiue of my 
inquiries. For this purpose, permit ma Bb transcribe part of a 
letter recently transmitted to the Secretary of the Board of Com- 
miseioners. Dr. Worcester: 'Tha subject respecting the solemn 
and important Ordinance of Christian baptism presented itself to 
my mind in such an attitude thai I could not oonscientioiisly lefrain 
from examining it. With very considerable means at oonmiaiid 
I have endeavoured, I trust, with prayerfulness, and in the fear 
of God, and with no small impression of the delicacy and high 
responsibility of my situation, to give it a .careful and serious 
examination. But it is with emotions particularly affecting, that 
I proceed to inform you, that, as the result of that examination 
I am comp&lled to relinquish the view of the sacred Ordinanoe 
which I have formerly apprehended to be highly important. I am 
satisfactorily convinced that those only who give credible evidence 
of piety are proper subjects, and that immersion is tlie proper 
mode of baptism. 

Baing thus satisfied, impressions of duty impel me to request, 
Dear Sir, that this sacred Christian right may be administered 
to — 

(Sd.) Luther Ricb. 
He was accordingly baptized singly by Mr. Ward at the 


Chapel on the 1st Novembar 1812 and on the 30th idem he sailed 
from Bengal with the Judsons for the Isle of France, owing to 
the continued and bitter hostility manifested by th& British 
authorities in India against missionaries. The party arrived at 
Port liOuis on the 17th January 1813 and shortly after Mr. Rice 
suffered so much from liver complaint that his haalth became quite 
precarious, so it was decided that he should return to the United 
States to try to enlist the interest of th& Baptist Churches of 
America in the cause of Foreign Missions as both Dr. Judson and 
lie were strangers to the Baptist community. While th^y were 
"Siscussing various plans an unexpected opportunity oflFered of 
getting to the United States by going to Brazil in a Portuguese 
"vessel and he did not let the opportunity slip so embarkeS appa- 
rently on the 11th March as will be seen from the copy of his 
letter to Br. Marshman which is given below from the Circular 
lietter of April 1813. It speaks for itself and though it may be 
considered rather long it is worthy of careful perusal. 

Port Louis, 11th March 1813. 

Dear Brother Marshman, 

Probably it will surprise you to learn that I have departed from 

this place for America. Such, an event was as littla expected by 

me perhaps as by anyone when I left Calcutta, but the ways of 

Providence are mysterious and past finding out. An opportunity 

of a cheap and probably quick passaga to America offers, and we 

are all of opinion that it may, to a considerable extent, subserve 

the missionary cause for me to visit our Baptist brethren in that 

oountry. I have indead some private reasons for wishing to make 

such a visit, but they are c*uch that I could not think it my duty 

to be influenced by, or to encounter the expense and loss of time 

which will unavoidably be incurred, were there not an important 

missionary object to be obtained. I shall hope to kindle the zeal, 

or, if it be ali^ady kindled, to increase its ardour, of our brethren 

in tha United States ; bring about the formation of a Baptist Mis- 

donary Society, having the heathen for its object and contribute 

eomething to their interest at home, while benevolent efforts are 

produced, and a benign influence extended to foreign parts. For 

it is a settled opinion with me, that, whatever may be the success 

or disappointment of truly missionary exertions, the good result- 


ing to those who make them, will always, be a sufficient oompensa- 
tiou. Ut that will lose his lift for Christ's sake, shall mve H. 

Being already about one-third of the way from India to the 
United States, I hope to be able to pass to that country, effect 
the objects in view there, and rejoin Brother Judson, in a year 
and a half ^ possibly in less time ; at farthest, within the compatt 
of two years, if it please God to make my way prosperous. Our 
views of different missionary fields at present are such, that on 
my return I shall expect to find Brother Judaon at Fenang. I 
shall take with me a Malay grammar and a dictionary, that, if 
possible, the time may not be wholly lost to my future labours. 
I hope also to gain a more established and complete restoration to 
health. But if calculations deceive me, and, on returning I should 
find Brother Judson at Rangoon, instead of Penang, I shall not 
be greatly disappointed if only his situation shall be such that 
I can rajoin him in the mission, this last consideration I cannot 
think of relinquishing. 

From what we learn by Mr. King, mate of the brig in which 
I take passage, and who left Salem the latter part of August, the 
war will jjrobably either cease (which God grant may be the case) 
or, if continued, will drag on rather sluggishly, so that the internal 
resources of the country may not, it should seem be materially 
affectad. I hope especially that the missionary spirit will not 
receive a check, and it is consoling to reflect, that God can and 
often does, over-rule most disastrous events for the advancement 
of His own cans?. Surely the wrath of man shall praise Hiniy 
the remainder He will restrain, Happy is it for us that there is » 
Being of infinite wisdom, goodness and power who worhdh 
all things after the coiinsel of His own will. 

I cannot prevail on myself to close without returning my 
thanks for your kind attentions while I was in Bengal, and request- 
ing to be most affectionately remembered to all the Mission family. 

Yours, etc., 
(Sd.) LuTHEB Rice. 

He mus,t have reached Brazil in June as he wrote from there 
on 5th June 1813 to America as below: "Brother Judson and 
myself, Having determined upon attempting to effectuate a mission 
at Penang, having the Malay countries generally, for its ultimate 
object, were waiting the opportunity of a passage to that place. 
But as an opportunity unexpectedly offered of getting to the 
United States by coming to this place (Brazil) in a Portuguese 
veaael, the posture of affairs was such that we deemed it expedient 
for me to avail myself of it and visit our brethren in our native 


country under a sincere conviction that the missionary cause would 
be more advanced by the formation of a Baptist Society in America 
that should afford us the necessary patronage, than by our becom- 
ing the missionaries of a foreign Society, it was, we conceived, 
clearly our duty, as well as much better comported with our feelings 
than the other alternative could, to cast ourselves into your hands, 
and the hands of the Baptist Churches in America.'* 

He arrived at New York on 7th September 1813, went imme- 
diately to Boston, and communicated with the Board, who, however, 
received him with much coldness, and, rather rudely, dissolved 
his relations with themselves. He now completely identified him- 
self with the Baptists by whom he was warmly received in Massa- 
chusetts, New York and Pennsylvania. The Baptist Society for 
Propagating the Gospel in India and other Foreign Parts, which 
had bean organized at Boston in January 1813, in order to under- 
take the support of the Judsons, extended the hand of patronage 
to him and encouraged him to visit tbe widely scattered Baptist 
Churches of the South and West. He jo\irneyed throughout the 
entire length of the country and met with the most encouraging 
success and travelled as far South as Georgia and was everywhere 
greeted with the utmost cordiality. Between May 1813 and May 
1814 seventeen Baptist Societies were established for the purpose 
of supporting foreign missions, the majority of them the result of 
his efforts. 

Dr. Judson's conversion to Baptist principles and his appeal 
to the Baptists of America had an electrical effect on the Churches 
and the Society at Boston assumed the support of the Judsons. 
The twelfth article of its constitution reads : — 

"Should Societies be formed in other places having 
th«5 same objects in view, the Board will appoint one 
or more persons to unite with delegates from such other 
Societies in forming a General Committee, in order more effectually 
to accomplish the important objects contemplated by this 

Mr. Rice travelled through the States on the Atlantic sea- 
board as far South as Georgia, arousing missionary enthusiasm 
everywhere he went and organising missionary Societies. He 


suggested that a Greneral Conference should be held at Philadelphia 
about the first of June 1814. 

In the Massachusetts Baptist Missionary Magazine for Decem- 
ber 1813 appeared a proposal of Mr. Rice that the time and place 
of the General Convention be immediately fixed so that delegates may 
be duly appointed. Accordingly, on 18th May 1814, delegates 
assambled at Philadelphia from the various Baptist Foreign Mis- 
sion Societies from Boston to Savannah, a distanoa of more than 
1,000 miles, to meet for Conference. Dr. Richard Furman wa» 
President and Dr. Baldwin, Secretary. The Convention organized 
tha General Missionary Convention of the Baptist Denomination 
in the United States of America for Foreign Missions (in 1846 
the Southern Baptists withdrew because of a diffarence of opinion 
on the Slavery question, and in 1*846 the name of the Society wae 
changed to The American Baptist Missionary Union). After 
several days' deliberation the Convention (with thia long title) was 
formed. The Ma&sachiTsctts Baptist Missionary Magazine in report- 
ing the meeting said : — 

"Perhaps no event has ever taJ^en place among the 
Baptist Denomination in America, which has excited more 
lively interest than the late Missionary Convention held in the dty 
of Philadelphia." 

On his Southern tour Mr. Rice collected about 1,300 
dollars, made arrangements for future contributions, and 
organized about twenty Missionary Societies, and, throughout 
the country, about seventy Societies. On the 21st of 
May a constitution was adopted. In it provision was made for a 
Triennial Convention and the Rev. Luther Rice and Rev. Adomi- 
ram Judson were appointed as missionaries. On 25th May 1814 
Rev. Luther Rice was formally appointed a missionary of t£e 
Board, being the first man to receive such appointment; the Rev. 
Adoniram Judson was, the second. The Resolution with reference 
to Mr. Rice reads as below: — 

"Resolved, that Mr. Rice be appointed under the patronage 
of this Board, as their missionary, to continue his itinerant ser- 


rices in thes^ United States for a reasonable time, with a view to 
izcite the public mind more generally to engage in missionary 
exertions, and to assist in originating Societies, or institutions for 
arrying the missionary dzsign into execution." 

The general expectation was that he would return to India as 

Till be seen from what he wrote to Dr. Judson on 30th September 

L814 :— 

"I hope 'in the course of five or six months to get the 
Baptists so well rallied that the necessity of my remaiining will 
QO longer exist." 

A year later, i.e., on 10th October 1815, he wrote the follow- 
ing letter to Dr. Carey, which is taken from the Periodical 
Accounts : — 

"Having opportunity by Brother Hough (who is about to sail 
bo the East, with a view of joining Brother Judson in Missionary 
Labours) I cannot refuse myself the pleasure of writing a few lines, 
tlK)ugh my present engagements will not allow me to write many. 
Last spring I forwarded to your care a quantity of things for 
Brother Judson, from which, and, from the communications of 
Dr. Stoughton, you have learned what is going on among us in 
this country, relative to Missionary ' operafions. Soon after my 
I'eturn to the United States from India, the openings of Pro- 
vidence presented to my mind the practicability of a very general 
"Pinion of Baptist Churches in this country in Missionary efforts. 
To attain this grzat object nothing could be more apparent, than 
*he importance cf widely diffusing, among the Church as real in- 
formation upon the subject of Missions. After the formation of 
^e General Missionary Convention, and the appointment of the 
^iiptist Board of Missions, it became evident to me that a con- 
nection might be formed, between the Board and the numerous 
«»ptist Associations in the United States, of such a nature as 
*bould actually impart the necessary intelligence throughout the 
•^hole Denomination in this country, annually. To establish this 
^nncietioa. and to put into operation a system of regular intsrcouree, 
^ jtwt suggested, I perceived would require great exertion, and, 
^ no other person appeared to take hold of this business in the 
'Planner necessary to its accomplishment I determined to make the 
^ort myself. To effect this object in conjunction with the forma- 
'^on of Mission Societies, I have been engaged, without intermia- 
Slon ever since my return from India, and I apprehend it will 
f^nire at least a year and a half from the present time to bring 
4is businass to that degree of maturity, which duty requires me 


to aim at before I return to the Missionary field. I consider my 
life as absolutely devoted to the Missionary cause, and, under this 
impression, cannot but think it my duty to employ my time and 
exertions, and to wear out my little earthly existence, in that way 
which offers the prospect of the greatest advantage to tliis cause 
ultimately. I certainly wish not to remain here any longer than 
my stay will more promote the Missionary interest than my labours 
among the heathen oould do. I cherish the hope, however, of once 
more seeing you and the dear Mission family at Serampore, and 
of being ultimately associated with my most dear brother Judson 
in the Missionary field." 

At the meeting of the Triennial Convention in Philadelphia 
which was held in 1817 he reported that he Had travelled during 
a very short time 7,800 miles, collected nearly 3,700 dollars, and 
aroused a warm interest in Missions everywhere. These journks 
were "through wildernesses and over rivers, across mountains and 
valleys, in heat and cold, by day and by night, in weariness and 
painfulness, and in fastings and loneliness." 

These journies and these labours were crowned with great 
success : there was a rapid increase in Missionary Societies and sncli 
large contributions for missions that the surplus, was invested 
from time to time. In fact so effective was hiis work that the 
Board was not inclined to lose his services. 

In the ccursa of his travels he became so impressed with the 
need of a higher standard of education for Baptist Ministers that 
he directed much of his energy to the establishment of a Baptist 
Institution of learning. The fruit of his labours was the Columbian 
College at Washington, D. C, now one of the infiuential schools 
of the country. He was deeply impressed with the school opened 
in Philadelphia under Drs. Stoughton and Chase for the instruc- 
tion of young men for the Ministry. Eighteen were in course of 
preparation there. He urged the founding of a college at Washing* 
ton D. C. and through his efforts, 46 J acres were purchased ad- 
jacent to the city and a building capable of accommodating 80 
students was begun. The Convention took the institution under 
its supervision, and in the report made to it in 1821 


there was set forth a most gratifying statement of the progress of 
the college. Mr. Rice was appointed its Agent and Treasurer. 

About this time he originated the Columbian Star, pub- 
lished at Washington, still serving as Missionary Agent. His addi- 
tional labours as Agent for the College were overwhelming. Diffi- 
culties, arose, the expanses of the College were not met, and Mr. 
Rice was prostrated by sickness arising out of his terrible anxieties. 
The College seemed threatened with ruin in its very inception. A 
warm discussion arose in the Convention, which met in 1826 and 
it was then determined to separate the educational movement from 
the missionary operations. Other financial agants were appointed 
for the College, but Mr. Rice still collected money for its funds 
and laboured earnestly with an unshaken faith in its final success, 
and before he died, he had the pleasure of seeing his wishes prac- 
tically fulfilled. He sacrificed his life for the welfare of 
the Institution, which he originated and which he loved so well. 

From 1817 to 1826 the Convention diverted some of its efforts 
to the work of Home Missions and to the task of establishing an 
Institution of higher learning, buC in X826 it was voted, that the 
Triennial Convention devote itself solely to the prosecution of 
Foreign Missions. In 1826 Mr. Rice ceased to be the Agent of 
the General Convention and devoted himself wholely to the interests 
of the Columbian College. 

During a collecting tour through the South, he was taken 
seriously ill at the house of a friend of his, Dr. Mays, at Edge- 
field, South Carolina, where he died on the 25th September 1836, 
and was buried at Point Pleasant Church in that City. 

The following is the memorial inscription on the marble slab 
erected by th^ Baptist Convention of the State of South Carolina, 
written by men who knew him well and loved him dearly for his 
self-sacrificing labours in tie cause of Christian Missions and min- 
isterial education. 




March 25th, 

A.D. 1783. 

Beneath this marble are deposited 

the remains of 

Elder Luther Kicb. 


September 25tb, 

A.D. 1886. 

A minister of Christ, of the Baptist Denomination. 

He was a native of Northboro', Massachusetts, 

And departed this life in Edgefield Distiict, S. C. 

In the death of this distinguished servant of the Lord, 
great man fallen in Israel." 

Tlian he, perhaps, no American 
has done more for tlie great Mis- 
sionary Enterprise. 

It is thought the first American 
Foreign Mission, on which he 
went to India, associated with 
Judson and others, originated 
with him. 

And if the Burmese have cause 
of gratitude towards Judson, for 
a faithful version of God's Word, 
so they will through generations 
to come. Arise up and call Rice 
blessed for it was his eloquent 
appeals for the heathen on his 
return to America, which roused 
our Baptist Churches to adopt the 
Burman Mission and sustain 
Judson in his arduous toils. 


No Baptist has done more for 
the cause of education. He 
founded the Columbian College, in 
the District of Columbia, which 
he benevolently intended by its 
central position to diffuse know- 
ledge, both literary and religious, 
through these "United States." 
And if for want of deserved 
patronage that unfortunate Insti- 
tution which was a special subject 
of his prayers and trials for the 
last fifteen years of his life, failed 
to fulfil the high pui'pose of its 
Founder, yet the Spirit of edu- 
cation awakened by his labors 
shall accomplish his noble aim. 

Luther Rice, 

With a portly person and commanding presence, combined a strong 
and brilliant intellect. 

As a theologian lie was orthodox, 

A Scholar, liis education was liberal. 

He was an elegant and powerful preacher 

A self-denying and indefatigable philanthropist. 

His frailties with his dust are entombed ; 

And upon the walls of Zion his Virtues engraven. 

By order of the Baptist Convention for the State of South 

This monument is erected to his Mer^ory. 


His love for the Columbian College was seen in his dying 
request. "Send my Sulky and horse and baggage to Brother- 
Brooks, with directions to send them to Brother Sherwood, and 
say that all belong to ths College." 

As a preacher Mr. Rice was rarely excelled. He was digni- 
fied in appearance, and unusually attractive in his style. His 
Barmons were characteristically doctrinal, and weighty in funda- 
mental truths. He was eminently gifted also in prayer. He 
wrote a work on Baptism, which, however, was not published. . 
He was elected in 1815 to the Presidency of Translyvania at Lex- 
ington, Kentucky, and also to that of Georgetown College, Ken- 
tucky, both of which he declined, as the two great obi2cts of his 
life — Missions and ministerial education — absorbed all the energies 
of his soul and body. No portrait of him is procurable. 

The 25th was a prominent date in Mr. Rice's life as will be 
seen below: — 

25th March ITSS.—Bsite of Birth. 

2oth March 1812, — Date of admission in regard to labours of 

25th Octdbtr 1812.— B&ie of letter to Dr. Carey asking for 

25 th May 181 j^, — Date on which the Convention at Philadel- 
phia appointed him their first missionary and Dr. Judson their 

25th September 1836.— 'Date of death. 

Much of the foregoing information has been collected by 
American friends from American publications which are not suffi- 
ciently known to any but American Baptists. Thus passed away 
a remarkable servant of God who, though, he was practically the 
starter of two Missionary Societies, viz,, those of the Congrega^ 
tionalists and the Baptists, was not permitted to labour as a mis- 
sionary in any heathen land, thus exemplifying the saying "Man 
proposes, but God disposes.'' 

The reader, who has come thus far will probably be of opinion 
that the Bev. Luther Rios was about as remarkable a man as Dr. 
Judson but he is overshadowed by the latter. This is no 
reason, however, why a tablet should not be erected in the Chapel 
commemorating his baptism, similar to the one commemorating^ 
Dr. Judson's. 



Before closing this chapter some readers might like to 
know what happened to all the missionaries, who came out in the 
(*araran and th* Harmony, so the details below may interest 

Dr. Jiulam (B) 
Saml. Newell 00 ... 

•Gordon Hall (C) ... 
Saml. Nott (C) 

Luther Rice (B) ... 

John Lawson (B) ... 
Dr.Wm Johns (B)... 
Robt. May (0) 

Missionariett per •* Caravan.** 

Died mh April ]860,agoil 61. 
Died 8l8t May 18S1, aged 37. 

Landed 18rh Jum^ 1812. 

Missionaries per •• Harmonjf.'* 

Died 10th March 1826,agel4i 

Left India, September 18I& 
Die<l in America, Ut Jolly 
1869, aged 81. 

Landed lOtli August 1812. 

Left India 11th March 181S. 
Died in America 26th Se])- 
tember 1886, aged 58. 

Died 22nd October 1826, ngetl 
38 years. 

Depo'ted Ist April 1818. Died 
in England <date not traced) 

Died 12th August 1818, aj^^i 
80 yea^s. 

i.e. four Congregationalists and four Baptists, or five Americans 
and three English. Of this number Mr. Lawson got special per- 
mission from Lord Minto to remain in order to complete a fount 
of Chinese type, and Mr. May because he come out to 
an English congregation and not as a missionary to the 
heathen. Dr. Johns was deported back to England on Ist 
April 1813 and the five Americans were driven out of Bengal by 
the Government. Dr. Judson was permitted to work the longest, 
but Mr. Nott lived to the advancad age of 81 in America, where 
lie died on 1st July 1869. 


The simple-minded Mrs. Jore, a devout member of the 
Church, who died on 8th July 1815. 

It was the poor who attended the Chapel, but they were rich 
faith. The following narrative of one of these members is of 
ifficient interest to find a place in this history as typical of many 
its kind. It is taken from the Periodical Accounts: 

On the 8th July (1815) died at Serampore, Mrs. Jora, one 
the Calcutta members, of whom her son wrote as follows in a 
tter to Mr. Ward. After mentioning his own efforts to bring 
)r to attend upon the Word at the Lall-Bazar Chapel, he added : 
Qe evening she returned from the Chapel accompanied by Krishna 
' which circumstance I was not a little rajoiced, and at another 
nte, with Mrs. Mitchell, an old acquaintance of hers, with whom 
^ was glad to meet, and whose conversation and society she ev^r 
•luiously sought. She afterwards became very regular in h^r 
^ndance at the Chapel, and left entirely the Romish Church, 
enduring the sneers and ridicule of her friends and relations, who 
ook a dislike to her for changing her religion (as they termed it), 
mt she the more steadfastly clave to the Protestant faith. Her 
ife since then, which has been an increasing one of prayer, humi- 
ty, self-denial and patience in sickness, without murmuring, will 
» better ascertained by a reference to those of your Church, who 
wk an interest in her welfare, than by my describing it. Permit 
e, however, to say this much that though she was very devout 
xaa her widowhood ever since my birth (a period of nearly 34 
Mirs) in the Bomish persuasion, she was more so in her converted 
ate; often did I with pleasure hear her say how merciful the 
Imighty had been to her in reclaiming her from the errors of 
e Bomish religion. She used at the same time to lament that 
e was not able to read the Scriptures in Bengalee, yet she could 


read a little French and Portuguese. She considered it no trouble, 
nor pain, even in sickness, when she could stir abroad to go wherever 
she could hear the Word of Grod. And her constant conver8a;ti(m 
with those around her was "Let us heartily apply to the salvatiim 
of our souls.'' I had almost omitted one circumstance, which 
attended the near approach of death and which formed a favourable 
and indubitable sign of her having died in the Lord. The Oiund- 
ranuggure (Chandemagore) priest being informed that she wu 
dangcruusly ill, came to see her, but, instead of coming to console 
her, Ik- came to shake her faith ; but the Lord, in whom she had 
trusted f-treugthened her to baffle his inimicable attempt. He began 
by telling her that as she would soon die she had better prepare 
af^ainst that hour by recanting the religion she had embraced and 
by confessing her sins to him and thus die in the faith in which 
she was brought up from lier infancy. She replied that she was ready 
to obey the summons of her Lord; that she was firmly fixed in 
the true and pure religion she had by Divine aid embraced; that 
she confessed daily to Him, who was really able to pardon her 
sins; and, that nothing ha could tell her would induce her to 
retract. He then left her, pouring imprecations on her and telling 
her that she was going to Hell and that those who turned her 
away from her original faith could not have been her friends but 
her enemies.'' 

To ^Ir. Ward also she related this encounter with the Romish 
pricfet who spoke with great vehemence against the missionaries. 
She exi)Osed many of the gross superstitions she had witnessed in 
the Roniisli Church, and though scarcely able to speak, in con- 
sequence of a most painful ulcer in her throat and great weakness, 
she gave with much courage a reason of the hope that was in her. 
Her devotional character was truly eminent. She once 
acknowledged to Mr. Ward that such were the joys she 
felt when in the water at the time of her baptism that 
she wished at once to be removed from the watery grave 
to the general assembly above. She expressed the deepest 


gratitude to the Missionaries for having brought the Gospel 
to the poor in tho native language. It was not an uncommon 
thing to see this pious woman half an hour before the time of 
worship, sitting in the chapel at Calcutta apparently in prayer 
and waiting to drink at the wells of salvation. She assisted some 
of the poor Native brethren living at the chapel with oil, that 
they might hold extraordinary meetings for prayer. Dr. Marsh- 
man saw her on the day on which she died and found her mind 
in a most pleasing frame, resigned, though in extreme pain, she 
seemed to fear nothing so much as offending her gracious God by 
murmuring through excess of pain. Dr. Marshman took his formal 
leave of her by commending her to the Father of mercies in which 
exercise she evidently felt most deeply engaged. . 

It is very unfortxmate that this excellent person's date of 
baptism has not been traced. 


The Co-Pastorship of the Revs. John Lawson and Eustace Cabet 


By the end of 1815 over 500 persons had been admitted into 
the Church by baptism or otherwise, and though, of oourss, some 
might not be alive in January 1816 or resident in Calcutta, the 
number of souls to be cared for was more than the three senior 
missionaries could well look after in addition to their already 
onerous duties, and, considering that they were residing at Seram- 
pore, which was more than 15 miles distant from Calcutta. It 
must also be borne in mind that their printing press had been 
burned down on 11th March 1812, which caused them much 
anxiety and entailed much labour in the building of a new struc- 
ture. Moreover, at about this time they were contemplating the 
establishment of the Serampore College. Added to all was the 
fact that their faithful Calcutta correspondent, Mr. Leonard, had 
removed to Dacca, and they were beginning to feel the weight of 
years after their long stay in a trying tropical climate. It was 
natural, therefore, that they should seek some relief in their 
arduous toils. 

Before, however, we proceed to give an account of their 
stewardship of over 3J years, the two persons, who now oome on 
the scene must first be introduced to the reader and this will bs 
done as briefly as is advisable. Mr. Lawson, being the senior of 
the two, will be introduced first. No Biography of him has ever 
been published, which makes it the more difl&cult to marshal up 
the facts of his life before the reader. The present writer was 
engaged a few years back in searching out all the information he 
could about him as Mr. Lawson was his maternal grandfather, 
for the benefit of the descendants, but the information then col- 
lected was not condensed into a Biography, so will be drawn upon 
for the present sketch. 



The Rev. John Lawson. 

He was bom at Trowbridge in WilteHire, England, on the 24th 
T 1787, of godly parents, who belonged to the Baptist Cfhurch in 
> town. He spent his childhood and early youth at Trowbridge. 
OL a child he was made acquainted with the Holy Scriptures 

tJie impressions produced by his mother's instructions were 


Enlarged from a miniature done "by himself which w in the possession o) 

the writer,^ 

itwards strengthened by the kind attentions of the master to 
ae care his education was entrusted, who often convensed and 
fred witE him in th& most solemn and affectionate manner, 
sainted mother died in 1793 when he was only 6 years of age 
her death was one of the events that most impressed them* 


selves on his mind. As he grew up lie felt a strong propensity to 
beoome an artist. He commenced cutting different figures in pieces 
of wood, and, without any assistance, brought them to such per- 
fection that those who saw them were astonished and convinced 
that the hand of Nature had formed him for an Artist. His father 
went to London to seek out a suitable situation for him and suc- 
ceeded in getting him articled to a wood engraver. Lawson was 
delighted when he heard the news, and all necessary arrangements 
having bean made he left his home at Trowbridge in June 1803 
for the great city. The parting scene was touching. His father 
requested two things of him — one was to read his Bible and the 
other to attend Divine worship on the Sabbath, which he promised 
to do. He put his Bible into his box, which he wished him, as 
he valued his eternal interests, to make His principal study, saying 
at the same time very affectionately: — 

" I hope now, as you are going beyond the reach of a parent's 
eye to a place where you will be surrounded with snares and 
dangers, you will not fail to attend the ministry of the Gospel every 
Sunday, and I particularly wish you to make Eagle Street (where 
Dr. Ivimey was) your constant place of hearing." 

His aged grandmother also urged him with tears in her eyes 
to read has Bible and attend a place of worship, which he promised 
to do. He then received their parting benedictions and left the 
place of his nativity to enter the great city where all was new and 

Arrived in London he applied himself diligently to his woA 
and made rapid advances in the art, but, alas! he forgot hi» 
pron^ises to his father and his grandmother. He neglected to read 
his Bible and seldom attended any place of worship. He oontinnel 
in this course for nearly three years when in "one of his serious 
intervals he was led to read his Bible and to visit the forsaken 
Chapel and it pleased God by these means to convince him of sin 
and make him acquainted with the blessings of salvation. 

He twice attended the Surrey Cfhapel where Rowland Hill 
used to preach, but afterwards he attended the Eagle Street Ohapd 


id eventually offered himself as a candidate to tlie . Church meet- 
g in the latter place. After being accepted he was baptized on 
e 28tii September 1806, along with 17 other young men among 
liom was Dr. Hoby, who subsequently wrote biographies of the 
evs. W. H. Pearce and W. Yates. 

Soon after his admission to the Church his mind became im- 
«8sed with the importance of Missions, and, thinking lie might 
x>mote the great cause by the knowledge of the art he had 
quired, he made known his desire and was recommended to the 
aptist Missionary Society. The Society engaged his services and 
Laoed him und^ the care of Mr. Sutcliff of Olney under whom 
9 entered upon a preparatory couree of studies. This course of 
udies, however, was not carried out to the extent he wished 
irough its having been judged desirable for him to make himself 
aeter of punch-cutting in order to improve the different typea 
t India. This necessitated his return to London and nearly a 
sar's close application. Thus Gk)d, step by step prepared His 
irvant for his special work in the Mission field. 

In September 1810 it was judged necessary by the Society 
lat Mr. Lawson and Dr. Johns ^ould go out to India by way 
: America and preparations were made accordingly, but before 
le Designation Service Mr. Lawson married Miss Frances Butter- 
orth, a dau^ghter of the Rev. John Butterworth of Cow Lane 
aptist Chapel, Coventry, on the 28th September 1810. 

One Designation Service was held on the 4th Octx)ber 1810, at 
lie Carter Lane Chapel, Southwark, and another at the Eagle Street 
faapel on the 18th idem. On the 2nd November 1810 the ship 
eres in which they had embarked at Gravesend sailed for New 
ork where they arrived on 23rd December after a very boisterous 
usage across the Atlantic. In May 1811 they tried to start for 
ttdia, but the vessel had to put back having met with a disaster 
t> sea in a violent gale. They had therefore to remain in America 
wing to some political misunderstanding with England, so Mr. 
awson preached at different places and among then Dr. Stxmgh- 


ton's Church. He was very acceptable as a preacher and often 
had thoughts that if obliged to leave India he would return to 
labour in America. Dr. Johns spent his time in raisiiig money 
for the translations. Finally they left i^iiladelphia for India in 
the Harmony, Captain Brown, on 18th February 1812 and arrived 
in Calcutta on Monday the 10th August following. 

On their arrival at Calcutta they learned that all the mk- 
sionaries had been ordered away and afterwards they were told 
that permission had been given to the Baptist Missionaries to 
remain during the pleasure of the Court of Directors. Mrs. Law- 
son having been safely delivered of a girl on the 11th August they 
were necessarily detained in Calcutta for a while, after whidi they 
removed to Serampore where Mr. Lawson applied hiTinft<>lf to the 
work that was required of him. By the end of 1812 it is stated 
that he was cutting a fount of Chinese type. The two principal 
things to which Mr. Lawson devoted himself at Serampose 
were : (1) Cutting moveable metal Chinese types to be substituted 
for wooden blocks, and (2) Reducing the ^ize of the types of the 
languages in India and for these he is entitled to the thanks of 
the religious public. 

While thus usefully employed on the above work the following 
order was issued by the Government on the 5th March 1813 for 
all unlicensed persons to leave the country and the names of Messn. 
Johns, Lawson and Robinson were included in what might be^ 
termed "the black list." 

I am directed by the right Honorable the Governor-General 
in Council to acknowledge the receipt of your letter dated the 3(Hh 
January last, regarding Messrs. Johns, Lawson and Robinsoiir 
and to inform you that it is contrary to the public orders of the 
Honorable the Court of Directors for the Government to permit 
British subjects, who come out to India without their express per- 
mission to remain in this country. His Lordship under all the 
circumstances of their cases, does not feel himself warranted in 
acceding to the indulgence submitted by you on their behalf. 

2. Messrs. Lawson, Johns and Eobinson will therefore be 
respectfully desired to prepare themselves to embark for Bngland 


on one of the ships of the next fleet, expected to sail from this 
Port by the Ist of April next. 

(Sd.) C. M. BlCKBTTS, 

Secretary to Government, 
Council Chamber, 5th March 1813. 

Upon a representation b^ing made to the Government of Mr. 
XiawBon's great usefulness in connection with the type work, he 
w«B allowed on 26th March, to remain, but Dr. Johns was per- 
emptorily ordered to rstum to England immediately, so left on 
1st April 1813. In the meantime Mr. Lawson had, on the 13th 
March been committed to the Kuttra, — where under-trial peiBons 
were detained, — under orders of Mr. Charles Fuller Martyn the 
Magistrate, for refusing to sign the document consenting to be 
deported. Dr. Marshman, however, on going to see Mr. Ericketts, 
the Secretary got him released within a short time. 

Mr. Lawson having taught the natives to cut punches and 
reduce the size of types found his importance diminished as the 
usefulness of Monohur the head man increased, so he did not 
deem it necessary any longer to give his time to this mechanical 
work. He found sample scope for his ministerial gifts among 
the European and East Indian members of the congr-^ation in 
Calcutta, and among the European soldiers in the Fort. The 
irregular walk of some of the members of the Church in Calcutta 
led the senior brethra^n to decide that one Pastor or more should 
reside in Calcutta to take a more careful oversight of the members. 
Prior to this the missionaries had taken it in turo 
to oome down to Calcutta from Serampore. This led to 
the designation of Mr. Lawson and Mr. Eustace Carey as Co- 
pasters. The details of the work done during their Co-pastorship 
are given further on. On 19th October 1819, Mr. Lawson severed 
liis connection with this Church and was appointed the flrst Pastor 
of the Circular Bead Church which had been formed by the junior 
brethren. He laboured 7 years for that Church in that position 
and on 22nd October 1825, was gathered to his fathers and was 
buried by the Kev. J. Thomason of St. John's Church on the 


23rd idem in tihe South Park Street Cemetery where his gravt 
can be seen at the present day. He was only 38 years of age when 
he died. 

The following extract from Statham's '' Indian ReooUections." 
is of interest as it gives the recollections of a fellow-labourer in the 

The recollections of Lawson are still fresh upon my mind. 
He was a genius of no common mould ; in all that he undertook 
he excelled; and the longer you were conversant with him, the 
more would admiration be excited. In the succeeding chapter, 
I shall make a f«eble effort to rescue his memory from oblivion, 
by giving a brief memoir of this, talented man, the materials for 
which aire taken from a small peridical, of which he was the editor, 
mz., The Calcutta Auxiliary Missionary Herald, published in 
January and February 1826. [This is evidently a reprint <rf 
Dr. Yates' Memorial Sermon for Mr. Lawson.] 
Oh! happy was thy exit, blissful saint; 
No pining sickness tir'd thee — care opprest — 
No grief domestic marr'd thy coming rest ; 
Short was thy warning — sweet thy dying plaint; 
Calm, sunny were thy thoughts — ^thine accents faint; 
By virtuous children lov'd, by friends carest. 
Thy sorrowing flock thou leavest, peaceful, blest; 
Oh I happy was thy exist, blissful saint. 
So falls the goodly palm tree, as it grew. 
With clustering dates, and graceful foliage crown'd: 
Nor lightning scorch'd, nor age consumed its hue; 
Its dirge is sung, in most pathetic sound. 
By grateful pilgrims, who had often staid. 
Refreshed and cheer'd, beneath its cooling shade. 


It may here be mentiomsd that Mr. Lawson's elder brother, 
William, was a Lieutenant in the Boyal Navy and wee wounded 
while serving under the distinguished Nelson in one of his naval 
engagements. Mr. Lawson had the pleasure of seeing this 
brother about a month after his arrival in Calcutta after years of 
absence from home. 

The Rev. Eustace Carey. 

He was. born on 22nd March 1791 at Paulerspury. He was the 
son of Thomas Carey, who was a younger brother of Dr. Carey. 



ence Eustaod Caxey was a nephew of Dr. Carey, and this fact 
OTild always be borne in mind. He was baptized on 7tli July 1809, 
id in August went for tuition to Mr. Sutcliff of Olney. In 
12 he went to Bristol College, which he left in the autumn of 
►13. On the 9th December 1813 he married Mies Mary Fosbrook; 
I the 19t£ January 1814 his Designation Service was held at 
orthampton and on 18th February 1814, Mr. and Mrs. Carey 
ibarked for India from Portsmouth. The name of the vessel 
s been traced from the Supplement to the Calcutta Gazette of 
h August 1814, as the Europe, Captain Gelston, which left on 
e 22nd February and arrived at Calcutta on the 29th July 1814. 


Rev. J. Lawson. 

On Ist August 1814 Mr. and Mrs. Carey arrived at Seram- 
re. Mr. Carey had come out under a license under the new 
larter Act of 1813 and was the first missionary, who had landed 


in India after the passing of the new Act which came into opera- 
tion from 10th April 1814. A few days after his landing he paid 
the needful visit to the Government authorities, but the businen 
was soon over. Dr. Carey wrote that it reminded him of the 
difference betwe:?n these days and those in which he first cams 
out to India. He was invited by the senior missionaries to tab 
the oversight of the native ChurcH, instruct native enquirers aad 
give attention to such native brethren as were devoting them- 
selves to preaching among the heathen and accordingly lie 
gave himself up to the acquisition of Bengalee. Mr. 
Carey and Dr. Yates would have liked to have formed 
a Station at Berhampone, but this was over-ruled by tlie 
senior missionaries, who invited Lawson and Eustace Carey 
to occupy Calcutta and requested Dr. Yates to stay at Serampore 
to assist in the translations. And thus it came about that he 
was apiK)inted Co-pastor at the Lall Bazar Chapel with Mr. Lawson. 
The controversy with the Junior Brethren arose and eventually 
the Circular Koad Church was formed. On 7th October 1819 
Mr. Carey resigned his Co^pastorship and throw himself into ver- 
nacular work connected with the Circular Road Church. But 
one day as he was preaching at the Chapal gate in 1822 with a 
converted Brahmin named Bagchee, a rdspectable Mahomedan 
was a hearer. Hie name was Sujaat Ali. After careful Mid 
prayerful consideration he wias baptized by Dr. Yates at Howrah 
on the 8th May 1824. The story regarding this man is very inter- 
esting and will be given in a later Chapter. Mr. Carey s health 
failed and he finally left India in June 1824 via America 
for England. He remained several months in America 
and arrived in England in August 1825 where he was permitted 
to labour in the interests of the Mission and the Missionary Society 
till 19th July 1855 when he died in the 64th year of his 

Having thus introduced the Cc-pastors, it becomes necessiury 
to detail the events of thsdr Co-pastorship. 

The designation service took place on the 11th January 1816 


and the record regarding it runs as below in the Periodical Ac 
counts : — 

"After a suitable hymn and an introductory prayer, 
Brother Ward giave an account of the different forms of Churdh. 
Government and particularly of that under which the Church waa 
then acting. This was followed by questions respecting the choice 
of the two brethren as Co^Pastors and by a confession of faith 
from each of them. After the laying of hands by the three elder 
Pastors, and the ordination prayer by Brother Carey he addressed 
the two brethren from Col. iv. 17, and Brother Marhsman 
addressed the Church from Psalm ii. 16. The service was closed 
with prayer by Brother Ward. Tha whole was in a high degree 
solemn and impressive." 

Mr. Lawson, took up the English work and Mr. Eustace 
Carey the vernacular work as it was estimated that 
there were a million souls in Calcutta. The latter thus became 
the first European vemacuar preacher resident in Calcutta. Mr. 
Lawson Ifecame the Calcutta correspondent for the senior mis- 
sionaries in succession to Mr. Leonard : but he did not write as 
frequently to them as the latter used to do. There used to be 
four services at the Chapel on Sundays aw below : — 

8 A. M. — Bengalee Service. 

10 A. M. — ^English service by one of the elder Brethren from 

3 p. M. — Bengalee service by one of the elder Brethren from 

7 p. M. — ^English service by one of the Brathren resident in 

Also service at the jail in the morning and afterwards in 
the Fort. 

Tuesday evening a lecture in the Chapel by Dr. Carey. 

Wednesday evening another in the Fort by one of tha younger 
men . 

The very day of the Ordination Mr. Lawson wrote : — 

"We are going on much as usual in Calcutta. I hope our younger 

^'people are gradually advancing in Divine things. May they be 

our joy here, and crown of rejoicing in glory. We have set them 


to work in the formation of a society for visiting and relieving 
tlie poor, which is to be called the Juvenile Charitable Institu- 
tion. They seem to enter upon this with delight, and I think it 
will be the means of uniting them together and of calling forth 
their gifts, as reading, and explaining the Sacred Scriptures and 
prayer are to attend every visit. Our congregation in the Fort 
is codarged, as a Regiment from Berhampore haa lately arrived, 
among whom are brethren baptized by Dr. Marshman. 

" This morning Eustace Carey and I intend attending a Church 
meeting in the Fort. Yesterday we went together to the Hob^ 
pital to see some sick brethren of the 59th Regiment. We thought 
it prudent to pay our respects to the Doctor before we went and 
he politely gave us permission to visit the soldiers whenever we 
wished. We found five or six brethren, with whom in a little 
room allotted to Brother M., we joined together in prayer. I am 
much pleased with the spirituality and stability of these good 

From the foregoing it will be seen that at the very outsefc 
of his Co-pastorship, Mr. Lawson saw the importance of a Juvenile 
Association for Christian work and this was prior even to the 
formation of the Young Men's Christian Association in England. 
This Juvenile Society under various names did useful work in 
Calcutta for many years and eventually opened a Hall in Bow 
Bazar, on the 19th November 1852. In 1854 the Calcutta Young 
Men's Christian Association was formed and in 1856, the Juvenile 
^ciety adopted the latter name. 

In another note he said : — 

"I wish I could communicate to you the news 
of our prosperity in Calcutta. We feel it quite a 
blessing that Brother Gordon livesso near us. I spoke to him 
a few days ago respecting Robert, and was gratified with what 
I could collect. We may be assured that he would not speak of 
his son's conversion, but on very good grounds. I had some agree- 
able conversation last evening with Jahans,* and have reason to 
hope that he is a pious, humble young man. The young man of 
whom I formerly wrote has not attended very much of late: I 
know not the cause. I saw him last week at our Thursday evening 
prayer-meeting. The two brethren baptised by Brother Eustace 
Carey last Lord's-day appear to be very spiritual men. We were 

* A joong man trained op, from the begiDning, in the Benevolent Institao 
tion, in which he filled the office of monitor for sever^ ^ears. 


at th© Church-meeting when they related their experience, ani: 
were qidte gratified and refreshed: they seetm to have entered 
deeply into the very spirit of religion, and are well versed in thisr 
tilings of God." 

In 1816 thirty-eight were admitted into the Church of whom, 
twenty-three were soldiers of the 59th Kegiment; in 1817 thirty- 
seven wera admitted of whom only seven were soldiers; in 1818- 
there were twelve admissions and in 1819 only eight admissions. 

In the same year a mat hut was constructed at Dum Dumi 

for services and Mr. Lawson used to go out there to conduct 

the service for the soldiers. 

Mr. E. Carey recorded their work as below: — 
"The members of the Cliurch and oongregatdon were 
scattered over a wide surface and we devoted one day in every 
week to visiting them, holding a religious servica with each- 
family. We had one or two meetings in commodious houjses each 
week for prayer and expositing the Scripture at which many 
friends besides those of our denomination were present. 

Two or three services were also held in Fort William, which 
were well attended by the soldiers, many of whom were brought 
into Church fellowship and were truly devout and exemplary 

The following letter from the Regimental Pastor of the 59th 
Regiment to Mr. Lawson is so interesting that it is inserted w 

"12th September (1816). When our regiment arrived inr 
Fort William, we had in full communion seventeen persons. 
From the above number eleven still remain. Two have left our 
communion, but laare going on well ; and three have been excluded. 
One has been restored, who was excluded at Java ; he walks very 
orderly. One has died in full hope of eternal life. The Lori* 
has been graciously pleased to incline the hearts of others since 
our arrival, who have left their sinful practices, and hiave been 
constrained, through the awakenings of conscience, to read and 
hear His preached word, which has been the means of adding! 
to our communion, twenty-one. One of the latter has been ex- 
cluded, and is still living in open rebellion against God ; another 
useful brother (John Smith) has been discharged from our church, 
and has since gone to England ; we have also just received the in- 
telligence of another (who was baptized with the above) a useful 


member, suddenly appearing before his God. So ihat, €m the 
whole we remain, at present in full communion, thirty m!eiinbe>i:s. 
The indulgences shown in this garrison have been very great; for 
our superiors have at all times favoured us in every request which 
we have asked from them, and have permitted us to assemble for 
the worship of God in such places as were vacant. 

" Our meetings in general are well attended : when the r^ 
ment is all together, we have from sixty to a hundred; besides 
otheirs who live in d/iff&rent parts of the Fort, we have a few 
who have permission from the surgeon to meet for reading and 
praying as often as they choose : this has been of much importance 
to a few individuals, who have been for a long saason lingering 
in sickness. We have every reason to believe that some have died 
with the pardoning love of God shsd abroad in their souls, and are 
now in glory. 

"May the Lord reward you all for your labour of love, and 
give you many souls for your hire, and at last crown you with 
glory, which is the sincere prayer of us, your unworthy brethren. 

"In the name and on the behalf of the Church in H. M.'s 
59th R&giment. 


"Private in H. M.'s 59th Regiment.." 

During 1816, one of the Deacons died, but it has not been 
possible to trace the name. Two other Deacons were appointed 
during that year apparently to fill vacancies, but their names are 
not mentioned. 

However, on 4th October 1816, Dr. Carey baptized at Seram- 
pore, Mr. J. W. Ricketts whose career was so remarkable a one, 
that a whole Chapter will be devoted to detailing the more im- 
portant incidents in it. 

About a year after his Ordination as Co-pastor Mr. Carey 
became sick and had to go up-country for a change, so Dr. Yated 
kindly supplied the necessary services for him for about six 

On 4th January 1817, the missionaries received a donation 
of Rs. 286 from a few soldiers of the 59th Regiment towards the 
spread of the Gospel among the heathen. They stated in their 
letter : 

"It is but little to support such a cause, when the calls 


of eo many aroimd you are so urgent for the bread of life : liow- 
«ver, tlie cause is TSod's and the name of Jesus Christ must extend 
to every tribe and nation. We have received its balmy message 
into our own heairts, and do rajoioe in hope of the glory of God : 
mud we should rejoice abundantly if others were brought to love 
the Saviour." 

On the 9th February, Mr. Lawson wrote to Mr. Ward 

" The Sircar will bring to you four hundred rupees, the mite of 
the poor soldiers in the Fort. It is a willing offering to the Lord. 
1 am happy to say that our prayer meetings appear to be on the 
increasa, but I speak with trembling ""and rejoice with fear. We 
3ee new faces among us frequently, and have in a good measure 
conciliated the esteem and gained the attendance of several^ who 
Jong kept at a distance from us. Last Thursday evening we had 
jft prayer meeting at Brother Jahans', where we had a large room 
well filled. Brother Gordons prayer-meeting the next evening 
was full, and we had new comers ait- the Saturday evening meeting 
for the young people. We have begun a Thursday morning lecture 
st Itali (Entadly), to be held alternately at the houses of two 
friends. We hope thus to get some stragglers to hear us, who 
would not come to any regular place of worship." 

On the 23rd February 1817 Mr. Lawson baptized three persons 
one of whom was Mr. J. C. Fink, who was a member of the 
Missionary Society of the Lall Bazar Church regarding whom 
more is said further on in this narrative. 

On the 1st March 1819 the young members of the Church at 
Calcutta, who had long supported a Sunday School drew up and 
printed an address to the public proposing the formation of an 
Association to be called "The Baptist Sunday School Society" 
before even the formation of the Sunday School Union in England. 
Their letter and the proposed rules are given in e.rtenso, being 
taken from the Circular Letter for the period March to Juno 1819. 
The reader may not be acquainted with these letters, but may 
be interested in noting the names that are put forward as Teachers 
and Officers: — 


The eminent success which has attended the establishment of 
Sunday Schools in Britain, has puggested the idea of a similar 


tSchool iu Calcutta, >\'h€re the vast uumber of ignorant children 
who are seeu in the streets on the Sabbath day, presents a melaa 
choly spectacle, and loudly calls for the exercise of Christitt 

Under lai serious view of these facts an Association has beei 
formed, bearing the denomination of " The Baptist Sunday QchoA 
Society," the object of which is to provide for the religious in- 
struction of all such youth as may be found willing to partalce 
of the privilege. 

In laying thif} address before you it is needless to enter into 
an examination of the various benefits, which are likely to result 
to the rising generation from Sunday Schools in Calcutta, since 
the experience of a long course of years in Europe hae borne 
abundant testimony to their utility. Suffice it to say, that the 
object now in view, is not to solicit assistance for defraying tiie 
expense attending th& general education of the class of ehildren 
above referred to (for the public liberality has already made 
sufficient provision for this purpose), but merely to raise a small 
fund which may provide suitable books for their religious instrao* 

It is hoiKid, therefore, that a small portion of your liberalily 
will be permitted to run in this new channel of benevolence undtf 
the influence of which hopo, a copy of the rules which have been 
framed for the management of the Baptist Sunday School Society, 
is now submitted to your perusal. 

We remain. Your obedient servants, 
(Sd.) J. Reily. 
9, B. (tobdov. 
Calcutta, 1st March 1819. 

Rules for the formation of an Association for Sunday School! 
in the City of Calcutta. 

1. That an Association be formed for the religious instmO' 
tion of indigent children in Calcutta, which shall be demominaiied 
The Baptist Sunday School Society. 

2. That the sole object of this Association be to oommuni- 
cate religious knowledge to those who may be brought under il» 

3. That for the accomplishment of this purpose six teadien 
be chosen duly qualified for the office as it respects their personal 
ability and their disposition to promote gratis the objects of this 

4. That of this number two shall attend for one month ai 
eight o'clock every Sabbath morning in the vestry of the Lall Basal 


lapal for the performance of their duties in the Suflday School, 
lo after the expiration of that period shall be relieved by two 
hers in alternate succession. 

5. That the business of the School consists of instructing 
e children in reading the Sacred Scriptures and hearing them 
peat portions of Scripture, with endeavours on the part of the 
sachers to explain and impress Divine truth upon their minds, 
id the School be invariably opened with prayer and closed with 
-ayer and singing a hymn. 

6. That all the teachers be requested to use their utmost 
LcLeavours to bring children under these means of instruction. 

7. That for the promotion of these and other objects, a 
Loeting of the teachers shall be held once in threa months; or 
ftener if necessary, at such place as may he hereafter appointed 
» consider and decide upon matters calculated to secure efficiency 
* the institution. 

8. That the following persons be the- present Teachers, viz.^ 
Messrs. R. Gordon, J. C. Fink, J. W. Ricketts, J. R. Douglas 
id Mr. J. Johannes. 

9. That Messrs. Reily and Gordon be Secretaries to tha Insti- 
Ltion, and Mr. Ricketts be Treasurer. 

10. That to excite a friendly interest on behalf of "The 
aptist Sunday School Soci&ty," and thus to provide for its sup- 
)rt, these rules be printed for circulation within a proper sphere 
id a book opened for the reception of Subscriptions and 

(Sd.) J. Reily. 

,, R. Gordon. 

Not content with the above effort the younger members wrote 

I the Senior Brethren on the 29th Miarch 1819 suggesting the 

arting of a fund towards the liquidation of the dabt on the 

bapel, but this will find a place in another chapter. Suffice 

to say that these movements make it clear to all what in- 

>rest the younger members took in the temporal as well as 

I the spiritual welfare of the Church. 

The end of the Co-pastorship came later on this year, for 
1 the 7th October Rev. Eustaca Carey resigned and was followed 
f Mr. Lawson on IBe 19th idem. The latter was elected Pastor 
•-the Circular Road Church on the 25th idem. 


Mr. J. W. RicKETTs: the East Indian Patriot 


{By kind j)ermiAmm of the Princi'pal of the Doveton College, Calcutta, /i 
an oil- painting which ts in tihe Library of that College.) 

From wLat has been stated in the previous chapter it will 
remembered that Mr. Eicketts was baptized at Sarampore 


'. Carey on the 4th October 1816. It will be necessary, however, 
bh. the aid of the little book entitled "Eaet Indian Worthies," 
blished by Mr. Herbert A. Stark and Mr. E. Walter Madge, 
1892 to draw up a brief biographical sketch showing how Mr. 
cketts became connected with the Lall Bazar Church and the 
tptist Mission. 

It is on raoord in '* East Indian Worthies " that Mr. Ricketts 
IS the Bon of Ensign John Ricketts, who fell before the siege 
Seringapat^m. He was bom towards the close of 1791 and 
as entrusted to some friends who brought him to Calcutta whero 
8 was placed under Mr. Burney in the Upper Military 
rphanage at Kidderpore. It is then stated that before he was 
xteen years of age he left school to begin life as an apprentice 
L the Hon'ble East India Company's service, and sailed for 
^hooolen, which at that time was a British Settlement. This 
'ould bring us to the year 1807. The Island of Amboyna, how- 
ver, would seem to be where he went and not Bencoolen, for 
^lien Mr. Jabez Carey reached the island in the early part of 
814, he found Mr. Ricketts already there. He was at the time 
Secretary to the English Resident, and became the Secretary to tlie 
iible Society, when it was formed. 

Being awtakened through young Carey's influence to a more 
deep and lively sense of his obligations to the Saviour, he thought 
it his duty to return to Bengal and labour for the salvation of his 
own countrymen, wliich he accordingly did and brought with 
lim the following letter from Mr. Jabez Carey dated 2l6t March 

"The bearer of this letter is Mr. Ricketts about whom I 
wiot& before. He is now going to Bengal and wishes to engage 
in the work of the Mission. He was brought up under Mr. 
Burney and seems not to have lost his former serious impressions. 
In the last two or three months he has been much awakened and 
brought to consider his case; has hardly given himself any rest 
light or da.y ; and, at last has given up his very favourable pros- 
lectft here to engage in the work. I have no need to speak much. 
it Mm; wlien he arrives you will see him. He seems determined 


to leave all and follow Christ. He is Secretary of tlie Bible 
Society here and subscribes to it 100 Bupees annually." 

The record regarding his baptism^ in tbe Circular Letter <tf 
October 1816 runs as below: — 

On the first Lord s Day of the montb was baptized at Seram- 
pore by Brother Carey, Mr. J. W. Ricketts, whose education 
under Mr. Burney seems to have sown the good seed in his heart, 
this we hope has been watered froim heaven at Amboyna, from 
whence he lately came into Bengal with the design of endeavour- 
ing to do good to the Natives. 

He remained at S:?rampore some time, where he was instructed 
in the doctrines of grace and the nature of missionary work, after 
which he agreed to go and attempt to realize his wish respectiBg 
his own countrymen. 

On the 30th Novsmber 1816, the missionaries addressed him 
a long letter which contains much sound advice as to what to do 
and what not to do. He reached Moorstedabad, to which he had 
expressed a wish to go, in December and his first leitter from 
there l3ears date the 17tli of that month. There are other letteiB 
from him bearing the following dates: 1817, 6th January, 1st Feb- 
ruary, 1st March, 1st April and Ist August, all of which contain 
interesting items of news, also others of the same year bearing 
"date 25tli April, Ist May, 2nd June, 1st July, 1st September, 
1st and 10th October and 3rd November; 1818, 1st January, 4tili 
February, 2nd ]March, 1st May, 1st June, 7th and 29th July, 
3rd September and 2nd Octobiir. He had obtained permission 
to erect a bungalow, and, assisted by ia Native brother, had b^n 
to itinerate around him and to oi)en schools for the instruction 
of native children. The missionaries had recorded of Tn'm in 
their Review for 1817 the following eulogium: — "His mild and 
steady deportment, and the deep acquaintance he appears to 
have with the Divine Word, give us reason to hope that, if sudi 
be the will of God, ha will prove a useful laborer in the Lord's 
vineyard,' but these hopes were not fulfilled, for on 21st October 


1818 he addreyssed the following letter to Serampore from Moorshe- 
<labad : — 

"I am now labouring under a dietrsesing bowel complaint 
which has afflicted me for some time past, and, I do not eee 
any favourable prospact of a cure in this place, suiTounded as 
we are with stagnant water and subject to nauseous smells and 
exhalations. I fear I shall be obliged to go down to Calcutta 
for medical treatment." 

Apparently he did not wait for a reply, but left immediately 
for we next raad : 

Since writing the above " Brother Ricketts has. left his station 
and given up the design of returning and has been invited to 
remain at Sarampore." 

It does not appear that he went to Serampore as he was in- 
^ted to do, because, according to "Bast Indian Worthies" he 
fieeins to have obtained a situation in the Office of the Board of 
Customs, Salt and Opium — afterwards amalgamated wi|th the 
Board of Revenue — and rose to be Deputy Registrar. He remained 
connected with the Lall Bazar Church as his name was men- 
tioned in 1819 in connection with the Sunday School Society. 
His connection with the Church, however, ceased on 16th August 
1825 regarding which, the entry in the Church Register of 1825 
runs "Excluded for non-attendance.^ On the 7th March 1826 
ie was received into the Circular Road Church on relating his 

" East Indian Worthies '' will now be followed for the events 
connected with the remainder of his life. Realizing the 
fact that there was no public school for the increasing East 
Indian community he convened a meeting of "parents, guardians 
and friends" at his own residence on 1st March 1823 and the 
outoome of the gathering was the founding of the Parental 
Academic Institution, now called the Doveton College. He was 
its first Honorary Secretary. 

The members of the East Indian community felt keenly the 
politdcal disabilitieB under which they were suffering and accord- 


ingly determined to submit to the British Parliament a petkkm 
for the redress of certain of them. 

The best legal advice was obtained for drawing up this docu- 
ment. It passed through the hands of the eminent Barrirten 
Mr. Theodore Dickens and Mr. (afterwards Sir) Thomas Turton 
and of Eev. W. Adam, who had seceded from the Baptist to the 
Unitarian body. The petition was published in the various news- 
papers and was largely signed. A public meeting was held at 
the Town Hall on 20tli April 1829 at which Mr. Ricketts w« 
unanimously elected Agent of the " East Indians." It waa 
resolved tliat he should convey the i>etition to England and that 
a fund should be raised for the purpose. Subscriptions amount- 
ing to over Rs. 17,000 were subsequently received. Mr. Bicketta 
consented to undsrtake the journey to England in return for the 
bare expenses incurred by him; but the Committee authorised 
him to draw £500 per annum while in England. He accordijigly 
sailed in the Andromache and arrived in London on the 27ih 
December 1829. On the 29th March 1830, the petition was laid 
before the House of Lords and on the 31st idem, Mr. Bicketta 
was examined at the bar of that House by their Select GonunittM 
on the affairs of India. On the 4th May of that year it was laid 
before the Houi:e of Commons by the Hon'ble Mr. W. W. Wynn 
and on the 21st and 24th June he was examined by a 
Special Committee of the Lower House. A summary of 
his ^ividence before both Houses is given in the appendioea 
of "East Jndiian Worthifes.'^ Having made «anramgeme(ntiB fOE 
the further agitation of the subject in England he re- 
embarked for India on the Linnaeus , which sailed on tho 
8th July 1830. On his way back he broke journey at 
Madras and was presented to the Governor, the Hon'ble Mr. 
Lushington, who received him kindly and invited him to Govern- 
ment House. On the 3rd March 1831 the East Indians of Madru 
gave him a *' national ' dinner and on his entering the banquet- 
ing-hall the band struck up " Ricketts' March " which waa q)ecially 
composed for the occasion. When he returned to Calcutta another 


large and repreeentative meeting was held at the Town Hall on 
the 28th idem to accord him a welcome back. On the pro- 
position of Mr. H. L. V. Derozio it was resolved that Mr. Ricketts 
flhould be entertained at a public banquet and presented with a 
handsome silver vase bearing a suitable inscription and that ho 
should be asked to sit for his portrait in oils. The vase was 
purchased at a cost of 1,232 sicca rupees and the picture was the 
gratuitous work of Mr. Charles Pote, a distinguished East Indian 
artist, and hangs in the Library of the Doveton Collage. Per- 
mission having been given by the Principal of the Doveton College 
for a photograph to be taken off from it the writer is able to 
include it in this book. Tha East Indians' Petition in Parliar 
ment Brought about the insertion of the clause in the Charter Act 
of 1833 that all persons without reference to birth or 
colour were eligible to the Civil and Military Services of Govern- 
ment, and the subsequent adoption of the Lex Loci Act of the 
India Law Commissioners. 

Mr. Ricketts got permission to resume his duties in the Ofl&ce 
of the Board of Customs, but it was not long before he obtained 
the appointment of Additional Principal Sudder Amin (or Sub- 
Judge) of Gya, where h^ died on the 28th July 1835 at the age 
of 43 years, and the whole native community of the place evinced 
their respect for his public character by following his remains 
to the grave. 


The Story of Mahomed Bakur, a Mahomedan Convert. 

The story is so interesting that no apology is made for repro^ 
ducing it from the Periodical Accounts. 

On the 29th June 1814, Dr. Carey baptized at Serampore 
Mahomed Bakui', a nativo of Shiraz in Persia. 

The circumstances regarding this young man were somewhat 
singular. He was about 21 years of age at the time of his baptism; 
was born at Shiraz where his mother was still living at the time. 
At the age of 12 he came to Bengal with his father, who died 
at Dacca, where a gentleman talked with him respecting the 
Gospel, and against Mahomed. At first he was prejudiced 
against the truth, but in a short time he perceived that he was 
in the wrong. A part of a Gospel baing given to him he read 
it and became more convinced. From Dacca he removed to Cal- 
cutta, where, becoming acquainted with brother Petruse, the latter 
brought him to Brother Carey. A short time after this, to avoid 
the persecution raised against him by his Mussulman acquaintances, 
he went to Serampore and remained two or three months under 
instruction. Having occasion to go to Calcutta to recover a 
trifling sum owing to him he was obliged to call at the house of 
a Mussulman of property, who treated him with great external 
respect, but gave him in the tobacco which was prepared for him, 
some intoxicating drug, by which he became completsly insensible. 
In that state they cut his clothes in pieces and conveyed him oh 
board a ship lying off Calcutta, then on the point of sailing for 
Muscat. After being on board some time he recovered his senses 
and found himself in the hold of the ship. He then attempted 
to oome on deck and complain to the Pilot that the Captain was 
carrying him away without his consent, but he was beaten in the 
head and other parts of the body in the most violent manner, the 
scars of which were visible on the day of his baptism. They also 
tied his hands and fset and kept him in this state till the Pilot 
had left the vessel and they were out at sea. He was then brought 
on deck and made to work in the ship on a daily allowance of three 
biscuits and water. He was three times tied up by the arms in 
the blazing sun and ordered under pain of worse tortures to re- 
nounce Christ. He defied their threats, declaring that he was 
no longer a Mussulman » but a Christian. After they had sailed 
16 days, a violent storm came on and continued some days which 


>bliged tbem to put into Goa. Here, in the darkness of the night 
lie let himself dofwn into a small boat and got to land where he 
prevailed on a Port-uguese to conceal him till the ship departed 
which was after seven days. He then had a passage given him 
to Bombay by a European, who wished to be instructed in Persian. 
From Bombay to Madras he obtained his passage by working on 
board a ship proceeding thither. At Madras he happily heard 
of Brother Loveless, who treated him with the greatest kindness 
and introduced him to the "Friend-<in-n€ed Society' at that plac^, 
which paid his passage to Calcutta, from whence he hastened to 
Serampore to communicate the joyful news of his deliveranoa from 
"so great a death.'' After that he proceeded to Digah where 
the missionaries had long been wishing for a Brother, who oould 
speak the Hindustanee, and where it was hoped God would 
prosper him in doing much good among the Hindus and the 
followers of Mahomed. 



Christian Preacher. 

Elderly Baptist residents of Calcutta may be more or leai 
familiar with his name, but probably few know the interesting 
details of his conversion. 

His father was a famous physician in the service of the Prime 
Minister of the Nawab (King) of Oude. Sujaat Ali was the eldert 
in the family, being born in the year 1791. There were four ecmSy 
and, as he was the eldest, he was called the Burra Mirza and was 
well trained in Arabic and Persian. He was a Moshdhih and 
after his father's death he was looked upon aA the head of the 
family and was the jKDsseesor of an immense fortune. He did not 
care for worldly enjoyments, but preferred the pleasures of travel. 
He had often heard of the City of Calcutta and the many wonder 
ful things to be seen in it, so he was desirous of visiting Calcutta 
and other parts of Bengal and India and then return to the home 
of his father's and live and die thare. At that time he wa6 a great 
opponent of Christianity and not at all inclined to regiard Chriat 
as a Divine being. 

He started on his journey in 1822 and lodged at Howrah. 
He used to cross the river daily to come over to Calcutta to visit 
the famous places in it. One day as he happened to be walking 
through Bow Bazar he pass-sd by the Chapel and saw a crowd 
at the gate. This attracted his attention and when he came near 
he enquired the reason of the concourse and was told in reply 
that, a person within was saying (in the vernacular) that JeenB 
Christ was God's son. At hearing these words Sujaat Ali wai 
quite indignant and felt so angry that he cried out tauba^ totfii 
and left the place in a rage. But these words rankled in hia 
heart and as he could not get rid of the idea he wanted to con- 
vince the preacher that he was wrong about Christ being the Son 


of God, SO he came again, bub finding the Chapel shut he wrote 
with chajfiooal on the steps, '' I Sujaat AU came here to see you, 
but you were not here — when you came again wait for me." The- 
person who had been preaching when Sujaat Ali first saw the 
crowd was Eustace Carey and with him was a Brahmin 
convert named Bagchee. When Eustace and his native preacher 
were walking up the steps of the Chapel the next time they came, 
they saw the charcoal writing referred to above, so they 
waited, when Sujaat Ali made his appearance, and was 
found to be the man to whom the native preacher had given a 
Hindustani New Testament on the first occasion as Mr. Eustace 
Carey spoke in Bengali only. He had been reading that New 
Testament and was much impressed with its holy truths. There 
was much argument and discussion and searching of the Scriptures 
and eizhortation. He was convinced of sin and needed the in« 
■traction which the missionaries could impart. As Mr. Carey 
did nob know suflScient Hindustani he sent him over to Dr. Yates 
at Howrah. His mind opened to the reception of the truth. He 
believed in the Lord Jesus and became anxious of pardon through 
His blood. 

Shortly after he had to go through a severe struggle. Hie 
mother and others had come down to Howrah with a view to 
take him back home and the mother actually threatened to kill 
herself if he professed Christi'anity ; but his arguments prevailed 
with her, so that she did not carry out her intention when he 
was actually baptized. The missionaries found him to be a true 
follower of Christ and made arrangements for his baptism, which 
was conducted by Dr. Yates in the river near Howrah on the 
8th May 1824 in the presence of a large concourse of people who 
Ifliembled on the bank, as well as by seamen of the vessels around. 

The following extract from Statham's Indian Recollections 
gives full details regarding this interesting event : — 

iti the month of May 1824, a Mussulman moonshee of respec- 
table character and attainments, was baptized in the river Ganges^ 
9kt the ghaut before my house at Gusserah (Goosery), by Mr. Yates. 


The event wae a source of much astonishment to the natives, and 
produced a iKDwerful effect upon the minds of many "Wah! Wahl. 
6aid one to another, this is strange, passing strange, that one of our 
tcacliers should become a Christian ! " A Brahmin was bapt^'zed 
but the other day, and now a Mussulman monshee follows in the 
same path ! " '' Why, wo must all be Christian bye-and-bye, for, as 
our ahaatrriK declare one new religion shall eat up all the old ones," 
said another Hindoo, partly in jest and partly in earnset. Hundreds 
of natives lined the banks of the river, and bshaved in the most 
orderly manner, whilst Sujaat Ali, the moonshee, seemed deeply 
affected by the solemn ordinance." 

At the time of his baptism he was 33 years of age and was 

a very fine-looking man in the prime ol life as wuU be seen from 

the portrait below, which, hov/ever, does not show him off ae well 

as the colored portrait from which th^e photograph is taken. 

Portrait op Munsui Sujaat Ali, as he was when baptized. 
(^From a hand-painted portrait which ist in the possession of the writer,') 

The Mahomedans were exasperated. One took him into a 
tx)urt and in a rage told him that if he were not living; under 
a Christian Government he would cut him to pieces^ but Sujaal 
Ali witnessed a good confession. 

After his baptism Mr. W. H. Pearce took him on aa a com- 


positor in the Persian Department of the Baptist Mission PresSj 
but he had set his heart to give his time and his talents to the- 
preaching of the Gospel. As, however, the climate of Bengal 
did not seem to suit him he became so seriously ill that his death 
was feared. The Doctor said to him: "I can relieve your pain, 
but I cannot cure you, you will be troubled with it as long as you 
live." In reply Sujaat Ali said: "Well Doctor, if that be the^ 
case where is the use of taking medicine seeing I never shall be 
cured ; " but he was prevailed upon to take the medicine 
which by God's blessing led to his recovery. He, however, natur^ 
ally thought that a visit to his native clime would set him up 
again so consulted the European brethren, but Mr. W. H. Pearca 
strongly objected fearing that he might not be able to resist the 
tears of his relatives. After a good deal of consultation and 
prayer to God for direction he was allowed to carry out his own 
wish, and, having obtained the permission of the mis- 
fflonaries, he set about preparing for the journey. He 
made it a missionary tour and took with him some of the 
Native Preachers and a good supply of Scriptures and tracts. 
Thus they travelled from village to village sowing the seed of the 
Kingdom wherever they halted or landed, until they reached 
their destination. Sujaat Ali then asked his Christian brethren 
to encamp under an umbrageous tree while he went forward to 
acquaint his brethren and his father's house of his arrival. As 
soon as the news spread, they all heartily welcomed him, saying, 
Burr a Mirza has oome, Burr a Mirza has come, bring the hookah 
and the musical instruments and let us rejoice.'' But the Chris- 
tian man remarked: "Not the Hookah,'' on which they enquired 
the reason, so he told them that he was now a Christian, that 
he believed that Isa Masik is Khuda Ka Beta. Hearing this they 
rose with great anger and thrust him from them, but soon after 
th^ calmed a bit and enquired the reason for this change of 
religion. He gave them his reason by pointing out the claims 
of Christianity. They listened patiently to him, but, whenever 
he alluded to Jesus Christ as being the Son of God, they became 


• enraged calling out tauha, tauha ; then they bade him Begone! 
He left tliiam with an aching heart and returned to his ChnstiaB 
brethren, telling them of his ill-success. They were acoordingly 
making ])reparations to depart when a messenger came saying that 
his brethren would like to siee him again in order to have a little 
further conversation with him. He complied with bheip request, 
but, soon i>erceiving their intentions, after a little more talk, which 
was only argumentative and stormy, he was only too thankful to 
k'avo, for their rage was ko intensified that he was afraid of his 
life, seeing that they had threatened him that if he did not 
give up his Christian failli within 24 hours he would be beheaded, 
and they could have carried out their threat and would have 
escaped punishment, for there was no Magistracy in that part of 
the country in those days. 

After this trial he returned to Calcutta, but the trip up- 
country had not inii)roved his health much. He laboured in 
connection with tlie South Village Churches for some time, but 
in IS.'^l lie was taken .seriously ill and himself thought that he 
was on the verge of eternity. Mr. W. H. Pearce was delighted with 
his j^eace and confidence. On being asked what were his motives in 
])reaching tl:e Gospel he ^s^iid : 

"Tlic heart -searching God into whose presence I am just 
about to enter, is witnc^is that I have not pursued this work from 
any regard to wealth or honour. I have done it from a desire 
to glorify His name, to honor my Saviour and to benefit my coun- 

When a«ked in an interval of easa from his attacks 
of fever, whctlier he was not disposed to murmur at 
liis long and distressing sufferings, he said : " O no, Shall 
not the child with whom the father tafcas the most trouble 
be the 7nost gratefvlJ' On its being enquired if he had a good 
hope of eternal life he said : " Christ hath said Him that cometh 
to me I will in no wise cast out, I know I have come to him by 
faith and that he has received me. Christ is a rocE. He ahakfis 
not; I am built on Him and know I am safe for eternity. ** 



On hiM reocyvery it was deemed expadient that he should try 
the river air. With this view he proceeded to Monghyr where 
he z^ained hia health within a year or so, and then came back 
to Calcutta where he labored for the Lord in many ways. 

In 1835 Mr. W. H. Pearce wrote of him that he was a lovely 
Ghfistian character and added : 

"He preaches excellently and lives so oanaistently that every 
one admires and loves him. Had the Gos^x^l been successful in 
making from tbs* proud revengeful Mus«almen only one a meek 
devoted follower of Christ, the money hithorto si>ent would have 
bden well expended. But, Blessed be God! Hindus and 
Mahomedans not a few are already -n glory." 

The portrait below shows him as he was at about this time. 


{By permisium of Mr, B. Belchamhers from a hand-painted portrait in his 



A few* years later- when Mr. Pearce wae himself dying S 
All stood near his bed directing him to Christ with these ^ 
(in the vernacular) : Fear not, fear not, the Lord is standing 

The remainder of his life was spent in the Lord's servi< 
and around Calcutta and at the age of 76 years the end 
on the 25th October 1865 consequent on an attack of cho 
He was buried in the Circular Road Cemetery, the filneral ee 
being conducted by I>r. Wenger. 

The portrait below shows him as he was a few years h 
he died. 

Portrait of Mttnshi Sttjaat Ah in old aqb. 

The following is a copy of the inscription on his grave. 

In Memory of Munshi Sujaat Ali, for 40 years Missio 
in connection with the Baptist Mission. Died, 25th October 
Aged 76 years. 


With a piety exemplified by a life of purity 
Devoted for zeal he united great gentJenese 
And thus won the esteem of all who knew him 
And the love of many^ who will not cease 
to cherish the memory of 

This beloved Disciple. 

[Under the above is a tablet to the memory of his wife 




Strict or open Communion — which! 

When the missionaries banded themselves into a Clmrcli on 
the 24th April 1800, it was on the lines of "Strict" (or, Ck»e) 
Communion as Pailicular Baptists. Dr. Marshman and Mr. 
Ward were oj)en Conimunionists when they left Ei^laod, 
and "the beloved Commander of the Criterion'' as they 
usually designated Captain Wickes, though a PresbyteriaOi 
always communed with them on the voyage. But Dr. Carey 
had imbibed the principle of Strict Communion from Mr. 
Fuller and the other ministers of North amptonshiie, and, 
<n\ the foniiation of the Church at Serampore persuaded 
hLs i-olloagueB to adopt it. The Communion Table was, 
therefore, closed against all who did not belong to the 
Baptist persuasion and Captain Wickes on his return to Bengil 
was informed though not without the deepest reluctance— that 
the rules of the Church no longer permitted him to unite with 
them at the Sacramsnt. Mr. Ward more particularly deplored 
this rigid, and, as he thought, unlovely proceeding, thougli h« 
considered it hi« duty not to destroy the harmony of th^ Church 
and Mission. But after thd Rev. Mr. Brown had taken up hii 
pernianjnt residence at Serampore in April 1803, the subject waa 
frequently brought under discussion, and Mr. Ward urged the 
reconsideration of a rule which debarred many Christian frieodi 
from partaking of the Sacrament at the Mission Chapel, in con- 
junction with those whom (hay held in high esteem. Dr. Mar* 
man was iiitiuenced by these arguments, and brought Dr. Carey 
round to the same views, and the Communion Table was opened 
to all who professed the same Christian sentiments. This wai Ji 
1805 aft<«r the Church at Serami)ore had for more than five years 
adhered to the practice of Strict Communion. 


As one result of the relaxation to "open" Communion, Mrs. 
rown the wife of the Senior Chaplain, then the head of the 
cclefiiastical Department at the Presidency, partook periodically 
thje Ordinance with the missionaries. Mr. Ward recorded in 
s journal, that the alteration was not effected by his arguments, 
LOUgh he should have thought it an honor if it had been so, that 
leir newly arrived brethren (Moore, Rowe, Biss, Mardon appa- 
>ntly). had adopted it cheerfully and that all the sisters seemed 
> have been previously on " the amiable side of the question." 

"I rejoice, he said, that the first Baptist Church in Bengal 
as shaken olf that apparent moroseness of temper which has so 
-yng made us appear unlovely in the sight of the Christian world- 
- am glad that this Church considers real rdigton alone as the 
lound of admission to the Lord's Table. With regard to a Church 
bate, a stricter union may be required, but, to partake of the 
x>rd's Supper worthily requires only that a man s heart be right 
owards God." 

Mr. Fuller, however, when he heard of the change upbraided 
he missionaries for their disregard of a " positive ordinance '' but 
lis language, though earnest, was always kind and dignified. 

However in the year 1811 they again reverted to the practice 

>f Strict (or. Close) Communion, and the following is the record 

Ui Mr. Marshman's book about this matter : - 

During the present year (1811) the Church at Serampore 
reverted to the practice of strict Communion after having for 
four years (it was really six years) adopted the opposite rule of 
admitting to their Communion Table tfiose Christian and mis- 
sionaxy brethren, who did not coincide in their views of the 
Ordinance of baptism. The chief agent in this movement was 
Dr. Maishman. Mr. Fuller, a staunch strict oommunionist had 
for some tiuie engagiid in a controversial correspondence with Mr. 
Ward on this question. Mr. Ward brought it to a close by stating 
that be was >iot ccnvince3 by his reasoning, and that, in his judg- 
Hient men might fall into mistakes regarding not only common 
commands, but positive institutions and yet not incur a fbrfeHure 
of the right of Communion, but he thought the matter one of 
veary small moment compared with the great work of evangelising 
the heathen. Dr. Marshman, however, appears to have been con- 
idncad by Mr. Fuller's arguments and transmitted his own views 


on the subject in a very elaborate epistle. But he hesitated long 
to bring the question forward in a practical sEape, leet he should 
wound the fealings of his afPectionate colleague. At length he 
coiuniunicated hie thoughts to Mr. Ward by letter and proposed 
that the Church at Serampore should resume its former principle 
on the subject of Communion, stating that he was willing to take 
upon himself the responsibility and the odium of announcing Uiiff 
change of practice to those who had hitherto* communed witii 
them. On the spur of the moment Mr. Ward replied that he 
would rather die than go in for such a measure. Dr. Careys 
mind was not free from doubts, but he thought Strict Communkm 
the safer side. The other missionaries were disposed to coincide 
with him and with Dr. Marshman and, Mr. "Ward. -with hii 
habitual sweetness of disposition, said he should offer no further 
opposition, and make no attempt to divide the Church, only ht 
wished it to be distinctly known to all whom the decision might 
affect, that "the change was not made with his consent." 

In recording the event in bis own journal Mr. Ward remarked: 

" Mr. Pritchet, the Independent missionary, preached in the 
morning after which Brother Marshman interdicted him the Loid'f 

But this wide and irreconcdlable diffiarence of opinion was never 
suffered to produce the slightest alienation of feeling or to inte^ 
rupt the liarmony of their co-operation. 

When Dr. Ryland heard of this he was exasperated beyonl 
measure and gave vent to his indignation in the strongest language^ 
upbraiding Dr. Marshman with having set up a '^Baptmt Cuto." 
It may be remarked here, in passing, that years afterwards, the 
gentleman, who ussd to record the minutes of the Lall Baur 
Church invariably wrote that so and so were "Baptisted," not, 
baptized, evidently tinged with the idea of a " Baptist Caste." 

But the Church is now practising Open Communion and hu 
done so for many years past to the knowledge of the present writer, 
although all the documents relating to the Trust describe it M 
a Particular Baptist Church. How or when the change 
was made is not traceable from the records which are extant. 
There is no Minute or Resolution of the Church on the subjaci 
on record since 16th June 1825, nor anything to indicate when 
the change was made. 


Licenses and Passports. 
As shown in the introductory chapter Mr. Wilberforce and 
his friends succeeded in getting a certain important Resolution 
paesed in 1792 when the Charter Act for 1793 was under discus- 
sion. Had it been acted up to much of what subsequently took 
pUoe in India would have been averted, but the enemies, of 
religioii were ddtermined that it shoi^ld be inoperative so ignored 
it entirBly, hence all the scenes that Have been described in aome 
of tbd preceding chapters. 

When therefore in 1813 the discussion about the renewal of 
the Company's Charter for another twenty years came up the 
~ "iight had to be gone through over again and Mr. Fuller and Mr. 
».-3obert Hall and their friends, and Mr. Charles Grant and his 
.: iriends had to fight strenuously and were at length successful 
; so far as to obtain in the Act which received the Royal assent 
^ on the 2 let July 1813 the insertion of a clause relating to persons 
? desirous of going to India for the purpose of promoting the 
irdigious and moral improvement of the natives, beneficial in 
^ their result though not such as to preclude absolutely the oppres- 
%mons of a resolved infidelity and despotism. 

The principal clauses in that Act ara Nob. 33, 34, 35, 36, of 
which the following is a brief official abstract as given in volume 
I. of Dr. Cox's History of the Baptist Mission: — 

K the Court of Directors think fit to refuse 
^ the Applica4)ion for permission made in behalf of 
such person, they are to transmit the application to 
the Board of Commissioners, who, if they see no valid objection 
to granting the permission may authorise the said penson to pro- 
ceed to any of the Company's principal Settlements provided 
with a certificate of sanction from the Directors. The Court of 
. Directors, however, may maJka representation concerning such 
person to the Board of Commissioners, and those pereons on arriv- 
ing in the East Indies are to be subject to the Regulations of 


th© Local Governments. Furtlier, the Government in India may 
declare the certificate and license of such persons to be void, if 
they shall appear by their conduct to have forfeited their claims 
to protection. 

But as the reader might prefer to have the full text of those 
clauses, a transcript of them is given below for ready reference:— 

* XXXIll. And whereas it is the duty of the Company to 
promote the interest and happiness of the native inhabitants ol 
the British Dominions in India, and such measures ought to be 
adopted as may tend to the introduction among tbem^ of mefal 
knowledge and of religioiLs and moral improvement and in furtKer- 
anoe of the above objects sufficient facilities ought to be affoirded 
by law to persons desirous of going to and remaining in India 
for the purpose of accomplishing these benevolent designs bo as 
the authority of Local Governments respecting the interoonrse 
of Europeans with the interior of the country be preserved, and 
the principles of the British Government, on which the natives 
of India liave hitherto relied for the free exercise of their religion 
inviolably maintained. And whereas it is expedient to make 
provision for granting permission to persons desirous of going to 
and remaining in India for ilie above purposes, and also to persons 
desirous of going to and remaining there for other lawful piu^ 
poses : Be it therefore enacted that when and as often as any 
application's shall be made to the said Court of Directors for or 
on behalf of any person or jyersons desirous of proceeding to the 
East Indies for permission so to do, the said Court shall, unless 
they shall think fit to comply therewith, transmit every fiach 
application, within one month from the receipt thereof to the 
said Board of Commissi onei-s for the affairs of India and in case 
the said Commissioners shall not see any sufficient objection 
thereto, it shall and may be lawful for the said CommissionerB 
to direct that the said person or persons shall at his, or their, 
own special charge, be permitted to proceed to any of the said 
principal Settlements of the said Company : and that such person 
or persons shall be furnished by the said Court of Directors with 
a certificate or certificates according to such form as tbe said Com- 
missioners shall prescribe, signifying that such person or persons 
hath or have so proceeded with the cognizance and under the 
sanction of the said Court of Directors, and that all such oeitt 
ficates shall entitle the persons obtaining the same, so long as 
they shall pi'operly conduct themselves, to the countenance and 
protection of the several Governments of the said Company in 
the East Indies and parts aforesaid, in their respective punnrtfl 


subject to such provisions and Festrictions as are now in force 
or may hereafter be judged necessary with regard to persons resid- 
ing in India. 

XXXIV. Provided always that nothing herein contained 
shall eictend or be construed to extend ix) restrict or prohibit 
the said Court of Directors from offering representations to the 
said Board of Commissioners respecting persons so applying for 
permission to proceed to the East Indies as the said Court of 
Directors may at any time think fit. 

XXXV. Provided also, and be it further enacted that all 
persons that shall proceed to the Cast Indies shall upon arrival 
at any place within the limits of the said United Company's 
Government, be subject to all such Rules and Regulations as now 
are or hereafter may be, in force within those limits. 

XXXVI. Provided also and be it further enacted that if 
any person having obtainsd a certificate or license from the said 
Court of Directors, authorizing such person to proceed to the 
East Indies shall at any time so conduct himself as in the judg- 
ment of the Governor-General, or Governor of the Presidency within 
which such person shall be found, to have forfeited his claim to 
the countenance and protection of the Government of such Pre- 
sidency, it shall and may be lawful for such Governor-General or 
Ciovernor, by order, to declare that the certificate or liosnse so 
obtained by such person shall be void from a day to be named 
in such order and from and after such, day so to be named in 
such order, such person shall be deemed and taken to be a person 
residing and being in the East Indies without license or authority 
for that purpose, and may be sent forthwith to the United King- 
dom, any matter or thing whatsoever to the contrary notwith- 
standing : Provided nevertheless, that no person whose certificate 
or license shall have been so vacated by order of any of the Govern- 
ments of the said Company as aforesaid shall be subject or liable 
to any prosecution for residing or being found in the East Indies 
without license or authority for that purpose and two months 
after notice of such order shall have been given to such person 
by delivery to such person of the copy thereof or by leaving the 
same at the last place of abode of such person or by publication 
of such order in the Gazette of the Presidency where such order 
shall be made.'' 

Every effort has been made to try and secure a copy of any 

license granted under the earlier Act or under this new Act, but 

without success. The nearest approach &> a missionary's license 

which the writer has been able to procure, and that through the 


kiud assistance of a friend, is the following license^ which was 
granted to Mr. Jamee Silk Buckingham to come out as a *'free 
mariner' and which has been obtained from tba Parliainentary 
Papers. In his paper the (^ilcutta Journal of 8th February 1823 
Mr. Buckingham wrote something which gave offence to the 
Government. His license was accordingly revoked and he was 
banished from India. The license of which a copy is now given 
has therefore a historic interest and should be read with great 
care and attention. 

Parliamentary Papers. Vol. VIII., 1834. 
Report from Select Committee on Calcutta Journal (Ap- 
pendix I.). 

Copy of the license under which James Silk Buckingham was 
residing at Calcutta in the year 1818. 

This indenture, made the 19th day of October 1818, between 
the United Company of Merchants of England 
Recital of the trading to the East Indies of the ons part, and 
l)arty's^ai)plicatioiQ James S. Buckingham of the other, part, Wit- 
India^as a ^frce ii€8seth, that, at the request of James S. Bud[- 
mariner. ingham, the said United Company have given 

and granted, and by these presents do give and 
grant, full and free license, power and authority unto the said 
James S. Buckingham, during the pleasure of the said 
Company ajid until the license shall bd revoked by die 
said Company, or their Court of Directors, or the Gov«> 
nor-General, or Governor or other Chief officers of the 
said Company at any of their presidencies, settlements or fac- 
tories, having lawful authority for that purpose, to proceed to 
the East Indies and parts within the limits of the said Oompany'l 
Charter, as a free mariner, there to continue and provide for 
himself in the seafaring way, subject to all such provisions and 
restrictions as are now or hereafter may be in force with regard 
to persons residing in India, and also subject to the oovenanta 
.. , and agreements of the said James S. Bucking- 

ham hereinafter mentioned. Provided always, 
and these presents are upon this express condition, that 
in case of breach or non-observance of any of the provi- 
sions, restrictions, covenants, or agreements subject to which 
thiis license is granted, on the part of the said James 
S. Buckingham to be observed and performed, then and 
from thenceforth the license hereby granted shall be and 


le abflolutely null and void and of no force or effect what- 
: and the said James S. Buckingham shall be deemed and 
to be a person residing and being in the East Indies without 
Lcense or authority for that purpose. And the said James S. 
ngham for himself, his hairs, executors and administrators, 
hereby covenant, promise and agree with and to the said 
d Company, in manner and form following, that is to say: 
^irst, That he the said James S. Buckingham, from the time 

of his arrival at either of the presidencies of 
the^reCTla- ^^^ ®*^^ United Company in tha East Indies, 
I the'^oaa shall and will behave and conduct himself, from 
m^t there, time to time and in all respects, conformably to 
to trade n- *^ such rules and regulations as now are or here- 
3 law. ^ after may be in force at such presidancy, or at 

any other presidency in the East Indies 

he the said James S. Buckingham may happen 

3, and which shall be applicable to him or his con- 

and which he ought to ob&y, observe and conform 

iecondly, that he the said James S. Buckingham 

QO^ nor will, by himself, or in partnership with any other 

I or persons, or by the agency of any other person or persons, 

SB principal, factor or agent, directly or indirectly engage, 

on or be concerned in any trade, bank, dealings or trans- 

s whatsoever, contrary to law. Thirdly, and that in case 

ake sat* *^^ ^^^ James S. Buckingham shall be guilty 
to natives ^^ ^^y violence, oppression or wrong to any per- 
igners, and son or persons not being an European born sub- 
fltates^ for ject or- European born subjects of His Majesty, 
<m, wrong j^^ heirs or successors, or shall commit any 
offence against any King, Prince, Government, 
or nation within the limits of this said Company's charter, 

II be charged with any such violence, oppression, wrong or 
) then and in such case the said James S. Buckingham ^all 
ill submit himself therein, in all things, to the decision of 
id United Company or their Court of Directors, or of the 
tK>r-€reneral, or Governor in Council, or Chief Officers of any 

presidencies, settlements or factories of the said Company, 
f or any of them shall see fit to interfere therein, and that 
> said James S. Buckingham, his executors or administra- 
hall and will pay and make good all such sum and sums 
oey, and do and perform all such acts, matters and things 
lever. as a reparation of the injury, which he shall have 
mod, or the offence he shall have given, as he shall be re- 

by any such decision to pay, make good, do or perform. 


iiud in failure thereof, it shall be lawful to and for the said Com- 
pany, or their Court of Directors, or any of their agents, to pay, 
or cause the same to be paid, made good, done and performed, 
and thereupon the said James S. Buckingham, his executors or 
administrators shall and will reimburse to the said Company, their 
suooessors or assigns, all such sum or sums of money as shall be 
BO paid and all costs, charges and expenses which may be incurred 
thereby . 

Fourthly, and that before he, the said James S. Buckingham, 
. shall return to Europe, or remove from, quit 

withlt'da ?f 'f*^\tbe East Indies, he, the Baid Jame. 8. 
to satisfy all debte Buckmgham, shall and will pay and satisfy and 
to the Company, perform all such debts, sum of money, duties and 
nativesand foreign- engagements, as he shall owe or be liable to per- 
uvro. ^^ ^^^' ^^^^ t^ t^^ said Company or any person or per- 
sons not being an European born subject, or Eujo 
peau born subjects of His Majesty, his heirs or successors, or for 
any injury or offence he may have done or committed, as herein- 
before mentioned, and that in case of any breach of this covenant, 
he the said James S. Buckingham shall and will pay unto the 
said Company and their successors for the damages in respect of 
the breach thereof, such sum of money as he shall have owed, and 
which he shall have omitted to pay, as hereinbefore mentioned, 
or such sum of money as shall be equal to the damage actually 
sustained by any person or persons, by breach or non-performanoe 
of any duty or engagement which, under the covenant herein- 
before contained, he ought to liave satisfied or performed, before 
such return or removal, to the end that the said Company if they 
shall see fit, may pay over such damages to the creditor or creditors, 
or injured party or parties, for his, he or their own benefit, or 
may apply them for any other purpose, or keep them for the n» 
of the said Company, their successors or assigns. In witness 
whereof, to one part of these indentures the said United Oom- 
pany have caused their common seal to be affixed, and to the 
other part thereof the said James S. Buckingham has set his hand 
and seal, the day and year al)ove written. 

(Sd.) James S. Buckingham. 
Sealed and delivered at Calcutta, in Bengal, in tho presence of 

(Sd.) H. W. PoE, 
Atforneif to the Hoiufurahle Com puny, 
A copy of the Passport given to Mr. Chamberlain in 1810 
when he went to Agra is extracted from Mr. Marshman s book 


and giv>6ii below for the curious reader who may be interested iit 
Bucli documents: — 
-, To the Commanding Officers of Stations, Chief or Subordinate^ 

I etc., whom it may concern. 

i This is to certify that, the bearer hereof, Mr. John Cham- 

i berlain, has the permission of the Right Hon'bl© the Govemoiv 

'\ General in CouncU to reside at Agra during the pleasure of Gov- 

enunent, subject to all orders and regulations, which may be com^ 

municated to him from time to tim3l)y the Commanding Officer 

I and by the Judge and Magistrate of Agra. Mr. Chamberlain is 

required immediately on his arrival at Agra to report himself 

to the Magistrate of that station and produce this passport. If 

[ he should neglect to report himself and shall be unable to assign 

. .a satisfactory reason for this omission, he will be considered to 

I have forfeited the benefit of the passport and will be liable to 

!; be sent immediately to the Presidency by the Magistrate. Mr. 

^ Chamberlain is also required to give due notice to the Magistrate 

. whenever, he may intend to quit his jurisdiction, and to specify 

■■" the place to which he may propose to proceed. 

: - Given by order of the Right Hon'ble the Governor-General 

;: in Council of Fort William, in Bengal this 16th day of November 

f 1810. 

[ (Sd.) H. Tucker, 

! Secretary to the Government, 

i Pnhlic Department. 

;V The above form was changed at the close of the following 

3 year when a much stricter one was ordered to be used under Pro. 
I G. G. Jud. Dept. 24th December 1811 in the case of Europeans 
I who were not Civilians or Military Officers, permitted to reside 
[. in the interior of the country. A sample of the form is given 
in the Abstract of General Orders and Regulations published at 
Calcutta in 1812. 


The Title Deeds and Tbust Deeds 
OP THE Chapel property. 

The first document in the series bears date 24th June 1789 
and is Bill of Sale from John Wilton, Sheriff of Calcutta, to 
Bacharam Chatterjee conveying to him by Court Sale for doca 
rupees 3,955 two biggahs and 16^ cottahs of land on part of 
which the Chapel was subasquently built. 

The next are lease dated 18th September 1789, and release 
dated 19th September 1789, between Bacharam Chatterjee and 
Henry Swinhoe for the above piece of land. 

Next comes the pottah from the Collector of Calcutta bear- 
ing date, the 22nd October 1789 to Henry Swinhoe for 2 biggalu 
16 cottahs and 8 chittacks of land at an annual rental of sicca 
rupees 8-7-12. 

The contract of sale between James Bolt and Henry Swinhoe 
for sale to the latter of 2 biggahs 4 cottahs and 8 chittacks of land 
in Lall Bazar bears date 26th February 1806. 

The lease and release between Henry Swinhoe and Jane his 
wife and the Serampore missionaries and others detailed, bear 
date 14th and 15th March 1806 respectively. They were for a 
piece of land for erecting a Chapel and convi&ying to them that 
land for the erection of a Chapel for all denominations of Chrift- 
tians in consideration of sicca rupees 7,250 duly paid to them. 

The first Trust Deed bears date the 19th April 1806, and is 
attested by J. Edmund and Joshua Rowe. By it the ten Trustees 
named below were appointed and j)rovision was made to appoint 
new Trustees in case of vacancy through death or otherwise. Tho 
ten Trustees were William Carey, Joshua Marshman, William 
Ward, William Moore, Michael Derozio, Peter Lindeman, William 
Bamfield, George Samuel Hutt.^man, James Bolt and James 


Moffat, wlio declare that the sum of ^icca rupees 7,250, which waa- 
paid to Henry Swinhoe for the purchase of the piece of land 
iescribed in the Indenture of Relase was raised by voluntary sub- 
scription to effect the said purchase for the purpose of erecting: 
ji Chapel, to be called The New Calcutta Chapel for Divine wor- 
ihip of all denominations of Christians and that their names were 
>nly used as Trustees for that purpose. 

The Attorney's bill for drawing up the lease and release of 
15tli March 1806 bears date 16th April 1806 and is for Be. 180. 

On the 30th May 1806, the sale of the land was confirmed 
by an indenture of 1a>ne in the Supreme Court. 

On the 15th February 1813 the Serampore missionaries ad- 
dressed a letter to the Trustees regarding the debt due to them 
on the Chapel, pointing out that with unpaid interest it amounted 
at the beginning of that year to sicca rupees 20,300 and asked for 
payment or adequate security. This communidati^oin was con- 
sidejned by the Trustees on the 17th idem and as they had no 
funds with which to meet the debt they resolved to mortgage the 
Chapel and grounds to the Serampore missionaries to whom the 
money was due for the sums advanced from their own funds so 
that the erection of the Chapel might be pushed on with. A copy 
of the letter of 15th February 1813 with its endorsements is given 
below for ready perusal : — 


The Trustees of the Lall Bazar Chapel 
Gt^ntlemen, — 

We bag to call your attention to certain circumstances relative 
to the debt on the Chapel. 

It is well-known to you that when the subscriptions for erect^ 
ing the Chapel were found inadequate to the erection of it we 
advanced money from time to Jiime to carry on the works; that 
when another friend, who had furnished money likewise found it 
necessary to recall the same, we advanced the Bs. 2,000 to pay 
him, and in May 1810, when the builder Mr. Holt, brought his 
bills we balanced his account and paid it off. In a word, the 
debt due to us on the Chapel in November 1811 we found to be 


nearly 19,000 rupees, and in the beginning of this year, on examin- 
ing the debt due to us, we found that, with the unpaid interest, 
it amounted to 20,300 rupees. When we reflect that for this large 
sum we have not even a note-of-hand of any of the TrusteeB. as 
a voucher for its being due to us, and consider that the money is 
not our own, we feel it our duty to lay these circumstances before 
you and to request either the payment of the same, or such security 
for th^ same as shall appear to you adequate and reasonable. 

We remain, 
Youns truly, 
(Sd.) W. Carey. 
,, J. Marshman. 

„ W. Ward. 

»Se RAM PORE, loth Fehruarif 18 Li. 

Endorsement on the above. 
At a meeting of the Trustees held on the 17th February 1813 
the above latter was read, and, it appearing to them that there 
were no funds to meet this debt, it was resolved that a mortgage 
of the Chapel and grounds should be given to Messrs. Carey, 
Marshman and Ward, to whom the above sum is due 

(Sd.) J. RoLT. 

J. Moffat. 

George Samuel Hutteman. 
Memo : 

Mortgage executed on the 15th June 1813, by Greorge Samuel 
Hutteman, Jamss Rolt, and James Moffat before 9 o'clock in the 
morning on Saturday in Calcutta and the other three, WiUiam 
Carey, Joshua Marshman and William Ward at Serampore on 
the same day in the evening in the presenoa of me 

(Sd.) J. Carey. 
As shown in the endorsement on the above letter a deed of 
mortgage was drawn up by Mr. R. M. Thomae, attorney, and 
witnessed by Jonathan Carey his articled clerk, bearing dat« 15th 
Jun^ 1813 mortgaging tlie Chapel and grounds for the repayment 
of sicca rupees 20,400 and interest at 10 per cent, per annum to 
the Baptist Missionary Body at Serampore, and conveying it to 
Rev. John Lawson as Trustee for the Missionary Body at Seram- 


Mr. Marshman in his bcok writ-es thus about this matter:— 
'* In after years when all the proceedings of the 
Serampor<d missionaries were ransacked to discover cause of crimina- 
tion, and every act was ascribed to the most objectionable motives, 
this transaction was selected as an object of particular censure. 
But it admits of the most satisfactory explanation; by a clause 
in the original Deed the Chapel was to be opan to the use of all, 
but it was subsequently erected by the exertions of men of only 
one d3nomination and to them it was mortgaged by the Body of 
Trustees. The missionaries were not disposed to take advantage 
of this circumstance and appropriate it to their own exclusive 
use, and invited Mr. Forsyth, the only missionary in Bengal uncon- 
nected with their own body to select his own hours for preaching 
to his little flock and he continued thus to labor till he voluntarily 
relinquished the service. But although the hypothecation of 
the building in 1809 (should be 1813) to the Serampore missionaries 
was pronounced by their detractoi-s to be utterly undefensible, 
yet, on the dissolution of that mission thirty years after, it was 
taken over on the same footing by the Baptist Missionary Society 
and their missionaries continue to occupy its pulpit on the strength 
of that calumniated mortgage.' 

Mr. Forsyth's congregation dwindled away three or four yea re 
before his death in 1816. 

The Bill of the Attorney for drawing up this mortgage bears 
date 19th July 1813, and is for twenty gold mohurs. 

The Serampore missionaries having decided to retain the 

Chapel in the Baptist denomination, they issued a circular 

in 1816 to all the original subscribers to tha Building Fund, who 

'^ had given their contributions on the understanding that it was 

4 for all denominations, informing them of their determination 
J and expressing their willingness to return their donations to any 

5 subscribers, who wished them back. Only one individual claimed 
^ a refund and the request was complied with, but the name of the 

individual has. not been traced. There is a tradition that it was 
a lady. 

For seven years after the completion of the Chapel there 
was no other niisBionary body to avail itself of the comprehensive 
clause of the original Deed, but in 1816 the London Mieaionary 
Society established a Mission in Calcutta. Their missionaries 


fouud on their arrival that the Chapel had long been used by a 

large Church and congregation whoee stated servioeB occupied the 

hours devoted by common usage to public worship on the Sabbath^ 

so they considered it more advisable to erect a Chapel of theif 

own rather than interfere with the devotions of another long estab* 

lished body. Thus it was that Union Chapel came to be erected 

and opened in June 1821. 

At this stage it is as well to insert the following remarks 

made by Mr. Marshman in his book : — 

• The Bow Bazar Chapel, therefore, remained in the occupa- 
tion of the Baptist Church, with little prospect of interruption, 
a circumstance which became a prolific source of detraction "with 
the opponents of the Serampore missionaries. Afi there will be 
no occasion to recur to this subject again in the oounste of theae 
memoirs, it may be dismissed at this point with, a brief allusioa 
to the subsequent history of the edifice. Three or four jean 
before this period it was encumbered with a debt of about j£2,000 
being the aggregate of sums which Dr. Carey and his aaeociftttt 
had successively advanced to the builder. The monthly subscrip- 
tion raised by the congregation was equal only to the expenm 
of Divine Service and the interest of the debt. An attempt w«» 
therefore made to cr^jate another fund, which should accumulate 
at compound interest in one of the great houses of businefis in 
Calcutta, till it amounted to the principal of the debt. At the 
beginning of tha year 1816, this sinking fund reached the sum 
of £730, and if its growth had not been checked, the encumbrance 
would have been extinguished in a few years. But the two deacons 
of the Church, who were appointed to that office at this time, 
were hostile to the Serampore missionaries and to all tbeir move- 
ments, and discountenanced both the fund for meeting the interast 
and that for liquidating the principal. Their argument was plau- 
sible, and not unreasonable that ''in proportion as the means in- 
creased for the liquidation of the debt, tBe interest of the Church 
and congregation now meeting there would be diminished, and 
they would at length stand on the same level with, other denomina- 
tions." The missionaries were thus, censured on the one hand 
for having adopted a course which virtually converted that edifice, 
which' was intended for the worship of all sects, into a denomina- 
tional chapel, and condemned, on the other hand, for their efforts 
to terminate the anomaly and restore the chapel to its original 
position. Thus thwarted in their attempt to create a liquidation 
fund, they consulted the members of the Church, and obtained 


tiieiF consezLt to the appropriation ci the sum which had accumu- 
lated to its object, as far as it would go. The chapel thus remained 
with a debt of about £1,300, which was guaranteed by the mort- 
gage. On the extinction of the Serampore Mission in 1837, the 
pulpit was transferred to the missionaries of the Baptist Missionary 
So<»ety and it continues to be occupied by them on the tenure 
of the mortgage, which had once been so strongly condemned." 

Prom Dr. Cox's History of the Mission it would seem 
that the statement made above is not strictly correct as 
wiU be seen from the following resolution, which was arrived at 
when the question of re-union was definitely settled upon in 1837. 

''It was agreed that whatevsr books and translations at 
- Serampore are public property should be transferred to 
' the Society, and that the Lall Bazar Chapel, having been originally 

intended for the use of all denominations of Christians and 
! erocfced by the aid of the Calcutta public should be appropriated 

to some object congenial with its original design.'' 

I In March 1819 the youngier members of the Church wished 

-^ to form a fund* for liquidating the debt and made certain pro- 
^ poaals to their pastors at Ser.ampore, who wrote back a very en- 
oonraging reply, but nothing can be traced as to what was really 
f done or how much wais raised. Still, as the papers are interesting 
g in themselves copies are given below for the perusal of the reader. 
% They are taken from the Circular Letter of the day. 
g Fund for liquidating the Chapel debt, formed by the younger 

t[ members of the Church at Calcutta. 
^' Address to Messrs. Carey and Marshman. 

Calcutta, March 29th 1819, 
" . Dear Pastors, — 

On perusing your kind plan of a Bank for savings into which 
we rejoice to find you are willing to admit the members of your 
T^ congregation, as well as those educated under your care, the cal- 
culations there exhibited struck some of us as affording a happy 
opportunity of forming a fund which will at a very trifling expense 
to each of us, lay the foundation for liquidating the debt on the 
Lall Bazar Chapel. 

We therefore, the youths of the congregation assembling in 
that place, have determined to begin a fund for that purpose by 
subscri bing towards it one rupee monthly, which if left to accnmu- 
* Thi8 funri was different from the fund already mentfonolt 



late in the Bank, with only forty subscribers, of one rupee monthly 
will, in the course of 16 or 17 years amount to a sum fully equal 
to the principal of the debt. 

We hope, therefore, that you will kindly deign to accept of 
our servioee in this way, which we are induced to offer as a toke& 
of our gratitude for the benefit we have derived from your minih 
try and our esteem for the noble manner in which you came 
forward from the beginning, and not only took on yourselves the 
trouble of erecting the Chapel, but advanced the money out of 
the product of your own labours to complete the building when 
all other means failed. 

We are etc., 

(Sd.) J. Reily. 
,, R, Gordon. 
Answer of the Pastors. 

To, — Mr. Robert Gordon, Mr. James Reily, and the rest of 
the younger members of the congregation meeting in the LaH 
Bazar Chapel. 
Dear Young Friends, — 

We have received your affectionate letter intimating your 
determination to attempt forming a fund among yourselves which 
may accumulate in the Bank for Savings till sufficient to pay off 
the principal of the debt remaining on the Chapel in the Lall 
Bazar, as a testimony of your este&m for your aged pastors. 

Our feelings on receiving this token of your affection for us 
and your regard for the honour of religion, we cannot euily 
express. While we are constantly receiving undoubted proofs <rf 
the affection borne to us and the cause by our elder friends in 
the congregation, who have been with us from the beginning, we 
cannot but rejoice that so excellent a spirit is found in its younger 
members, not so much for the prospect it affords of the Chapd 
being ultimately freed from embarrassments (which your ptan 
will certainly secure if you persevere therein) as from the hope 
thus afforded by our younger friends, who will have to support 
the honor of religion when time with us shall be no more, that 
rhey possess a spirit which will enable them to do this hereafter 
in a manner becoming the Gospel of CHrist. 

Your generous offer we will gladly communicate to the 
other Trustees of the Chapel, who, we are certain, will duly appre^ 
ciate the temper of mind which has urged you to this praiseworthy 
step, an act which will not only fill them with lively satisfactioii, 
but will give pleasure to every good man, who shall hear of it. 
while it must afford the highest gratification to the more aged 


members of oxir congregation. But the delight it will create in 
the mind of our dear brother aud fellow-pastor (Mr. Ward) now 
on his way to his native land in the hope of obtaining renewed 
health and strength to labor again amongst you (of whose tender 
affection for you you cannot be ignorant), we can imagine, but 
not easily describe. 

While we contemplate this act of yours as honorable to 
religion and as pleasing to every generous mind, we feel a wish 
to do all we can to render this work easy and pleasant both to 
ycu and tc our esteemed elder brethren and friends, who are 
generously endeavouring to meet the interest of the debt. You, 
Sben, w& would respectfully entreat strictly to confine yourselves 
to your proposal of each individual's subscribing to this intended 
fund, only one rupee monthly, which if there be forty of you 
thus subscribing will certainly pay off the debt in eighteen years, 
and, if ths number exceeds forty, will do fo still sooner. Should 
any one among you insist on doing more let him not increase his 
monthly subscription, but do it by way of occasional donation 
to this fiind. 

To our esteemed elder brethren and friends who are endeav- 
ouring to m:et the intsrsst cf tlvs dsbt, we brg leave to jay that 
at the expira-tion of this year we will reduce that interest to seven 
per cent., to remain at that rate as long as it exists, and we 
would advise, that svery rupee collected by them above that sum 
he added to your fund for liquidating the debt. To this we beg 
leave to add another idea. It gives us unspeakable pleasure to 
observe their increasing desire to spread the Gospel around them- 
aelves, the end indeed to which they have been called by grace, 
( the object for which they ought to live, and on which w.\ though 
we have forborne to mention it even to them have for years 
^ expended over ona hundred rupees monthly in Calcutta itself. 
g| To enable them to gratify this desire, therefore, while meeting 
£ the interest of tbe debt, we will henceforth devote the whole of 
% it (which we have ever expended in spreading the Gospel in India) 
y- to the fjf^f^ific object of n'pre.ading the Gospel (t round flinn in 
m €dUtutta arid Hti neighhonrhood, by supporting brethren raised up 
S in the country to preach to the heathen, and the distribution of 
i' Scripture pamphlets. 

r In entreating Our Heavenly Father to enrich you abuiulantly 

: with His grace, and to make you faithful in every g(^o:l work, 

"Vfe remain. Dear young Friends, Your affectionate Pastors. 

(Sd.) W. Carky. 
,, J. Marshman. 
-Serampore. 20th March IS 19. 

180 the stolty of the lall-bazar baptist chubch. 

Address to the Congregation. 

On perusing a plan for the Bank for Savings established at 
Serampore, th& calculations there exhibited struck us as c^enng 
a happy opportunity of forming a fund, which, at a very trifling 
expense to the subscribers would lay the foundation for liquidating 
the principal of the debt on the Chapal. We, therefore deter- 
mined to begin a fund for that purpose by subecribing each a 
rupee monthly, which small sum, if we have forty contributoriB) 
and the contributions be left to accumulate in the above Bank, 
will in the course of eighteen years, entirely free the chapel from 
its present encumbranc3. This our determination we commani- 
cated to our respected pastors at Serampore with a request that 
they would kindly accept our services in this way. The fe^ngi 
with which they have accepted them may be gathered from their 
afiPectionate let^r, a copy of which we beg to enclose. 

We now take the liberty of submitting this plan to your owk 
sideration and of soliciting your cooperation should it appear 
worthy of your countenance and support. A book for namtf 
accompanies this address. As soon as a sufficient niunber of con- 
tributors are obtained a meeting of tham will be requeoted to 
adjust any further particulars which may be thought necessary. 

Under the assured hope that you will cordially unite in 
accomplishing so important an object when it can be effected h? 
so trifling a contribution as one rupea monthly, 

We remain, for the rest of our young friends. 

Yours very respectfully, 
(Sd.) Robert Gordon. 
, . James Reily. 
Calcutta, 2u(I April 1819. 

Rules for the Fund. 
At a meeting of the subscribers to the Youths' Fund for 
liquidating the debt on the Lall Bazar Chapel, held pursuant 1» 
previous notice at the Vestry Room of the Chapel on Monday 
evening the 29th of April 1819, it was resolved by a great majofritf 
©f the subscribers: — 

1 . That this fund be raised solely for tha sake of liqiddatiDl 
the debt on the Chapel, due to Messrs. Carey, Marshman tnd 

2. That the money as it may be collected, be depodfaed iB 
trust for that purpose in the Bank for Savings established at 
Serampore, to accumulate till sufficient to liquidate the debt. 

3. That Messrs. A. Gordon, J. White, J. Reily and B. 
Gordon be appointed collectors to this Fund. 


4. That on receiving annually from the Bank for Savings 
lh account of the state of th<9 fund the collectors cause the same 
o be printed for general information with a list of the contri- 
lutoTs thereto. 

Nothing further has been traced about this scheme as to 
v'liether it provied abortive or was actually carried into effect, 
bnd, if the latter, how much was paid in. The effort in itself was 
>raiseworthy and deserving of every success. 

There appear to be no further documents until we come to 
L839, after the death of Dr. Marshman and the re-union of the 
Berampore Mission with the parent Society, when the next step 
taken wae to appoint a committee to conduct the business con- 
nected with the transfer of the Bow Bazar Chap 3! . The com- 
mittee eompidsed Meeers. Gray, Hassell, J. Eobinson, L. Mendes 
and E. F. Barker, and a copy of the letter to Mr. J. C. Marsh- 
man signed by Mr. Gray is given below from the Church Minute 
Book, but Mr. Marshman's reply is not on record. 


J. C. Marshman, Esq., 

Dear Sir, — 

I have been requested by a committee of the Lall Bazar 

Church to address you on the subject of transferring the Chapel 

to the Church. Mr. Thomas, Mr. Bayne, Mr. Kowe and Mr. 

Biss have been named s& Trustees on tho behalf of the Church 

from among the Circular Bead brethren, Mr. Barker and myself 

' from among otirselves, and two in England, to be named by the 

Circular E^ad brathren. May I request that you will kindly let 

f T» know what is next to be done. I am authorized to employ a 

'.lawyer to make the transfer in a regular and correct manner. 

And I should feel much obliged if you would kindly favor me with 

^ jour advic3 in this matter. 

(Sd.) E. Gray. Deacon. 

Rev. J. Thomas, 
Dear Sir, — 

I have consulted the Church on the subject of your letter 

■ of the 14th instant, and they have expressed their wish that you 

and Mr. Bayne, Mr. Josiah Eowe and Mr. Biss should bscome 

Trustees of the Lall Bazar Chapel on behalf of the Church, in 


connection with Mr. Barker and myself from among our members 
and t\v(i in England who you may name. Will you kindly ascar- 
tain for us whether thase gentlemen named in connection with 
your Church will accept the Trust, and favor us with the nanies 
of your friends in England and write immediately their views 
on the subject. 

(Sd.) E. Gray. 

The next document in the series is dated 23rd August 1839 
being the assignment of mortgage in Trust by Mr. J. C. Marsh- 
man to the Trustees appointed and named therein of the Chapel 
and land in consideration of tha payment made to him of sicca 
rupees 10 by the Trustees, whereby he transferred to them his 
right, title and interest in the debt of Rs. 20,400 to permit and 
suffer the said Chapel to be used and occupied for the service of 
AlmigWy God according to the forms of the Particular Baptist- 
Denomination of Dissenters practising the immersion of adults 
upon ])rofcssion of faith. The Trustees named were (1) Rev. 
James Thnmas ; (2) Rev. Robert Bayne, Ministers of the Gospel; 
(3) Josfali Rowo of Entally, Housebuilder ; (4) Isaiah Birt Biss» 
Geiitlsinan ; (5) Ernest Gray, Watchmaker; (6) Edward Francis 
Barker, ]\liniature ])ainter, all of Calcutta. The Deed is wit- 
nessed by R. Molloy and his articled clerk Shib Chunder Daas. 
This evidently was thi^ outcome of the letter which had been 
addressed by the Church to Mr. J. C. Marshman in March 1839. 

In September I860, the land on which the Chapel stands wM 
redeemed by the payment of Rs. 115-12-6 as per redemption oe^ 
tificate, dated the 15th of that month. 

Years rolled by before the next Deed was executed. In 1876 
it was realized that only one of the six Trustees of 1839 was still 
surviving and that was the Rev. Robert Bayna, who had left 
the country shortly after signing the Deed of that year, and who 
had moreover left the Baptist denomination. He was communi- 
cated with and sent out a pow^r-of-attorney, dated 15th January 
1877 authorizing the Rev. C. B. Lewis to act for him. 

A new Trust Deed was then drawn out and bears date the 
23rd ]\ray 1877, appointing fresh Trustees among whom the present 


iter was on6. The Attorney's bill for drawing up the said Deed 
MS date 30th June 1877 and is for lU. 216-8^. 

Circumstances having arisen in 1882 for the Church to re- 
irm it» claim to the Chapel and land, letters were addressed 
the Superintendent of the Baptist Mission Press and to the 
dian Secretary of the Mission on 18th March of that year, 
aking a distinct claim to the property. On the 20th 
em a letter was addressed to the Society in London forwarding 
pies of the aforesaid letters, and this claim has never been 
lallenged by the Society. In fact no reply was ever sent by any 
l the three persons addressed. A copy of the letter of the 18th 
[arch 1882 to the Indian Secretary of the Mission is given 
Blow: — 

Calcutta, 18th March 1882. 

The Rev. G. Kerry, 

Baptist Missionary Society, 

Lall Bazar Chapel. 
Hy dear Sir, 

There seems to have been an impression about that the Lall 
^asar Chapel and premises belonged in some way to the Baptist 
Cssionary Society, or that they had some lien or claim on it. 

The point was discussed at a special Church meeting held 
n Wednesday evening, the 15th instant, and it was thought well 
liat the misapprehension, if it exists, should be removed — though 
ie origin of it could not be traced* — and I am requested to send 
ou the enclosed copy of an abstract that has been made of the 
itle and Trust Deeds of the Church, which were kindly accepted 
y Mr. Lewis, the Superintendent of the Press, from L. Mendes, 
Qaoon on behalf of the Church, to keep in safe custody for us 
Kid which are still in the safe custody (for the Church) of the 
Uperintendent Baptist Mission Press. 

You will see from the abstract, which is taken from the Deeds 
bemselves : — 

Ist. That the land and Chapel were acquired with the help 
[^the Bap tist Missionary Body at Serampore. 

♦ On the 22acl November 1876 Mr. P. P. LindemaQ stated to the Ohorch 
U the Bev. 0. B. Lewis had informed him that he believed that the Title Deeds 
the Chapel Building were naU and void. 


2nd. That all the interest of the said Body in the Chapd 
and premises was subsequently transferred to and vested in Mr. 
J. 0. Marshman. 

3rd. That Mr. J. G. Maishman (Deed of 23rd August 1839) 
made over absolutely and irrevocably (subject to c^±ain contin- 
gencies, which have never arisen) all his right, title and intaresl 
to certain Trustees for and on behalf of the Church — quite in- 
dependently of the Baptist Missionary Society — ^though the coin- 
cidence happens that some of the said Trustees are men who are 
interested in the work of the Baptist Missionary Society. 

The Church is very largely obliged to and grateful for 
much kindly help and sympathy from the Society you repreBent 
— ^and they have only taken this course of looking into the Titie 
and Trust Deeds for the purpose of defining their position and 
preparing the way for the conveyance to them of the house tliej 
have recently been able to secure for their pastor^ — ^it being nece*' 
sary to appoint Trustees to hold the same for the Churdi, aiul 
it seeming desirable that the terms of the Trust Deed of tiie 
Chapel house should conform as much as possible to those d tlie 
Chapel and premises. 

I am, my dear Sir, with kind regavds, 
Your faithfully, 
(Sd.) A. Newall Tuck, 

Honorary Secretary, 
Lall Bazar Baptist Churdi. 

New Trustees were appointed on 13 th June 1901, six readent 
in England and six in Calcutta of whom the present writer isonft. 
Of the latter, one passed away not long after the document wii 
signed and the other five survive to the present day. Such being 
the case there will not be any need to appoint fresh Trustees bx 
some time to come. 

All the documents relating to the Chapel and Parsonage tf* 
now in the custody of the Indian Secretary to the Baptist Hii* 
sionary Society at No. 48, Ripon Street, Calcutta. The propertf 
being situated in the heart of the town and of considerable extend 
(over 2^ biggahs) is a valuable site, and as it is tastefully laid oofc 
by the Pastor and is carefully looked after by him it generally 
attracts the attention of passers by. The value of the propettj 
rises year by year and if it had to be sold at the present time 
should fetch about two lacs of rupees at the lowest figure. 



Thi: dabk days between Octobeb 1819 and June 1825. 

This period was practically one of stagnation and the in- 
srxnation regarding it is meagre. The baptisms were few. Thus 
a 1820 only one person was baptized; in 1821, eleven; in 1822, 
leven; in 1823, four; in 1824, three; and in 1825, up to June, 
:oiiT, making 34 in all in 5^ years, or, half the number that were 
baptized in 1812 or 1813. 

The causes are not on record, but when the co-pastors Lawson 
ind Eustace Carey resigned their connection with the Church, only 
bwo of the senior pastors were in the country, viz., Drs. Carey 
uid Marshman, Mr. Ward having left for England on 15th 
December 1818 to recruit his health and to raise funds for the 
Bebexne connected with the Serampore College. Probably he never 
anticipated that the two oo-pastors would resign within a year 
of bis departure from this country, and yet the differences be- 
tween tfie junior and the senior brethren of the mission had already 
arisen and there was no saying at' that time whereunto they 
might lead. Thes3 were painful economic differences, but neither 
party, while maintaining their respective views on the subjects 
at issue, abated their zeal or diminished their labor in the special 
and great work to w;hich they were devoted. The breach with 
the junior brethren was healed long before that with the parent 
Society, but it is not necessary to enter into the details of either 

The two senior pastors obviously could not do all that they 
Hiemselves felt they ought to do, owing to the weight of years 
and additional pressure of work consequent on their colleague's 
absence from the country. They were therefore dependent more 
or less on the deacons who were resident in Calcutta, and the two 
new deacons who were appointed in 1816 were not much in 
sympathy witb them. Then, at the beginning of 1821 


Dr. Carey himself became ill. On the 20th October 1821 
Mr. Ward returned from England after an absence of nearly 
three years and brought with him a colleague in the person rf 
the Rev. John Mack. There is nothing on record to show that 
Mr. ]Mack had much to do with the work at Lall Bazar between 
October 1821 and June 1825. Early in 1822, Mr. John Marehman 
went to England and did not return till 1824, so the secular work 
that he used to do devolved on the senior missionaries. In the 
midst of all these labors Mr. Ward was carried off by cholera oo 
the 7th March 1823 at the age of 53 only. Added, to all, Dr. 
Carey became seriously ill on the 8th October 1823. 

But thera was one cheering event at any rate and that was 
the baptism on 25th March 1821 of Mr. Charles Chodron who, 
it is stated, was a British seaman. Had this been the 
only baptism it alone would have amply repaid the senior 
pastors all their anxieties during this dark period. Another 
cheering event was the Ordination to the Ministry of Mr. J. C. 
Fink on 10th January 1821 for the work in Chittagong. Subse- 
quejitly, be did a great and an interesting work among the Hughs. 

The following remarks which are on record in the Minute 
Book of the Church under date June 1825 show how dark this 
period was and also how necessary it was that the Church should 
have a resident pastor of its own, as it would seem to have got 
out of hand entirely: — 

•' The Church had been for sometime in a very low state and 
the congregation had much diminished. Social prayer meetings 
had also been long discontinued. Many of the members attendSi 
public worship only on the Sabbath morning, and otheits never 
attended at all. Some who still bore the name of members had 
been for years in a backsliding state, numbers gave evident symp- 
toms of indifference to Divine things, while a few, and but a fei^, 
appeared to be in a spiritual state of mind. 

" We do not conceive it necessary very minutely to detail the 
causes of these evils, but it seems an act of justice to state that 
we cannot coincide in opinion with those who consider tliem all 
chargeable upon our former highly esteemed pastors, Drs. Carey 
and Marshman. Those who have separated from us, may have 


It it neceesary for their own justification, to say much to the 
ipraise of those good men, who for so many years have labored 
Long* us in the Lord, but we cannot join in dispraising the char- 
ters of men whose praise is in all the Churches and to whom 
I feel ourselves under the highest obligations for their disinter- 
ied, faithful and long-continued efforts for our spiritual welfare, 
e do not deny that some of the pastoral duties, especially those 
tlie minute class, have been for some time neglected. This was 
neidered a great cause of regret, but we do not feel it right to 
nsure men for omitting what it was not in their powsr to per- 
rm. Our former aged and highly-respected pastors have labored 
• the utmost of their powers, and their inability through the 
i&rmities of age and other causes, to perform all the duties of 
le pastoral of&oe was as much deplored by themselves as by us. 
^t tae crdination cf our present pastor (Rev. W. Robinson), Dr. 
iarey publicly acknowledged, both on behalf of himself and his 
olleague, that they had often felt very unhappy at the unavoid- 
ble omission of some of their pastoral duties, and that they had 
3ng wished and prayed that God would provide the Church with 
I pastor, who should be able to give his whole time to the duties 
'f his office. It was, therefore, quite as much their wish as ours 
hatanotheriDastorshould be ordained over us. We did not choose 
tr new pastor out of any disrespect to our old ones, but because 
re wished to relieve them from the labor of coming down to Cal- 
mtta every Sabbath to preach and we also felt sensible of the 
leed of a pastor to reside among us, who would be able to attend 
oninutely to the concerns of the Church. The other dissenting 
Churches in this city have long had resident pastors to watch 
over their interests and we have seen cause to suspect that the 
^ant of a resident pastor among us has been one reason why some 
tave left us and why others have not joined us. They preferred 
ko hold communion with a Church whose pastor was on the spot. 
Whilst, therefore, we would cherish the highest respect for our 
former pastors, we cannot doubt* that the want of a resident pastor 
Is one cause, among others, of our present low condition. Other 
Reasons doubtless are, the loss of some of our best members by 
fcath, the removal of others to distant parts of the country, the 
s^thdrawment of others, and, not to specify further particulars, 
-he genera] decline of vital godliness. We indeed see abundant 
^use to be humble before Him who searches the reins and the 
learts, for He had not found our ways perfect before Him. May 
le enable us to be watchful and strengthen the things which 
emain, that are ready to die, and may we remember how we have 
eceived ai^d heard and hold fast and repent. 


''In this state of things our present pastor, Mr. Bobinson 
arrived in this city from Sumatra. He had been twelve years in 
the Easterns Islands engaged in preaching the Gospel in Malay, 
and in translating some parts of the Scriptures into that language, 
but his health being impaired he was under the necessity of relin- 
quishing the translation, and of leaving those islands. He caine 
round to Bengal, hoping that though incapable of the close studies 
requisite for translating, he might still be useful as a preacher. 
As he had often preached to us when he was in the country 
before, his arrival was a pleasing circumstsLUce, and it soon became 
the general wish that he should became our pastor. Our foimer 
pastors did not only acquiesce in this arrangement, but were 
among the first to propose it. A letter was, therefore, written 
to Mr. Kobinson, signed by about sixty names, requesting him to 
take the pastoral charge over us. He cheerfully acceded to our 
request, but not imconditionally, for being a missionary, and 
having come round to Bengal without the knowledge of the Baptwt 
Missionary Society, he accepted our call on condition that the 
Society approved the measure, reserving to himself the liberty of 
dissolving his connection with us should the Society require it 
of him.'' 

There is no copy of the letter to Mr. Bobinson, which is 
referred to above on record in the Minute Book of the Church, 
but from his pastorate the mod em hutory of the Church may he 
said to begin as the Minute Books and Church Rolls from that 
day are all extant. 

In the " New Annual Bengal Directory and Calcutta Kaleo- 
dar, for the year of our Lord 1824 " — among the list of Literary 
and Benevolent Societies appears the Loll («*c) Bazar Churdi Mis- 
sionary Society. The committee is given as the pastors and 
deacons of the Loll (^^c). Bazar Church and Mr. Dyson, Mr. Irvine, 
Mr. Williamson, Mr. B. W. Marshman and Mr. C. C. Aratooo. 
Secretary, Kev. J. Mack; Treasurer, Mr. Fowles; and, Collector, 
Mr. J. R. Douglas. 


The Pastorate of the Rev. William Robinson. 

(From 16tli June 1825 to 10th November 1838.) 

Before proceeding to detail the events of the pastorate it is( 
oeBsary to introduce the pastor, hence a biographical sketch of 
I life is given below, but sufficient details have not been traced 

Portrait of the Rev. W. Robinson. 
{By kind permission of Mrs. Walter Bui*hnell.) 

) give a biographical sketch of the lady, who shared his labors 
I the Church. 

The Rev. William Robinson was bom at Olney in Buckingham- 
lire in England on the 18th of January 1784, which was the 



year in which the monthly missionary prayer meeting was started 
by Mr. Sutcliff at Olney. His parents were pious people. His 
father, grand-father and great-grand fathsr were regular attend- 
ants at the Baptist Meeting House in Olney and are all buried 
in one grave in the cemetery connected with the Baptiflt 
-congregation there. His father married on 4th March 1783 

PoBTRAiT or Mrs. VV. Robinson (previously Mrs. Ltsh) attired is a 

(By hind ff^nnissinn of Mrs. Walter Bushnell.) 

and he and his wife lived happily together for 53 years, 
when his father died on 2nd July 1836, aged 75 and 
his mother on 27th March 1844, at the age of 84. Mi 
William Kobinson was apparently the first child of the marriage. 
In the summer of 1801 he became converted and on 11th Feb- 
ruary 1802 he and Miss Elizabeth Walker, whom he afterwards 


rried, were proposed for communion with the Baptist Church. 
L the 14th March 1802 they — along with others — were baptized 
Mr. Sutcliff in the river Ouse, after a sermon preached by 
3. Chamberlain, who was then on the eve of coming out to 
dia as a missionary. 

At the beginning of 1803, Mr. Eobinson wrote to Mr. Sutcli»T 
Eorming him of his desire to join the mission. On 22nd March 
.04, the Church sanctioned Eis preaching in the neighbouring 
llages, which he afterwards frequently did. In June 1804 he 
as received by the Baptist Missionary Society as a probationer 
nd placed under Mr. Sutcliff for instruction. After having l^een 
ifch Mr. Sutcliff thirteen months he was sent to the Bristol 
Lcademy in July 1805. In February 1806, intimation was re- 
aved by the Society of a favorable opportunity for sending out 
wo missionaries and, accordingly, they resolved to send out Mr. 
ohn Chater and Mr. Robinson by that opportunity. The 
aignation service was held at Oxford on 12th March 1806. On 
be 15th idam, he married Miss Elizabeth Walker at Olney 
nd left his home on the 26th idem. On 12th April 1806 they 
•^int on board and on the 17th idem reached Gravesend where 
twy had to present themselves at the Alien Ofl&ce. 

On the 23rd August following the missionaries arrived at 
'alcutta. Neither Mr. Chamberlain in 1802 nor Messrs. Mardon, 
'ias, Moore, and Rowe in 1804, all of whom had come out via 
anerica, were subjected to any interference on the part of the 
lithorities, but in 1805 the missionaries began to be treated l)y 
le country Magistrates in a different manner. Once they were 
iterrupted when distributing tracts and sent home, and once 
ben they were not distributing tracts nor preaching, they were 
terrogated and commanded to return to Serampore. But in 1806 
e Government again made strenuous efforts against the mis- 
maries owing to the Vellore Mutiny, one cause of which Major 
>tt-Waring actually s-tated to be the arrival of Methodist 
ssionaries on the coast during the previous year. Th^^ 


preaching at the mat shed in Lall Bazar- had caused a 
great oommotion, one result of which was that a Natm 
youth professed his attachment to Christianity and, lead- 
ing his relatives, took up his residence at Serampore with the 
missionaries. He was kidnapped by his relatives from Serampoic 
on 21st August, but Mr. W. Caiey, junior, succeeded eventually 
in rescuing him. It was just after these events that these two 
missionaries arrived. The 23rd was a Saturday and when Gaptaia 
Wickes and the two missionaries presented themselves at the 
police office, on Monday the 25th, they were detained a 
long time and at last denied permission to proceed to SerampoM. 
Some explanations followed and on the 28th Mr. Robineon's 
baggage reached Serampore safely, and he followed on the SMk 
idem. On the 11th September they again had to appear at the 
Police office, in Calcutta, when an order from the Governor 
General in Council was read to them ordering them to taJce in 
early opportunity to return to England. They then returned te 
Serampore that evening and the Governor of that Settkineot 
engaged to protect them and refiised to give them up to thtf 
English except under a declaration of war to take them by fovea 
Correspondence between the Governor-G^eneral and the Govenior 
of Serampore, terminated in what seemed to the missionaneB ft 
satisfactory settlement, but the Government, still appearing to 
be dissatisfied with the continuance of the missionaries in any por- 
tion of their own territories, it was resolved to remove them o«t 
of the country as soon as possible. Mr. Chater left for Bunnfth 
but Mr. Robinson remained at Serampore. On the 22nd Maidk 
1807, he proceeded to Cutwa to spend a time with Mr. Chambe^ 
lain, but returned on the 23rd April to Serampore. On the 17th 
June 1807, he prayed dn Bengalee for the first time and on the 13th 
December attempted his first Bengalee sermon. 

On the 12th of January 1808, Mr. Robinson again left Sen»- 
pore for Cutwa, where he intended to remain for a time and aasbt 
Mr. Chamberlain, but on the 7th April he returned to Serampon; 
and. as there was no hope of the Government permitting him 


to rexaain in Bengal, removal to Orkaa having been denied, he 
dlBcted to proceed to Bhutan for whidi territory he started on 
Um 19th idem in company with Mr. William Carey, jxmior, whom. 
he hoped to have as his colleague in that Mission. On the 14th 
May, Mr. Bobinson proceeded alone from Dinajpore to Barbaree 
ar- village about 20 miles from Bhotehaut, where they received 
tidingB, which rendered it advisable not to attempt to enter 
Bhutan. On the next day having received further nevra confirm- 
ing his previous information he felt it his duty to return 
bo Bengal so came back to Serampore. In September, he 
had such a violent attack of fever that his life was despair^ of. 
After complete restoration to health, he set out again for Bhutan 
cm the 24tE January 1809. He started alone, but at Sadhamahl 
he was joined by Mr. William Carey, junior, and two native 
preachers. On the 25th March, they arrived at Barbaree and 
9fi the 27th at a village about two miles from Bhotehaut where 
bhey met Dr. Buchanan, who warned them about the state of 
tffairs prevailing in those parts. However, at the invitation of 
she GTovemor, they went to Bhotehaut, which they reached on 
bbe 30th March. They were well received by the Governor and 
ftfter spending some few days there they returned to Barbaree. 
Bere Mr. Robinson procured a piece of ground and began to 
tyaild a small house. Shortly afterwards the preachers got ill so 
lir. Carey returned with them to Dinajpore while Mr. Bobinaon 
remained alone and devoted all his energies to getting his house 
Inished*. One day in May he walked t&n miles to procure some 
mats that were required, which brought on a violent fever after 
iwo days. He had to send to call Mr. William Carey, junior, to 
U8 assistance and he cam& promptly, after which his health was 
[Murtially restored. In June he left for Serampore intending to 
^ back forthwith with his family, but owing to his own ill health 
md that of his wife he could not start till Uth November. He 
bad not gone far when he got ill, as also his boy Samuel, who 
died on 1st Decembar. He broke his journey at Dinajpore and 
remained there till his health was sufficiently re-established to 

13 ^ 


leave. Tliistliird time be started on 21st February 1810 to proceed 
to Barbaree and Mrs. Robinson and children joined him on 24th 
March. He again got very ill witli the Bhutan fever, and^ while 
he recovered, his wife became ill ; however, she recovered suffi- 
ciently for him to sst out on 23rd July to return to Dinajpore. 
They arrived at Dinajpore on the 25th, but Mrs. Robinson died 
on the 29th idem and her remains were interred in Mr. Fernan- 
dez's garden by the tomb of his two children. Here Mr. Robinson 
had another attack of fever amd from there went down to Serampore. 

On the 29th October 1810^ he again started out for Bhutan 
and on this occasion was accompanied by Mr. Cornish a member 
of the Lall Bazar Church. On this journey Mr. Robinson sufferd 
much from a frequent recurrence of fever, which compelled him 
to remain at Dinajpore for a while. On the 17th January 
1811, he and Mr. and Mrs. Cornish with infant set out for Bar- 
baree where they arrived on the 19th idem. On the night of 
the 22nd a band of robbers broke into their hous3. They were 
about 50 or 60 in number and armed with spears. Mr. Robinson 
and Mr. Cornish fought bravely, but when they perceived the 
odds against them were so great, they had to make good theiv 
escape as best they could. At dawn the next day they returned 
to their home to behold a shocking sight. Two servants lay dead 
and a third died while they were there. Everything was wrecked 
so tbsy proceeded without delay to Dinajpore. It was not till 
1816 when Mr. Robinson was in Java that these persons met with 
condign punishment. He went again to Barbaree and on to 
Bhotehaut, but after parleying on the part of the Governor, Wa 
presents were all returned which was a bad sign, and on the 18th 
May the reply he received from the Deb Raja clearly showed an 
unwillingness to permit an European to reside in hie territoria. 
In November 1811 he returned to Serampore still suffering from 
a quartan ague. The Bhutan Mission had thus to be given up. 

Accordingly in January 1812, Dr. Marshman waited on Lord 
Minto and sought his permission for Mr. Robinson to go as * 
missionary to Java, which had recently be^n conquered by the 


Qglish and was out of the territories of the East India Company. 
yrd Minto aeeented to an application being submitted to him 
id on the 27th replied that he had no objection to Mr. Bobin- 
n's procesding thither. 

On the 13th of January 1812, Mr. Robinson mairied Miss 
Margaret Gordon, daughter of Mr. Adam Gordon one of the 
iacons of the Church, but soon after she was taken ill and for 
ne weeks was not quite out of danger. The anxiety connected 
Ith her sickness brought on a return of the ague from which he 
id so long suffered. On Che 26th April, Mrs. Robinson was 
i^tized and admitted into the Church. 

On the 9th of June they embarked in a vessel that all con- 
iered unseaworthy, and on the day the pilot left they en- 
>untered a heavy gale, which lasted several days, the result b&ing 
kat the ship was so much damaged that they had to put back 

Calcutta. No other passage could, however, be procured till 
iarcb, 1813. On the 5th March 1813, a letter, was addressed to 
srampcre including Mr. Robinson's name in the "black list" 

not having left for England, but he embarked on 6th March 

rfore this letter reached Serampore. This vessel carried troops 

id every objection was raised, too late however, to his going in 

The vessel touched at Malacca on its. way to Java, which it 

ached on 1st May 1813. In September 1813, an order was sent 

Java from the Government of India, requiring Mr. Robinson 

bs sent back to England and on the 18th idem, he was called 
K)n to explain by whose authority he had arrived in Java. He 
plied that he had got permission in January 1812 from Lord 
into to reside in Java, which he thought was sufficient authority, 
d he heard nothing further about the matter. A copy of the 
ter of 5th March is given in the sketch on Mr. Lawson 
i a copy of the later correspondence referred to above is given 
ow: — 

It appearing from an enquiry instituted in Calcutta that you 
re not obtained the sanction of the Court of Directors £o your 


residence in India, I am directed to requiro from you an explana- 
tion by what authority you have arrived in this island. 

I ain, etc.; 
(Sd.) C. Asset, 
Secretary to Government. 
Batavia, 18th Septemher 1813 

To this Mr. Robinson replied: — 

"I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter 
requiring me to explain by what authority I have arrived in tliift 

In the month of January 1812, I presented a petition to 
the Right Honorable the Governor-General in Council, requestiiig 
permission to reside in the island of Java. To this petition Hii 
Lordship replied in substance, as follows. That His Lordship did 
not interfere in the affairs of Java, but had no objection to my 
coming hither, as he felt assured that I should conduct myself 
in strict conformity to the rules of the established Grovemment. 

This, Sir, I considered a sufficient authority for my earning 
hither, and such I hope it will Be consider^ by Govemmenl. 

Mr. Robinson continued to labor in Java till the 19th August 
1816, when the Dutch flag was again hoisted at Batavia and hu 
labor there ceased, so on 1st September 1816 he opened a school 
in conjunction with Mr;5. Robinson, but as the result of some 
baptisms that had taken place he had to leave in 1821 and went 
to Sumatra. 

Having been invited to Bencoolen he arrived there on 3rd 
July 1821. He was thus released from those restrictions to which 
he had Seen subjected in Java and it was here that his wife died 
on 25th May 1822. On 9th June r823 he married Mra. Knaggy 
a Dutch lady. In September 1824 he was completely laid aside 
for nearly eight weeks, by a severe attack of fever. At the clcBe 
of 1824, Benccolen was caded to the Dutch in exchange for Chin- 
surah in Bengal so the labors of the missionary were brought to 
an early close. 

On the 10th January 1825, he left Bencoolen and arrived 
at Calcutta on the 25th March of that year and had resided 
only a few months at Serampore when he was invited to the sole 


pHtoral charge of the Lill Bazar Church, which bd readily accept- 
Bd. Mrs. Bobinspn died on the 27th June 1826 and on 11th April 
1827, Mr. Bobineon married Mrs. Itlah, who died on the 16th 
May 1838. He reeigned the pastorate on 11th November 1838, 
and, as he had been taken over by the Missionary Society on the 
Re-union and posted by them to Dacca, he from that time deter- 
mined on proceeding there. While still pastor of the Church 
lie threw in his lot with the Serampore Missionaries in January 
1832 and soon afterwards became a Director of the College. 

After he went to Dacca he spent the remainder of his days 
tibero. He married again on ith July 1839 a Miss Sturgeon. In 
1845 the Baptist Chapel at Dacca, was opened as the result of 
ft blessing on his labors. He closed his useful life on the 2nd 
September 1853 at the age of 69 years, 10 months. 

A Tablet to his memory was placed on the wall of the Lall 
Bazar Chapel under a resolution, which was passed by the Church 
m 27th October 1853 the inscription on it is as b&low: — 

In memory of 

Rev. William Hobinson 

For forty-seven years 

a Missionary 

in Bengal and the Eastern Islands, 

Fourteen of which he was 

Pastor of the Church 

worshipping in this place. 

Born at Olney, Bucks, 18th January 1784. 

Died at Dacca, 2nd September 1853. 

He endured as seeing Him who 

is invisible. 

In regard to the pastorate it will be as well to let the reader 
now what part Drs. Carey and Marshman took in bringing about 
lesettlsment of the Rev. William Robinson. Here is a copy of a 
itter which Dr. Carey wrota to Mr. Dyer, the Secretary of the 


Missionary Society in London, on the subject, on the 27th July 
1825 as taken from the Missionary Herald of February 1826:— 

"Brother Robinson was obliged to leave Sumatra <mi account 
of an apoplectic disposition. He came to Bengal in the hope 
that he might recover his former acquaintance with the language 
and b3 of use to the Mission in this country. Brother M. and 
I had long been desirous of obtaining a brother, who coxdd take 
charge of the Church in Calcutta, and on his arrival I mentioned 
to Brother M. my wish that Brother R. might be the man if 
his health would bear the climate. He approved the proposal. 
We mentioned it to Brother R., who was not aware of it, and the 
Church at the same time expressed their wish to the same effect. 
The result was that the Church gave an invitation and he accepted 
it. We relinquished the pastoral charge and he was duly placed 
over them on the 16th of June last. I trust this will be fol- 
lowed by a revival of the work of God among them. I saw him 
to-day and his hope appeared considerably raised." 

The Church Minute regarding the ordination service records 
the event thus : — 

Things being thus arranged (Thursday) the sixteen of June 
1825, was fixed for the ordination. On that day our present 
pastor was solemnly set apart in the Lall Bazar Chapel to the 
pastoral charge over us. The Rev. J. Lawson, pastor of the Bap- 
tist Church meeting at the Circular Road Chapel begun the eav 
vice by reading the Scriptures and prayer. Dr. Carey then stated 
the business of the day, made some remarks on the nature of a 
Gospel Cliurch, and in his own name and that of his colleague 
Dr. Marshman, resigned the pastoral office. The Church ttwttj 
by show of hands, declared their invitation of Mr. Robinson, who 
signified his acceptance of tlie invitation and proceeded to deli"ver 
his confession of faith. The ordination prayer was offered by 
the Rev. James Hill, pastor of the Independent Church meeting 
in the Union Chapel, Dr. Marshman gave the charge, and Dr. 
Carey preached to the Church in Bengalee. Rev. S. Trawin con- 
cluded in prayer in the same language. The Hymns were given 
out partly by the Rev. J. Statham and partly by the Rev. J. 

The first thing that was taken in hand was the preparataon 
of a list of members. From the remarks which follow which are 
copied from the Minute Book, and from a letter written by Mr. 
Robinson on 23rd January 1828 to the Society, which beare on this 


tubject the reader will have some idea of the difficulty the present 

nrriter lias had in piecing together the information, which has 

been given in the preceding chapters. The Church record runs 

bhus : — " The former Church Book (which is not extant), not con- 
baining a correct list of the names of members, nor a regular 
statement of occurrences, it has been thought proper to commence 
a new one, which shall contain at one end a concise narrative of 
events as they occur, and at the other, as corract a list of the 
names of members as can be obtained. The month of June (1825) 
je selected as the period of commencement because it was in this 
month, that our present pastor was ordained over us.'' 

Mr. Robinson's letter of 23rd January 1828, throws an in- 
teresting light on the preparation of this list of members. He 
Bays: — 

" When I took charge of the Church it was not possible to 
ascertain the precise number of members as there had been no 
regular entry of their names. I made out then a list of names 
in the best manner I could (as the present writer has done), but 
when I came to read it over to the Church and to enquire for 
the persons it appeared that some were dead and that others had 
disappeared, no one could tell where they were, or whether they 
were dead or alive. It was therefore agreed that they should be 
entered as " missing." Of this class wer3 John D'Sylva (the 
Church Roll gives his name as Joseph) and his wife. Nothing 
had been heard of them for a long time, but, a few months ago 
I received a letter from Mr. Fenwick containing an interesting 
account of our poor brother's death. It seems that he and his 
wife had long returned to Sylhet, which I believe was their native 
place, where they entered into the service of an English gentle- 
man with whom they lived till poor John was called away. Mr. 
Fenwick knew nothing of them till he received a note from the 
gentleman requesting his attendance af the funeral of a Native 
Christian. Then he discovered who they were and learned from 
John's wife such particuTars as fully authorized the conclusion 
that he both lived and died like a Christian. The gentleman 
with whom they lived has given them a very excellent character. 
All this is very encouraging and shows that Native Christians, 
though often weak and needing the superintendence of their more 
established brethren, can sometimes stand alone, and even adorn 
the Christian character in these circumstances. It says much for 
the piety of this poor couple, that though under the eye of no 
pastor, absent from all the means of grace, and enjoying the 


pany of no Chrifitian friends, they not only acted as becomfli 
Christians^ but even maintained a spiritual frame of mind. Poor 
John was personally known to me when I was in Bengal before. 
He bore a Portuguese name, because he had previously to bis 
joining us, became a Roman Catholic, but he was a native ef 
Bengal, I believe born in the District of Sylhet. About the ye«v 
1815 our Serampore brethren sent several Native Brethren to 
preach the Gospel in Sylhet, John, though not much of a preadber 
accompanied them, as it was natural For him to wish to visit 
his native place under such circumstances. They met with con- 
siderable encouragement and several natives were baptized, but 
as the native brethren did not permanently settle down there, 
the converts were, of course, left €6 themselves, and there is too 
much reason to fear, thsy have fallen away. One of them, how- 
ever, has been discovered by Mr. Fenwick, who writes conceming 
him, he has hitherto lived a Ufa of blamelessness and good 
repute. There is, thus, encouragement to scatter the good seed,. 
even when it cannot afterwards be attended to with all the cai© 
which could be wished, for that which is thus left to itself is 
not always lest. One cannofc but regret, however, that a part 
of the country where success was obtained with eo little labor 
should have remained so long uncultivated." 

In this way others who had actually died prior to 16th June 
1825 were brought forward in the new Church Roll as alive on 
that date. These curious miistakes were unavoidable at a time 
when the means of communication and conveyance were so res- 
tricted, and, one might almost say, primitive. 

The Roll thus prepared showed that the Church consisted of Eng- 
lish and Native members and services were held in both languages. 
Mr. Robinson states that in the Bengalee material assistance wtt 
rendered by several of the members some of whom preached with 
great acceptance. Still, he had to personally conduct eix 
services every week, namely two in English on the Sabbath and 
one in Bengalee, and three in English during the week in the 
Chapel and in Cooly Bazar, where some of the members resided. 

At a Church meeting which was held just a week after Mr. 
Robinson s ordination a young man named C. C. Rabeholm, whtea 
name had been proposed as a member the month before, was 
accepted for baptism and on the 26th June — i.e., only ten days 


after Mr. Kobinson's ordination — ^he had the pleasure of baptizing 
him. Mr. Rabeholm was subsequently employed as a Mission 
worker and in 1829 was nearly murdered. 

In July Mr. James Irvine was unanimously choisen deacon. 
The step was nepessary as there was only one deacon holding office 
v»., Mr. Adam Gordon. Mr. Irvine continued in office till July 
1844 when he resigned on account of old age. 

The Church now begun to set its house in order and took up 
the cases of several members who had "been very slack in their 
attendance or wholly absent." They were visited and expostulated 
with but apparently without effect, lor, as the result of the report 
which was made in August, eight persons were excluded and in 
September two more and so it was in November when others were 
oduded. At this stage there was a turn of the tide and fresh 
luones began to be proposed for baptism. 

Here there was a departure from the usual as it was deter- 
amed in November "that two new deaconesses should be chosen 
far the better superintending the female part of the Church." 
Accc»dingly in December, Mrs. Lish and her servant (ayah) 
My, "were unanimously chosen as deaconesses for the better 
'BS)ection of the female part of the Church." No clue has been 
^ifctained as to who the previous dsaconesses were, but none were 
•wr elected afterwards. Mrs. Lrlsh subsequently married Mr. 
Bobinson and the portraat at the head of this chapter shows her 
tther deaconess's attire. Sally died on 1st May 1828, but it was 
ftwmgh her that the Rev. A. B. Lish (Mrs. Lish's son) received 
W» first religious impressions and became converted. 

The first year Mr. Robinson's congregation was only about 
w on a Sunday morning and 30 on a Sunday evening, which was 
^ very encouraging. 

I In the midst of all these discouragements his wife died on 
j *e 27th June 1826, but, it is added, that she died happily. 

In July the Church recorded " the Lord is reviving us a 


little" and when Mr. Robinson wrotd in December <rf tills year 
to his mother in England about his wife's death he said: 

" I am not without some encouragement in my work, but I hav? 
also some things of a paidnful nature to endure. I have baptized nine 
this year, but we have lost 11, eight by death and three in & 
manner more painful . The congregation increases very graduaDy. 
We have now about a hundred on a Sabbath morning. This wouU 
be thought f3w at Olney, but, few as it is, it is nearly double th 
number, which I had when I first settled in Calcutta. In thl 
evening we have seventy, this is more than double the thirty 
which I had when I began. On the whole we may say the con- 
gregation is doubled; but still there are few conversions." 

In January 1827, Mr. Adam Gordon resigned his post M 
deacon and his son Mr. Robert Gordon was unanimously appointiel 
to the office in his stead on the 16th idem. 

On the 11th April of this year, Mr. Robinson married M». 
Lish one of the Deaconesses. As she had a family of four children 
he found it necessary to increase his means of support by opeiung 
a small school in which ha was able to impart useful and leligiow 
instruction to many of the children of the congregation. I* 
October 1830, however, Mrs. Robinson was asked to take np 
the Female Department of the Benevolent Institution on a fixrf 
monthly pay vrhich she did, so closed their own school as there "* 
a gi'eater sphere of usefulness for her in that institution. 
On 1 7th April it is recorded *. 

"The work of conversion in the English Church 
at a stand still" and on 15th May "we are really 
a very low state." On Christmas Day it is recorded: Thi 
morning we held a general prayer-meeting to humble ou^. 
selves before God and pray for a revival. Two prayers wereoffewi 
in each language, two hymns were sung in each language, and » 
short address given in each language. It was an interesting : 
ing and gave pleasure to many. At the close a collection wtf 
made for our poor members, which amounted to more than 10^ 

Mr. Robinson used to write very fully about the statd of ti* 
Church in his letters to the Secretary of the Mission in Lend* 
and three of them which bear upon the work done in 1827 tW 
given below. The last of the series may be considered rather loBgi 


mt it contains details which are not procurable elsewhere. The 
ixrt letter is dated 9th April 1827, and in it he said: 

"We have had no additions to our Church this year, and 
Mi present we have but one candidate for baptism. There 
lUtt been some fluctuation in the congregation partly owing 
^ removals, but if we have lost some we have gained 
others eo that we have not decreased. Indeed I hope we 
i«ye reason still to expect a gradual increase. Oh for a 
^leasing on the Word; this is fiie great desideratum: but 
►f this I am constrained to speak in very measured terms. There 
ft cause to lament over the want of vital religion alnongst profes- 
ors, as well as on account of the paucity of conversions among 
inners. Lord revive us, is our prayer. Our present number of 
l^nber^ is, I believe, ninety-six ; of these about twenty are placed 
t a distance in the country, the others, to the number of seventy 
r upwards, I have the pleasure of meeting at th3 Lord's Table 
very month." 

The next letter is dated 24th October 1827, and in it he 

"I can spare but little time for correspondence without omitting 
10 duties of my station; and for several months past my health 
AS been so indifferent that I have often been as unable to preach 
I to write. I have nothing novel or very important to com- 
mnicate. There is still a gradual improvement in the Lall Bazar, 
preach as often as formerly when health will permit, and the 
rethren Chodron and Gorachand continue their labors as usual. 
7e have had seven added to us by baptism this year, and we 
q)ect another before the year closes. (This baptism took place 
1 the 30th December). We have had but one exclusion and 
ive lost three by death ; of the seven baptized five belong to the 
fttive congregation, four of them are Portuguese women, the 
iher is a Bengalee man, the son of a Native Christian in Jessore. 
h& young man (Bungsi by name) has never been an idolater, he 
te but three years old when his father was baptized and he has, 
f course, been brought up in the Christian religion. There is 
lother Bengalee, who wishes to be baptized and we have no fault 
» find with his conduct, but as we are not satisfied that he has 
It the power of Divine things in his heart he has been kept back. 
l^ other two who have been baptized are a countryman and my 
vn daughter. (This was Mrs. Farquhar from Singapore, who 
is baptized on 17th July 1827). These I believe are the only 
3ins of intelligienoe which I have to communicate relative to the 
iurcli, unless T add that we are at peace among ourselves; that 


the mombeiv appear much attached to me and I f e^ attached to 1 1^ 
them/' It^^ 

The third letter is dated 23rd January 1828 and ia itb|^ 


'Id my last I informed you that seven persons had ben 
bapti^d this year (1827) and that we expected another. Ii 
this we were not disappointed, the person alluded to was baptiiBl 
on the laat Sabbath in December. Since I last wrote we havi 
lost thres members by death. One of them came to her enihj 
her clothes catching fire. She was alone when the aoddenfc 
occurred, and being a paralytic, she was unable to help hendt. 
When the persons with whom she lived entered her room aha 
appeared to have been dead some hours. Another, a ooimtiy* 
born man, who was in the Army, died at Burdwan, I haive aofc 
heard any particulars, but from hie general character there k 
every reason to hope well of him. Another, one of our olcM 
members (she having been baptized full twenty years) did nol 
give U6 much pleasure in her end. She had for many yeans been 
a woman of some repute in the Church, but it seems that tho 
enemy was permitted to gain some advantage over her at the U^ 
and to bring a dark cloud over the closing scene. Another oU 
woman, the first member, who died last year, made a very hqypf 
exit. As often as I visited her she appeared patient under her 
sufFerings, resigned to the will of Gk)d, simply, but firmly, trwi- 
ing in Jesus, and even wishing to depart. We have also \at 
another whose end was attended with some interesting circuflir 
stances." [This was D'Sylva to whom reference has been mi4l 

The number of members in the Lall Bazar Church, including 
all who are absent, was at the end of last year one hundred MW 
two, of whom only five besides myself are Europeans. Our maD- 
l>ers are all poor, there is not one among us who qan be called 
a person of property, there is not one who receives a genteel salatyi 
or who makes a genteel appearance. Not less than seventeen cl 
our members are wholly supported by the Church, and there «• 
others in very needy circumstances. Those whom the Chiudi 
wholly supports are the blind, the lame, and those who throng 
age and infirmities are unable to support themselves. In tSi 
country there are no parishes, (things are difPereoit now), tboie 
therefore who arc unable to work and have neither property vol 
friends to support them must subsist on private charity, or peruh. 
Many no doubt die for want, but Christianity teaches even A* 
poor to relieve those who are poorer than themselves. As the 


^jority of our members undersfcand the native languagd better 
bm the English, both languages are always used at the Cord's- 
able. A prayer is offered in each language, an address is given 
I each language and a hymn is sung in each language. At Church 
listings also both languages are used, and, whenever a member 
1 ji^eoeived, the confession of his or her faith, which is, of course, 
divared in one language is translated into the other. Questions 
at to candidates, and the replies given to them, must also be 

We received at our last Church meeting two Scotchman whose 
mes are not in the above list. One of them was restored after 
elusion, the other is a sailor, who had been baptized at Seram- 
re, on his last voyage to India. As he is now settled in Cal- 
bto he wished to join us, and we gladly received him, for though 
>oor man, he seems to possess much starling piety, and, we hope 
iful gifts also. We have yet one candidate for baptism, a poor 
ibomedan woman (Beebee Sona), who received her first impres- 
os from hearing her daughter, a girl of fourteen, read the 
dptures. She read in Enlish and gave the sense to her mother 
far as she understood it, in Hindustani. On Christmas Day 
called all the members together to hold a general prayer-meet- 
I to humble ourselves before the Lord and to pray for a revival . 
h Bang and prayed in each language alternately, and an address 
B delivered in each language. It was an interesting season. 
I the European part of thD Church, as we usually term them, 
re happy to join in prayer with the native part, and the native 
rt with the European. But I shall perhaps weary you with 
blols. I shall, therefore, only add that the same number of 
■^^ces in each language as mentioned in former letters is etill 

The hot season of 1828 is stated to hava been exceedingly 
pressive and Mr. Robinson suffered so severely from it and had 
ch great difficulty in getting through his accustomed services 
ai he was obliged to give up two of his week-day services, bub 
1 the same twelve were added to the Church during 1828- 

We now oome to an interesbing phase of the work. 
nmected with the Church was an Auxiliary Society, denominated 
e Lall Bazar Church Baptist Missionary Society. Its funds 
tre derived principally from the members of the congrega- 
m and its object was the preaching of the Gospel in 
Icutta and its vicinity by Native agency. The preachers 


supported by it preached the Gospel statedly in privaU 
houses and in Bungalow Chapels, and often on the roadside il 
diflFerent parts of tha city, and they gradually extended their 
labors to the villages south of Calcutta. Several of the inhaWfr 
ants of these villages^ awakened by the Word of God; wdW 
from twelve to fif tesn miles tx) attend the Bengalee service at fl» 
Chapel on the Sabbath. The beginning of the work of grace 
which ensued is recorded in the following words in the Statioft 
Committee Book of Calcutta: — 

" A villager in another part of the Ifestrict (24-Pergunnalisl 
obtained a portion of God's Word and took it to his home. Bjf 
reading this his own sinful state, and the abounding mercy of tk 
Christians' God was revaaled to him. H© therefore came up to 
Calcutta and callsd upon Mr. W. Robinson, who was the pasta 
cf the Baptilst Chapel, Lall Bazar, Calcutta, and requssted hitt 
to visit the village near his house. Mr. Robinson did so and henoe 
it was that independent of the Society, a work had bean earned 
on in the South under the members of the Lall Bazar Church a 
few years previously to 1838. Upon the removal of Mr. Bobift 
son from that Church to Dacca, thd villages in which our w«l 
had been principally carried on were now handed over to off 
Society that they might be placed under the same general super 
intdndence as the other Christian villages in the South. Abmhii 
those villages the principal, and the one at which the work luM 
been commenced, was called Narsigdarchoke, which had its Cbapd, 
and between 20 or 30 Church members. About 148 persons fonnei 
the nominal Christian community of these few villages, but refeft 
ence is made in the report about them to numbers of others, wbo 
seemed to be inclined to embrace the Christian faith." 

The Minutes of 1829 refer for the most part to the natiw 
-candidates of the South villages so will be included in the chapter 
on that subject, but there was one interesting baptism, whiA 
was that of Mr. Alexa.nder Burgh Lish on the 26th April at the 
age of 15 years when six others were baptized. Later, Mr. Liah 
became a missionary and was first stationed at Cherraponjee, but 
afterwards he removed to Agra, where he was for several yeati 
the beloved pastor of a Church and where he died on the Utk 
October 1852. On the 30th August and 27th December of tWi 


i.r thirtean persons were baptized on each occasion and 44 in 

were added to the Church during the year. This was the 
•gest number ever admitted into the Church in any one year 
b^uent to 1825, the nearest approach to it being 42 in 1874. 

There are no special events to note for 1830, but on 8th May 
^1 another young man aged 15 years, named John Adolphus 
Williams was baptized and received as a member. Though he 
as connected with the Church only a few years the Church be- 
une heir in March 1863 to a legacy he left which has brought 
i to its funds Rs. 30 a month for varying periods during these 
) years. 

In January 1832, Mr. Robinson joined the Serampore Mission 
icause he believed the Serampore missionaries had been much 
jnred, and he felt that it did not appear consistent with His 
ty though he felt certain cf suffering very much, to be silent in 
9 day of their calamity. He had long been associated with the 
lior missionaries in the field of labor. His first year (1806), ae a 
ssionary were spent with them and notwithstanding a few un- 
lasaut circumstances, which occasionally interrupted the bar- 
my of the Mission family, yet he was strongly attached to each 
3 of th^m personally. Shortly after, he joined the Committee 
i became a Director of the Serampore College; but aft?r Dr. 
irehman 6 death when all the Serampore stations were handed 
jr to the Society he again joined the Parent Society. 

On the 22nd Septamber 1832, Mr. Charles Chodron, died and 
8 buried in the Scotch Cemetery. 

In 1832 there were 29 admissions and among them was Mr. 
Mendes, who was baptized on the 26th December of that year. 
f<Mre many years elapsed Mr. Mendes became a prominent mem- 
r of the Church and remained so for nearly 30 years. 

On tihe 15th August 1831 the Church recorded: — 

" We have, alas, no candidates for baptism . Things ai^ in a very 
r ^ate and we have much cause for mourning and humiliation, ' and 
the 3 let March 1833, "the members present on this occasion 


taking into consideration the low state of the Church, resolved 
that each one should once a week, devote some portion of time 
to extraordinary prayer for the prosperity of ths cSiurch and that 
this should be continued for three months when we are to hsTD 
another meeting to consider the state of the Church." 

On 23rd June 1833 it was resolved to set apart a portion of 
time every week to pray for tlie prosperity of the Church, duriDg 
the ensuing 3 months. 

On the 26th December 1833, Mr. A. B. Lish wu 
ordain sd as a missionary at the Chapel. Rev. J. Le3chman (from 
Serampore), commenced the service ; the Rev. J. Mack offered up 
the ordination prayer and the Rev. W. Robinson delivered the 
charge. Several Khassias, who came down from Cherrapoonjee 
specially for this occasion were presant and the service was deeply 

Mr. John Robinson, a son of the pastor, was baptized on 
the 29th December 1833. In the course of years he succeeded 
to the pastorate. 

Dr. Carey died at Serampore on the 9th of June 1834, and 
it is a very remarkable fact that no reference whatever is made 
to his death in the Minute Book, nor to Dr. Marshman's death 
on 5th December 1837. 

In April 1835 it became necessary to do ecnne repairs to 
the roof of the Chapel, but so little money was subscribed thai 
the roof had to be propprd up for want of funds in February 1836. 
On 14th June 1835 the low state of the Church was talked over. 
Things had come to such a pass by 11th December 1836 that ft 
was resolved to send a short admonitory letter to those membarowho 
were remiss in attending public worship, which was duly carried 
out, the letter being signed by the pastor and deacons. Unfor- 
tunately there is* no copy of this letter on record in the Church 
Books or soma interesting details might have been disclosed. 

However, the repairs got done in course of time and the 
Chapel was re<>pened on the 9th July 1837 when Mr. Gray waa 


BUiked for the labour and attention he had given. Theee were 
B first repairs to the Chapel since it had been opened on let 
nuaxy 1809. 

From the Biography of Mr. Bobinson by his son, John, we 
%m that it was about this time that some professors had gained 
Imission into the Church, who endeavoured to create mischief 
id dissension and that they succeeded to a lamentable degree, 
he minds of some of the older members were also infected by the 
naon they sought to spread, and great trouble ensued. The 
aaest calumnies were propagated and gained too ready credence 
nd Hr. Bobinson's situation was rendered extremely painful. A 
ooscioosness of integrity sustained him while passing through 
base trials. 

l^om the Church Minute Book it would seem that there were 
ome who wished to bring in a Mr. Symes from Dxim Dum as 
lastor, for it is recorded on 14th August 1836: 

"it was determined that the pastor should make frequent 
flcchanges with Mr. Symes of Dum Dum and that the latter should 
lave his expenses paid each time he came down." 

But on the 20th November the pastor informed the Church 
ihat he would remain with them. This statement was made 
because there was a rumour abroad at that time that Mr. Bobinson 
Roald go to Serampore and Mr. Symes from Dum Dum would 
become pastor. 

In the midst of all these troubles his wife (previously Mrs. 
Liflh) died of cholera on the 16th May 1838, and his calumniators 
■cfcually attributed this dispensation to the just judgment of God. 
From some who had been his friends, and with whom he had held 
nreet counsel, he received no kindness, and others in whom he 
aonfided, and who professed the deepest sympathy, only retired 
from his company to join his enemies and do him further injury. 
Id. fact his enemies seemed determined to compel him to resign 
the pastoral office, and, fearing that all his prospects of useful- 
IUB8 in connection with the people for whose spiritual interests 


he had labored diligently for thirteen years were at an end, he 

resigned the pastorship on the 11th of November 1838 and from 

that time determined on proceeding to Dacca. Not long after 

this the characters of those who had taken the most active part 

in creating these troubles became apparent. Some were excluded, 

others withdrew their connection with the Church, while the rat 

expressed their deapest contrition and urgently pressed him to 


In the Biography it is recorded : 

In the matter of Church government he was a strict dis- 
ciplinarian. He insisted upon every member being present at 
the public services as far as circumstances permitted, nor would 
he allow any to be absent from the special meetings of the Church 
without assigning a sufficient reason. He judged that absence 
on such occasions betrayed a want of interest inconsistent with 
Church membership. 

The admissions during his pastorate were: — 1825, 2; 1826, 
12; 1827, 8; 1828, 12; 1829, 44; 1830, 21; 1831, 16; 1832, 29; 
1833, 39; 1834, 16; 1835, 22; 1836, 17; 1837, 34; and 1838, 
13 ; making a grand total of 285 individuals in the course of 13J 

Such was the man and such his ministry. He camd at 
a critical period of the Church's history and helped to reconstruct 
it. Had he not been a strict disciplinarian and a strong man, 
firm and resolute, it is probable he would not have been able to 
hold on for 13^ years as he did. 

On the 12th February 1843 part of a letter which Mr. Boto- 
son wrote to the then pastor w^ read to the Church and on the 
21st December 1845 when he was in Calcutta he presided at the 
Church Meeting as the Church was without a pastor. On the 
20th January 1846 it was resolved to write him a letter solidiiiig 
him to take up the pastorate again, but there is no oopy of thil 
letter on record nor of any reply from him. This fact is no* 
mentioned in his son's biography of Eim. 

The following poem about Mr. Robinson will, the writer thinbi 


ead with interest. It will be seen that it wae written in 

shortly after Mr. Eobinson's death. 
rom "Poems" by John Dunbar, B.C.S., OalcuUa, 186S.] 
The Missionary.* 

There dwelt in Dacca, some time past, 

A man of true and genuine worth, 

Who grieved not that his lot was cast 

Among the lowly sons of earth: 

TTifl constant aim was this — to bring 

Belief to those, who had no guide, 

And show their thirsty souls the spring, 

Whence all their wants might h& supplied. 

I see him now — his burly form 

Looms large, just round the comer wall; 

Like some dark cloud, ere yet the storm 

Begins, in drenching showers, to fall — 

Grave is his walk — and grave his face, 

As now he nears the chapel gate; 

And now he takes his wonted place, 

While round his anxious hearers wait. 

In fervent words, but clear and plain, 
He poiirs the Gk>spel tidings forth; 
And seeks his hearers' hearts to gain, 
With stories of that wondrous birth. 
Which safety brought to fallen man ; 
Or tells of judgment after death. 
And as he speaks the sinner's ban. 
His trembling hearers hold their breath. 

Or underneath the spreading boughs, 
Of some tall tree, he takes his stand. 
Where, unconfined, the space allows, 
Boom, full and free, on either hand: 

* The late Rev. W. Robinson. 


And wonderiDg naiivce bear him speak 
Of sin, and guilt, and pardoning grace, 
And of the Saviour, pure and meek. 
Who came to save our cdnful race. 

Thus have I heard him oft, but now, 
I ne'er shall hear his voice again; 
Nor more behold that thoughtful brow 
Betray the workings of the brain: 
The fight is fought — ^the race is run; 
And he has gained the heavenly crown; 
He tastes, in full, the joys begun. 
Before he laid his burthen down. 

For forty years, this man of God, 
Still toiling in his Master's cause, 
The path of duty firmly trod. 
Indifferent all, to man's applause. 
His hope was fix'd beyond the skies. 
True faith, the staff on which he lean^. ; 
He soared above mere earthly ties; 
Content to live — ^to die content. 

His deeds and words shall never die! 
The seed he sowed halh laken root, 
And it shall bear its blossoms high, 
And yield in time, its goodly fruit. 
His memory lives in many a heart, 
His name calls forth full many a sigh : 
Though here he filled a lowly part. 
He reaps a rich rewar3 on high. 

All honour to the faithful band 
Of men who spread God's truth abroad ! 
Whose Mission 'tis, in every land. 
From weary. hearts to lift the load, 


To turn them back from idole vain 
And gods that are no gods at all. 
To sever Sin's debasing cbain^ 
And free them from its deadly thrall ! 

East, West, North, South, throughout the worlds 
These soldiers of the Cross are sent: 
The flag they serve, has been unfurled 
On every Isle and Continent; 
Nor doubtful can the contest be, 
When God Himself leads on the host. 
Triumphant shouts of victory. 
Shall yet be heard on every coast. 


The work in the Villages. 

The beginning of this work of grace has already been tdn 
to in the preceding chapter. The narrative will now 
continued from that point and will be giv^ more 
detail than the reader may perhaps lika, but it is dcof 
no connected account of the several events appears to be on W 
and the present writer has had access to books which otheiB haive 
the- privilege of seeing. Much of the information pieced toge 
is from the Minute Book of the Church, the Biography of 
Bobioaoxiy and the Government Gazette of the time. 

The following entries detailing the events of 1829 are 
the Minute Book : — 

10th February, — (Tuesday). Several natives* were menti 
as candidates for baptism. 

14th April, — (Tuesday). The following persons were n 

mously received (and then follow the names of seven nat 
Three other natives from the villages to the south of Calcutta 

Of the seven referred to above, five were baptized on 
26th April 1829, in the Chapel, viz. : (1) Earn Prisad from i 
manick, (2) Santi Bam from Narsigdarchoke, (3) Probhoo 
from Andarmanick, (4) Neem Chand (name of village not g 
(5) Deokee Ram from Narsigdarchoke, at the same time thai 
Alexander Burgh Lish was baptized. The sixth man — Bam I 
Koomeer from Chakjuggerdol — was baptized on 3 let May, 
the next three; but the seventh man, Beeno Sirdar, seems 
to have been baptized. 

On one occasion in 1829, Mr. Bobinson remarked: 
" We had present in the vestry not less than twenty-fiiw p 
all of whom had given up their caste that they might W 

Shortly after this, when five of these were baptized^ be y 
thus in a letter to the Secretary of the Society : 

♦ This is the word used in the Minute Book. 


"It would have gratified you to see thirty-two en- 
lirers at the Chapel, those who were baptiized included, 
ich was the scene witnessed on the 26th of April 
829). But these are not all who have given up caste, 
here are many, we know not how many, more. We have enquirere 
I many villages, the most nemote of which is little less than 
renty miles from Calcutta. But this is not all : our Circular 
oad brethren are busy in the same way: they have numerous 
iqnirers, and, I hope will soon have many converts. Now this 
really something new, and I hope we are on the eve of better 
^ys. Nothing like this has been witnessed in this country before. 
hope it will go on.'' 

The Minute Book procesds : — 

19th May. — (Tuesday). Two natives (names given) were 
Meived and on the following Sabbath another (name given) was 
)ceived. At the former meeting three persons were proposed. 

16th June. — Two natives (names given) were received. 

14th July. — Nine persons proposed as candidates for baptism. 

18th August. — Five persons were proposed. 

Of those referred to by Mr. Robinson on 26th April, he next 

" Some of them had shortly to pass through severe per- 
xnitions. In a village called Sulkea (not the place of that name 
jpofiite Calcutta, but a village near Baruipore, south-east of 
alcutta) about a dozen had met on a Sabbath morning for wor- 
lip and had afterwards sat at dinner together, when a band of 
ea broke in suddenly upon them and beat them very cruelly. 
our persons were seriously wounded and several hurt ; one poor 
an had his hut burnt and his liflle all destroyed. Measures are 
iken to obtain legal redress, just for the sake of future security, 
it though I have waited on the Judge myself I doubt whether 
ley will succeed. As these poor men have many enemies, bs- 
lUse they wish to be Christians, and as falsehood, perjury and 
dbery are universal, there is but little room to hope that they 
ill obtain justice.' 

In September of the same year a far worse assault was made 

waiting in the murder of the Native Preacher, Ramkishur, 

ho had been baptized on 21st February 1813. The details are 

ken from the Government Gazette of 8th October 1829 and, as 

may be of interest to some, the heading of the paper is given 

I the next page. 


























' co- 


















i ^ 




■ r'2 



cS i- ^ 


/9 ss: 







: a 





1 if 




' u 

■ 3 

. 00 












/z . , 



Not satisfied with having mur- 
dered the Native Preacher, they 
attacked Mr. Rabeholm himself on 
the 11th October 1829. Mr. Rabe- 
holm was also a member of the 
Church, aiid is described as a per- 
son of great energy and zeal. He 
had given up his appointment in an 
attorney 8 office to take up Mission 

The details were communicated 
to England by the Rev. George 
Pearoe and appeared in the Mtssioth 
ary Herald for May 1830 

"In a letter from Mr. George 
Pearce, inserted in our number 
for February J allusion was made 
to the maliguant opposiition made 
by eome of the native landholders 
to the preaching of the Gospel in 
the villages under thair authority. 
Our readers will perceive from the 
following account^ taken from ihe 
Calcutta Government Gazette <rf 
(Thursday) 8th October 1829, that 
one of the n active mission arid 
has actually fallen a victim to their 
enmity. We trust that the pef- 
petrators and instigators of the 
atrocious deed will be discovered 
and that effectual measures will 
be taken to prevent the recurrence 
of such acts of civil outrage. 

"A few years ago, some inhabit- 
ants of the villager to the south of 
Calcutta, in occasionally passing 
the schoolrooms of the Independent 
mission ariee at Kidderpore listened 
to the Gospel which was preached 
in them. They became converts to 
Christianity, and through thein 
the missionaries were enabled to 
carry the Gospel into the villages 
themselves . Inquiry and informar 
tion spT^Sbd through the surround- 
\ ing d\8^T\cV,, ^ltA V^ te^^^KMb in- 


timades were formed with converts of other missionary bodies, who 
then took a part in the still increasing work. 

" The Serampore missionaries were induced a few months since 
to send a missionary to reside in Baruipore, and labour in that 
part of the district referred to, nearest to that town which was 
Bfcill unoccupied by any others. In Sulkea, a large village about 
six miles distant from Baruipore, nearly thirty persons had pro- 
Jessed a. regard for the Gospel and thrown off the bondage of caste, 
it fherefore became the central point of the missionary's labours 
jtfid here it was proposed to erect a convenient hut to serve the 
•double purposd of a Chapel and a schoolroom. A native Christian 
named Ramkishur was sent to reside in Sulkea, to assist the 
missionary to conduct religious worship during his absence. 

"He was a man of upwards of 50 years of age, and a Christian 
of long standing. He was not remarkable for any superior ability, 
'bat possessed a meek and gentle disposition, seemed always pleased 
to have an opportunity of speaking of ths Gospel, and, in familiar 

* conversation especially, he was able to turn his long acquaintance 
I ^th. the Scriptures to good account. He soon gained the affections 
i "ti the new converts and was amongst them as a father. He held 
s meetings for Divine worship with them constantly, at which many 

* of the other villagers likewise attended and the spirit of honest 
% €nqiiii^ appeared to be rapidly extending. But, what gained him 
r the affections of some, excited towards him the bitterest enmity 
1^ of others, and he has fallen a victim to their rage. He spent 
:.; 'Sonday, the 13th of September (1829), at Sulkea, and conduebed 
'- Diyine worship twice in the presence of many of the villagers, who 
j^ remained for hours in conversation respecting what they had 
^ keard. On the Monday following he went to Garda, a small 
f- 'village, but a short distance off, where on© of the new converts 
1 resided apart from the rest. At the house of this man he spent 

the day and, some of the other converts having called they had 
woixftiip together just before sunsst. After this they two were 
left alone, and they retired to rest in the same hut at the usual 
hour. A little after midnight they wished to smoka, and Chand, 
file master of the house, taking his hooka, went to his brother's 
(not a convert) on the other side of the road, and, having obtainad 
a light sat smoking for some tims. He then went to give the 
hooka to Ramkishur, but instantly ran back calling to his 
brotlier, ' there are so and so (naming a number, of persons) with 
many more come to my house, and they are murdering the padri 
j^ahib's Dewan.' He went away again and his brother rose and 

Eing out, saw upon the road several of the persons whom Chand 
d mentioned, for it was clear moonlight, and, on his calling 


to them, they chased him with clubs with which they were all 
armed. Hd called up another man who lived on the premifleB, 
and, returning with him to the road, they saw two canoes full 
of men making off, and also a number of other persons going 
towards Sulkea on foot. Through fear they immediately concealed 

themsslves in their own house till daylight. 

In the meantime Chand had gone round to the back of his 
own premises and there heard the leaders of the party calling 
out " Where is Chand ? Murder him ! Murder him ! " And there he 
witnessed the murder of the poor old man, who a few faint 
cries for help, fell under their blows in the little yard of thfr 
hous3 where he had slept. Chand swam through a tank, and 
made off through the rice-fields without being observed and ran 
to Bankipore (Baruipore), several miles, to the Darogah's 
Thanna where he gave notica of the murder. As he had not exactly 
ascertained the actual perpetrators of the murder, he was sent 
back for the purpose. He readied Garda again about sunrise on 
Tuesday, and then went with his brother to the fatal spot. They 
found the body perfectly lifeless and cold : on the forehead was 
a great gash, evidently made by the stroke of a club, and the 
neck had been pierced by a spear; and death no doubt had fol- 
lowed instantly: there was much blood upon the ground." 

" It is gratifying to know that during the whole of his stay in 
the village the conduct of the deceased had been in every respect 
blameless. It has been already stated that his temper was mild 
and gentle and he had certainly done nothing to prejudice the 
interests of anyone. 

" The last time he parted from the missionary under whose 
direction he was placed, he seemed much depressed, and observed, 
1 am going, Sir, as a sheep among wolves, and so it has appeared. 
We believe that decided measures have Been taken to bring 
the chief offenders to justice, how far they may be successful we 
cannot tell." 

The greater part of the foregoing was communicated to the 
Government Gazette, by a correspondent, but the last two paragraphs 
are from the pen of the Editor, as the paper itself has been referred' 

The afflictive event described in the foregoing extract is aise 
referred to by Mr. George Pearce under date of 12th October 
(1829) thus:— 


*' During the last three months the Calcutta brethren 
liave had the joy of receiving into oommundon eight natives, six 
of whom were from the peasantry of the villages to the east and 
south-east of Calcutta of the remarkable movement among which 
in favour of the Gospel, you have already heard. Some of these 
poor people come from a distance of thirty miles to hear the 
Gospsl on the Lord's Bay. Since these fields appear so promising, 
I hope soon to direct my feet thitherward, in company with my 
brethren, and, may the Lord of the harvest bless His word 

" But Christian mi33ionarie5 cannot long experience success, 
without having to contend with opposition, excited by the powers 
of darkness. The Jameedars (sic), or landholders, seem generally 
to have conceived the utmost hatred against the Grospel, through 
fear, in all probability of injury to thsir worldly interests, hence 
for some time past the Christians in their estates have in various 
ways been made to feel their displeasure, but recently, not being; 
satisfied with depriving them of land, destroying their com, and 
beating them they have proceeded so far as deliberately to murder 
one of the Christians and, to render the act the more effectual in 
preventing the evil dreaded, they selected as their victim one of 
the native preachers. The person whose life has been taken away 
was named Ramkishur who had been a professor of the Gospel 
about twenty-four years. (This would seem to be incorrect.) He 
was in connection with Serampore. Strange as it may appear, 
little notice has been taken of this dreadful affair, but, where the 
fault lies I cannot say, yet, in consequence of it, on Sunday last 
(i.e., the 11th October) in the same village a young man, Mr. 
Babeholm, also in the employ of Serampore, was attacked by 
about a hundred men armed with clubs. After being thrown 
down and bruised a good deal, he, by some means or other, 
effected his escape. Wiere these things will end the Lord alone 
knows. I hope missionaries will have wisdom and discretion to 
conduct themselves in a becoming manner in the midst of these 

Mr. Rabeholm was the first person to be baptized after the 
Rev. W. Robinson took over the Pastorate of the Lall Bazar 
Church on the 16th June 1825, his baptism having taken place on 
the 26th idem. 

Mr. Marshman in his book says: — 

" The case was fully investigated in the court and the guilt of 
two of the ringleaders brought home to them, but they escaped 


oondign punishmeiit in consequence of a difference of opinion 
between the judge and the Mahomedan law officer as to the extent 
of their complicity, but the searching and protracted investigation 
struck awe into th© minds of the violent and gave heart to those 
who were well disposed in that little community." 

But even these events did not hinder the work aa the follow- 
ing extracts from the Minute Book will show: — 

17th November. — (Tuesday). A Church Meeting was held at 
which eighteen persons were mentioned as wishing to be baptized, 
all, with two exceptions, being natives. 

15th December. — (Tuesday). At a Church Meeting this alter 
noon the following persons were received, and then follow the 
names of nine natives. 

Another Church Meeting was held on Sabbath morning, 
20th December, when Soojea, the wife of Bam Hurree, was admitted 
for baptism ; and we find that on 27th December the above woman 
Soojee and nine other natives were baptized, so altogether in 1829 
forty-four persons were admitted into the Church, which is the 
highest figure for any year subsequent to 1825. 
In 1830 the details are as interesting : — 

16th February. — (Tuesday). At our Chujrch Meeting thia 
afternoon nine persons ware received for baptism. 

16th March. — (Tuesday). At our Church Meeting this after- 
noon several persons in the villages were proposed and it waa 
agreed that a Church Meeting should be held at Jeardagote in 
April to receive those of them who might appear fit subjects for 
baptism and that they should be baptized at the same place. 

ISth April. — (Tuesday). A Church Meeting was held and 
on the following day the Pastor and several members went to 
Jeardagote where a Church Meeting was held and four poor 
women admitted for baptism. They were baptized the same day 
in a tank near the Chapel. One of these poor women is blind 
and quite infirm. She is said to ba near a hundred years of age. 
She gave a very satisfactory account of her faith in Christ. 

The following appeared in the Annual Eeport which was pre- 
sented in London on 17th June 1830: — 

Mr. (W.) Bobinson specifies the female servant who some years 
ago built a small bungalow Chapel at her own expense and a 
brother of the name of Kishur among those who had passed away. 
The latter was employed in connection with the Serampore mis- 


donaries ae a Native Preacher in the village of Sulkea and in 
September last (1829) became a martyr to the catifie of God, 
[laving been brutally murdered by a band of rufl&anB, who forced 
%n entrance into the cottage where he was reposing for the night. 
[See the Missionary Herald for May 1830 for details). 

By the help of Chodron (who had been a British seaman) 
uid Gk>rachand, native preachers, who are employed under the 
direction of Mr. Eobineon, considerable attention is paid to the 
spiritual necessities of several villages near Calcutta. At two of 
bhese, called Narsigdarchoke and Jeadargote, congregations regu- 
larly assemble twice on the Sabbath, in the former a pla<» of 
worship has been erected in the midst of a large marshy tract on 
a small island formed with much labour for the purpose, and in the 
latter a similar building is in progress. 

At other places in the neighbourhood the prospects are very 
dncooraging, and Mr. Robinson earnestly solicits that aid from 
ECome, which woidd enable him to embrace them. 

To continue the extracts from the Minute Book: — 

17th August. — (Tuesday). It appeared at this meeting that 
several of our members in the villages are in a very low state ; it 
was agreed that Brother Chodron should visit them and make the 
necessary enquiries about them. 

14th December. — (Tuesday). At the Church Meeting held on 
ihis day we were called to the painful duty of excluding some of 
3ur native brethren for idolatry. They had long been very much 
iiasatisfied, because money was not given them according to their 
noshes and at last determined to renounce their profession of 
[Thristianity and accordingly made an idol and joined in keeping 
iihe festivals of that idol. One of them lost a child soon afber- 
nrards and another of them died in a few days without any good 
svidence of repentance. (This latter was Ram Prisad Koomeer, 
prho died of cholera.) 

The following extract from Br. Cox's History of the Mission 
is of considerable interest : — 

" Within two months after his settlement here in 1829, Mr. 
Rabeholm was deeply afflicted by an event which was the first of 
khe kind that had occurred in the missionary enterprise, the mur- 
der of a native — Ramkishur — on account of the Gospel. It took 
place at Garda, a village about 20 miles south of Calcutta, where 
i groat desire after the truth has been lately manifested. This 
ironsed the hatred of those who rejected it, a party of whom 


entered the house where he slept about midnight^ armed with 
xslubs and bamboos and perpetrated this foul crime. 

In November eight were baptized by Mr. Mack, and a Church 
organized. In December three others joined. Throughout the 
District much readiness was evinced to hear the Gospel, and the 
Rajah, who, with his family, were present at the first meetings, 
furnished every facility for promoting education and offered no 
obstruction to the propagation of the Gospel. 

Mr. Rabeholm furnished some interesting accounts of his 
itinerant efforts in 1830, at Magra haut (or market), Houra, and 
other places. At the former where he and Chodron talked 
of proceeding to other villages, they were constrained to remain 
for a time by the exclamations of the people : " are we so unforfcu- 
nata as to be excluded from a knowledge of the way of salvation." 
On another occasion, at Nutumee, after preaching and distribu- 
tion of a multitude of tracts, two young brahmans began to beat 
their foreheads before the whole assembly saying, "O miserable 
people that we are, that we never heard of such things bafore.*' 
As they passed along through the villages they found several 
people in different places standing in the canal, up to ih^ ned 
in water, awaiting their arrival, in order to receive tracts. 

The Church, however, did not appear to be in a flourishing 
state. In the beginning of the year there were eleven memboa, 
but onj3 died of oonsumptiooi and three were excluded. Three 
others, however, were received. Nidee Ram, an old member of 
the Church of Jessore, was appointed an assistant to Mr. Rabe- 
holm, but in 1831 he died most happily in Serampore." 

The following extract is from Mr. Marshman's book: — 

At the new station formed at Baruipore to the south of Cal- 
cutta under the superintendence of Mr. Rabehobn, an East Indian 
of great energy and zeal, the native converts had been subject as 
elsewhere to great annoyance from their heathen landlords and 
it was resolved to take land in the neighbourhood where they might 
carry on their agricultural labours without molestation. The law 
prohibiting the purchase or occupation of land by Europeans was 
still in force, but Government had for some time encouraged the 
application of English capital in clearing of the Soonderbuns, by 
making grants of jungle land on permanent lease. The missionarifls 
availed themselves of this privilege and obtained a large tract of 
land in tHe forest in the neighbourhood of Baruipore. The enter- 
prise was placed under the control of Mr. Babeholm, and 400 
workmen were immediately engaged in felling trees and clearing 
the land and digging ponds, and there was every prospect that ifc 
would speedily become the seat of a Christian population. 


15th March 1831 (Tuesday). — Thr&e natives were proposed 
for baptism. 

19th ^i/jril (Tuesday). — Another- Church Meeting was held' 
-when three natives (names given) were admitted for baptism 

Of cour^, it goes out without saying that there were 
lapses necessitating the exclusion of some of the new converts. 

17th January 1832, — One native (name given) was received 
for baptism. 

17th April, — Another Church Meeting was held when one 
native (name given) was admitted for baptism. Another Church 
Meeting was held on the following Sabbath niormng when Tara- 
chand from Bolorampore was admitted. Three persons were bap- 
tized on the 29th April. 

18th Septemher. — ^A Church Me^ating was held wh.en two 
natives were admitted for baptism. 

But on the 22nd September the " excellent " Mr. Charles 
Chodron died and was buried in the Scotch Cemetery. He was 
only 36 years of age at the tim/s of his death. The entry in the 
Church Register against his name runs thus: " An English Seaman. 
Immediately after his baptism he went forth into different parts 
of Bengal preaching the Gospel. Latterly he returned and settled 
among us as a Bengali preacher and died deeply regretted in 
September 1832." 

The following is the simple inscription on his grave which 
may still be seen. 

To th3 Memory of Charles Chodron, 

died 22nd September 1832, aged 36 years. 

" Blessed are the dead that die in the Lord : 

Yea, their works do follow them.*' 

At a Church Meeting held on Tuesday, 16th October, several 
persons in the villages were proposed for baptdsm. 

At a Church Meeting held on Tuesday, 20th November, three 
psisons, natives of the villages, were proposed. Twelve persons 
nave lately been baptized at Narsigdarchoke, viz., five on the 18th 
November and seven on the 16th December. A few others in 
these parts seem inclined to follow the Lord in baptism. 

The following extracts relating to this period are taken from 
Dr. Cox's History of the Mission : — 


" Chodron fell asleep in Jesus in September (1832). He i 
descidbed as a dear brotlier and fellow-labourer, whose life m 
' conduct bore testimony to his godly sincerity. In labours lie wai 
pr&«minent and spoke the language admirably. "Hb was in oo» 
nexion with the Lol (sic.) Bazar Church in Calcutta which hx 
lately added eleven to its communion. About twenty memben 
scattered through th© different villages, were constantly vifflted 
by Chodron. 

The labours of Mr. Robinson at Calcutta in the Lol (sic,) Baar 
Chapel and in the villages appear to have been greatly blessed. 
In 1832 twenty-six were baptized, sixteen had been added in 183) 
when he wrote in October and more were expected. He had ixtj 
members in the villages. At the close of the year he was afflicted 
by the death of Gorachand, his long-tried and faithful asdflttnt^ 
whose last words were, " I am going to my Father and my Qod." 

The record proceeds with the following interesting detaib:- 
On Saturday, 16th March 1833, a Cburch Meeting wasMdifc 

Narsigdarchoke, when a man and his wife were re-admitted tti 

on© person was proposed for baptism. 

At a Church Meeting held at Narsigdarchoke on Satnrdjf 
morning, 18th May, eight persons were received for baptism'. TW 
were all baptized there on the following Sabbath morning. ISi 
congregation at Narsigdarchoke on this day was unusually lup* 
it amounted to more than fifty persons besides children. 

At a Church Meeting held at Narsigdarchoke on SatariiJ 
morning, 16th June, one person was restored after exclusion. A* 
this Church meeting it was necessary to administer some reprooik 
A bad spirit appeared in two of the men and both they and tieil 
wives absented themselves from the Lord's Table and pulfc 
worship on the following Sabbath. It was a gloomy day at N•^ 
sigdarchoke, though favourable reports were afterwards received 
of the Idttle congregations in the other villages. 

On Monday, 19th August, the wife of Pran was bapfiaed A 
Bulrampore. (Her name was Pudu and her baptism is refecni 
to in the Biography of the Rev. W. Robinson.) 

At a Church Meeting held at Narsigdarchoke on Satwdaj 
morning, 16th November, four men were received for baptiam. 
Three of them were baptized the next morning. 

At a Church Meeting held at Jeadargote on Wednesday 2(Hk 
November, two women from Ragoopona were received for baptifltt. 
At this meeting four men who had been excluded for miBcondiieb 


Qowlddged tbeir error and were rcetored to oommunion. The 
women and one of tlio men received tlie previous Saturday 
Kareigdarchoke were afterwards baptized. In the afternoon 
had the Lord's Supper: seventeen natives communed. 

A Church M^eeting was held at Narsigdarchoke on Saturday 
ning, 14th December, when three women, viz., Karpoor, Oriya 
I Debee were admitted. They were baptized on the following 

A reference to some of the above events will be found in the 
owing account of a visit to these villages by Rev. Mr. Leechman 
ich is taken in extenso from the Biography of Rev. W. Robin- 
. The interesting details given must be the writer's apology 
inserting such a long piece in full. 

2nd September 1833. I have lately returned from a Mission- 
' trip to the villages south of Calcutta, where our good brother 
binson's labours have been so signally blessed. Brother Robin- 
had been up at Serampore at our usual monthly meeting held 
Dr. Carey's study, for prayer and transaction of business' in 
Bitence to the Mission. So we started together for Calcutta: 
iPsached for him at the Lall Bazar in the evening: and next 
ming we set out for the villages. Our first conveyance, a native 
arree," a vehicle that would excite considerable attention were 
x> appear in the crowded streets of I/iverpool. Gorachand, th« 
i^ preacher, was with us and also an old lady, a native of the 
mtry, who has lost her little all by the late failures (Palmer and 
, and others), but who has long been an eminent Christian, 
I who spends a great part of her time among the villages, praachr 
to the poor females the Gospel of Christ. When we arrived 
the Ghat, we entered a canoe, in the bottom of which we sat 
a Tu7'qe. Our canoemen were native Christians, and members 
the Church. Sometimes with paddles, sometimes by means 
long poles they moved us along with considerable speed. The 
al through which we had to pass was peculiarly offensive. It 
-eputed sacred. And the number of the dead floating in its 
«in, or bumdng on its banks, and the utter indifference mani- 
ed to them by the living, affords sickening proof of the horrors 
degradation of idolatry. After leaving this we entered a 
al, and reached our last station, Jeadargote, about noon. 
this time, we had entirely left the land, and wens surrounded 
every hand with paddy-fields covered with water, the houses 
he poor natives wtere all budlt on artificial ground, made of the 



earth obtained by digging tanks ; there was no possibility of going 
from one place to another except by canoe. The rice fields were 
drassed in the loveliest green. Scattered villages were seen in the 
extended plain beautifully shaded by the palm and other trees. 
At Joadargote, Ram Hurree, the native Preacher, and sevad 
of the brethren met us. Here there is a school and a little Chapd 
in which our native brother preaches, and several are united 
together as a Church of Christ. After talking with them, vA 
leaving with them the elements for the administration of the 
Lord's Su])pcr. on the Sabbath, we left for Bulrampore, where two 
or threi3 Chnistian families reside and where Bam Huxree preadm 
on the afternoon of the Lord's Day — preaching at home mondag 
and evening. Here we conversed with a candidate who was wr 
ing for baptism, and, after making arrangements to baptize 1» 
on Monday as we returned, we started for Narsigdarchoke, cuff 
principal station, where we arrived in safety in the evening. Atthk 
])lace we hav3 a little plot of ground, bought by our late excellent 
brother ChodixDn. There is a good chapel, a small number rf 
houses where the Native Christians reside, and room to build iDon 
as their number incnaases. Shortly after, our arrival the gong wtt 
sounded to call the people to worship : it was delightful to hfitf 
the canoes a])proaching the house of prayer : some brought a litfle 
milk, otliers presented a f:>w cocoanuts, as an expression of thi 
kindly feelings towards the Sahebs and, after a very pleasant 
evening's exercise, we retired to rest. On the morrow after pray- 
ing with the brethren and expounding a portion of Scripture, we 
started in our canoe to visit one or two subordinate statioM- 
WHiorever we went, all the people turned out to hear 
under the shade of a tree, or under the verandahs 
their humble dwellings so we had many opportunitiei 
of preaching the truth. As there is not one Bramhun (m) il 
that part of the country we met with nothing like oppoeiiion. 
While Brother K. was preaching to the men, the old lady (naiW 
not given), who accompanied us, was addressing the fernales in 
private. And everywhere our poor bretfiren and sisters expreased 
erreat delight at our visit. On our iteturn we were caught in 
hoavv rain which prevented us from visiting another village itt 
which we heard there were three persons who had given up ca«te 
Our brethren, however, assembled at home as they did in the 
morning, and wo closed the day, as we had begun it, with prayer 
and praise. 

Next day was the Sabbath. Tlie gong was sounded twiceonthk 
occasion to invite the ^K»ople to the house of God. It reminded 
me of the "church-going belV in the land that is afar off, and 


ned a train of emotions in which it was difficult to say 
er pleasure or sadness was the predominant element. 

congregation of thirty assembled. Brother K. preached 
I Peter 2 : 28 : and as hs was addressing a company of those 
ad been lately wandering in all the errors and misiaries of 
ry, but who had now been brought into the fold of the 
and the Good Shepherd, his subject was peculiarly appro- 
, After the sermon the Lord s Supper was administered to 
L communicants. There was little in the scene that could 
t the mere casual observer. But, what Christian could look 
with indifference? The Saviour was equally present in our 
dwelling, as He is in the most splendid temple consecrated to 
>raise. In the afternoon we went to Debespore, another 
n where there is also a little church, and after preaching, 
dstering the Lord's Supper and visiting som& of our poor 
leople, we turnsd again to Narsigdarchoke and held a 
r-n^eting there in the evening, when two of our native 
■©n engaged (in prayer) very much to our satisfaction. 

H Monday morning we proceeded to Balarampore. Many 
SBembled to witness the baptism, who behaved with the 
st decorum and listened with attention to what was eaad. 
>afciv.3 preachers took part in the devotional part of the 
). The whole was truly impressive. Here we met some 
brethren who were not able to meet us at any of the other 
(S. So that I saw them all, with only one exception. In 
villages there are forty persons in communion with the 
1. There are four good schools well attended. And many 
re yet heathens (sic) have the Gospal freely and faithfully 
ed to them. We are not without our troubles and anxieties 
3e little churches. But we have much to encourage us. 
have died in the faith and many afford pleasing evidence 
Ley are born of God." 

is sad to have to state that several liad to be excluded in . 
ad 1835, but on the 19th July of the latter year at a church 
gf held at Narsigdarchoke five persons were received for 
1 who were baptized the next day. Then we read : — 

) a Church meeting at Narsigdarchoke on Saturday, 
ovemher, five persons were received for baptism and fiVe who 
en excluded were restored. The candidates for baptism 
tpfcized at Narsigdarchoke the next day. 



Tb3 miimtes regarding 1836 and 1837 are given in exUnso 
because of their interest. 

loth October 1836, A Church Moating was held at Debeepore 
when three persons were received for baptism. On the Bame 
evening another Church Meeting was held at Narsigdarchoke when 
ten were received for baptism, two re-admitted, seven excluded 
and two suspended . 

On ihd following Lord's Day — 10th October — the abovemen- 
tioned ihirtcon persons were baptized at Narsigdarchoke. About 
eighty adults who had renounced idolatry were present and in the 
aftornoon forty-two of those converts from heathenism partook of 
the Lord's Supper (the namss of the tlidrteen are recorded in the 
Cniurch Roll.) 

1837. A Church Meeting held at Debeepore, Saturday, IStk 
tSepicinher, when scveiilceji i>ersons were unanimously received into 
tlio Church. In the evening of the same day another Ghnrdi 
Mc3ting was hold at Narsigdarchoke at which six other persons wera 
lecoivod, and throe rcvstorod to communions, two after su^peDskm 
and one aftci* exclusion. Among the persons received were four 
widows, four niari-ijd couples, a man and his mother — one of the 
widows- and a lad 14 years of age. All these persons, twenty-thzea 
in number, were baptized at Narsigdarchoke the next day. In the 
aftniioon tlic Lord's Supper was administered to nearly sixty of 
our native brethren and sisters. About ten of the members wew 
unable to attend. The congregation amounted to more than ft 
hundred. (The names of the 23 are recorded in the Church Boll.) 

The 23 persons thus baptized on the 17th September 1837 ii 
the largcRt ninnher ever baptized on one single, occasion in 
the whole nnnaU of the Church for the 109 yearf>. As a consequence 
of these large accessions the chapel at Narsigdarchoke had to be 
re-built, and the following is the minute in the Churck Book about 

1837. A Church M'setring was held (in the Lall Bazar Chapel) 
on Lord's Day, 8th October, when it was determined to re-bu/Ild the 
chapel at Narsigdarchoke. Almost enough for the purpose wtt 
subscribed on the spot. 

Mr. Robinson left the ChurcH at the end of 1838 and the 

following are the entries for 1839 : — 

At a Church Meeting held on Thursday, ths 31st Janvar^ 
18S9 it was unanimously agreed that Mr. Thomas should receive 


om tli»d Church, fund 59 rupees 3 annaB, the amounb of an 
timate for the purpose of building a chapel for the Native 
hiistians and a house for thd Preacher at the village of Bagee. 

At a Church Meetu'ng held on Lord's Day 17th Fthruary^ 
]S9y a letter was read signed by Mr. (W.) Thomas and the Native 
hristiana of the villages of Nareigdarchoke, Debeeporo, Jeadar- 
)te, Bagee and Lukhyantipord, requesting a letter of dis- 
iasion from tba Lall Bazar Church in order that they might form 
distinct Church among themselves, which was acceded to by the 

The following extract from Mr. Marshman's book may be a 

iting close to this chapter, and it may be mentioned that there 

re to this day some Native Christians in the Mutlah Distract who 

le periodically visited by a missionary from Calcutta : — 

" On his return to Serampore Mr. Mack spent some time at 
niindpore, the settlement in the Soonderbuns, where he found 
ore than 100 families engaged in clearing and cultivating the 
nd, with a large sprinkling of Christians among them, and the 
hole community yielding to the influence of Christian institutions. 
luB useful project fell to the groand on the dissolution of the 
lerampore) Mission and tha grant was disposed of, but it is not 
ithout interest to remark that in the neighbourhood of this 
rant is the spot recently (1859) selected for the subsidiai-y port of 
alcutta on the Mutla River, which may at no distant period be- 
ime a flourishing emporium, and while these pages are passing 
iiough the Press, Lord Stanley has taken the most effectual 
»uzBd to hasten this consummation by sanctioning the construction 
F & railway to connect the new with the old to'wn — a distance of 
borut 30 miles." 


The Pastorate of the Rev. Robert Bayne. 

[Fro?n 16th June 1839 to 22nd August ISp,] 

When the Rev. W. Robinson resigned the Pastorate in Novwa- 
ber 1838, a temporary arrangement had to be made, so theBer. 
James Thomas, one of the missionaries, took over charge of th 
Church and, with the assistance of others, carried on until amort 
permanent arrangement could be made. (Jh the 9th. June IW 
the unanimous choice of the Church fell on the Rev. Robert 
Bayne, and a letter was accordingly addressed to him bearing tW 
date, inviting him to take Pastoral charge of the Church ad 
hoping he would accede to its wishes. 

Mr. Bayne was the first of tbD ten missionaries the Rev. W. H. 
Pearce appealed for at the annual meeting of the MissioiiU} 
Society in 1837 in order to strengthen the staff out here. Hawti 
set apart at Liverpool in January 1838, whence, aft-er a knj 
detention, he at length sailed for Bengal. Mr. Greorge Panotf 
was the next. 

On their arrival and during their stay in Calcutta, Mr. P» 
sons and Mr. Bayne gave the most pleasing account of the state of 
the missionary operations which they found to bo on. a mow 
extensive scale than they had anticipated. Mr. Bayne wrote: 

''Our missionaries are found in everything, translating theBiM* 
in whole or in part into different languages, preaching to MussehBiW 
and Hindus in all parts, educating the heathen children and the 
children of Christian parents : cherishing those who ar^ drivien by 
persecution from their home and training up promising young meo 
of talent for the Ministry, as well as preaching the Word of life 
to thei English." 

He arrived shortly after Mr. Robinson's i^eeignation and flieii 

Mr. Penney died on 1st February 1839. The Mission staff ta 

Calcutta was shorthanded. Still, Mr. Bayne readily ooDsented 


become the Pastor of the Church, for his Istter accepting the 

arge was read at a Church Meeting on the 16th June (1839.) 

Unfortunately there were troublers in Israel in his timo as 

ere had been in Mr. Robinson's time, as will be seen from the 

llowing entry in the Minute Book : — 

" At a Church Meeting held on Lord^s Day, the 27th October 
839), after singing and prayer, Mr. Bayne stated that whsn he 
106 out from England to this country it was with the view of 
•caching to the Heathen, and that ever sinoa he arrived he had 
■erished that desire, and that when he consented to become the 
teior of thd Church, it was because there was not another to take 
6 oversight of it. However, as he now understood from a letter 
at him by two of the members there was among several a di^ 
tisfaction wuth his ministry, he considered this as giving him 
fair opportunity of gratifying his desire to labor principally 
long the Heathen, and accordingly resigned his charge as Pastor 
this Church, offering, however, to stay with them one month 
iger that they might have an opportunity of providing a 

The next entries on the subject run thus : — 24th November 
59 — Lord's Day — At a Church Meeting held this day it was 
reed that there were only very f sw who ever wished a change in 

> Pastorate and that of these, one had resolved to leava and the 
leons fully ooiincided with the desire of the Church that Mr. 
yne should resume his office permanently. A letter to that 
jct was accordingly eent him by the Deacons for the whole 

1st December 1839— Lord's Day— At the Church Meet- 
Mr. Bayne stated that on considering their renewed invitation 
1 consulting with his brethren and viewing the real position in 
ich the Church stood, it appeared to him the path of duty to 
f among them and therefore consented to resume the offio9 of 
jtor accordingly. 

However on the 22nd August 1840, Mr. Bayne resigned tHe 

storate finally, the entry regarding which runs thus: — 

At a Church Moating held on Lord's Day, the 22nd August 
to, the Rev. R. Bayne stated that the Pastoral charge of the 
urch he now resigns and that he never considered himself the 
stor for which reason he never interested himself by visiting 

> members. 

No reason whatever is assigned by Mr. Bayne for what seem* 


a sudden step, nor is any reason on record in the Minute Book. 
But probably the following remarks which aro recorded in Dr. 
Cox's History and Dr. Wenger's unpublished reminiscences of 
his Indian life give the real leason for the resignation. 

" The prolonged and dangernese illness of Mrs. Bayne cwBr 
pellad her return to Europe and it was deemed necessary for Mr. 
Bayne to accompany her. This was in 1840." 

"In August (1840) it became evident from the state of Mr». 
Bayne s health that she must return Home and Mr. Bayne nattt^ 
ally — in fact necessarily — accompanied her.*' 

It has been difficult, to trace out information about Mr. BayM 
subsequent to his leturn to England, but he left the Baptist 
Denomination and after leaving it held a curacy at Stratford ia 
Essex from 1871 to 1875, when ha became Vicar of Kingsey in 
Buckinghamshire which poeition he retained until his deaUi on 
3rd January 1901, at the advanced age of 89 years. The date 
of his leaving the Baptist Denomination has not, however. b?ffli 

From the foregoing it will be seen that Mr. Bayne 's pastorate 
lasted from 16th June 1839 to 22nd August 1840, or a period 
of 14 months and 7 days. But even this brief period was not 
barren, for in 1839 there were 9 baptisms and in 1840 twenty. 
In 1840 two young ladies — Misses Jessie and Hebe Wells — were 
baptized and a fellow member recorded years after about tb3 
former that she and her mother, " were indeed children of God, 
beloved by all the members." He also recorded that the mother 
was afflicted with blindness for many years, but never omitted 
coming to Church both in the week evening and on Sunday. It 
was the custom for the mother to have a rupee tied up in tbe 
corner of her handkerchief, "in case there should be some call 
for it.'' She was so much attached to the Church that she set aside 
Rs. 3,000 to be made over to the Church after her demise, but 
she was greatly disappointed in this for a friend borrowed that 
money from her and never repaid it and thus the Church had to 
suffer a loes when money was sorely needed. 


On 15th December 1839 it is recorded : — 

" On account of the defective knowledge existing amongst many 
I the membezB with respect to Church discipline, and the duties 
hich they owe to each other, rules were drawn out and adopted 
lis day and appointed to be printed and circulated among the 

It is unfortunate that no copy of these rules is on record, 
bough a copy ie stated to be annexed. They might have ihrown 
)me light on the state of things in the Church in those days. 

Dr. Wenger has recorded the following remark in his unpub- 
sbed Reminiscences: — 

When Mr. Bayne left I had not only sometimes to supply 
is place in the pulpit of thd Lall Bazar Chapel, but also to under- 
bke thf supervision of the Narsigdarchoke station. 

The Pastorate of the Rev. W. W. Evans. 
(From 23rd Drcemher I84O to 10th June ISU) 

Before detailing the events of the Pastorate it is best that 
the Pastor, and his wife should be introduced to the reader. "Who 
will deny that a Pastor's wife (if of the right sort) is as us^ in 
the work of tba Church as the Pastor himself ? 

WilMams Watkin Evans — for that was hie full name— wi§ 
born near Oswestry in Shropshire in 1802, and his parents gw« 
him a sound Christian education. After leaving school, vi 
passing through a course of special training in London, he took 
up a post as a teacher in Liverpool at the ag»3 of seventeen. At 
that time he was nominally a Churchman and attended the muu^ 
try of the first, evangelical clergyman, who preached statedly in 
that town who had been selected by Mrs. (afterwards Lady) GUd- 
stone, the mother of the Premier of that name. He became 
thoughtful under the responsibilities of his work and the early 
insti-uctions of his mother, and these, with other favouring circuifr 
stances, were blessed to the renewal of his heart. He then began 
to shape his studies wdth a view to the Ministry of the Establifllifi< 
Church, when his mind became exercised upon the qiiesti^m ^ 
baptism. He was thus thrown upon a course of investigatioo 
which ended in his baptism as a believer by Rev. Samuel Samden» 
the Pastor of the Church worshipping in Byron. Street Ghapfli' 
Scon after he joined the Church his Pastor and other frieiidi 
urged him to proceed for ministerial study to Bristol Gollege» 
but he declined the proposal. He remained a teacher till hii 
thirty-fifth year and attained a signal amount of usefulness. 

During this period Mr. Evans' interest had been deepening 
in the missionary enterprise and it did not surprise his friend* 


txat, when tlie Baptist Missionary Society proposed to frovid© an 
distant in tliei Secretariat lb the Rev. Mr. Dyer, he should 
tpply for that position. His application waa successful 
Jid He was appointed to the office. When, two years 
fterwards, the Rev. W. H. Pearce returned from India and 
aade an appeal for ten more missionaries, Mr. and Mrs Evans 
Haae hoth moved by his representations and, after much con- 
ideration, offered themselves, and were accepted. They had 
efcfcled at Hackney and become members of the Church, under the 
lev. Dr. Cox and accordingly an Ordination Service was held 
here, which included Mr. Evans, Mr. John Parsons and Mr. 
borge Small. This was followed by a farewell service at Pem- 
•loke Chapel, Liverpool, where Mr. and Mre. Evans had long been 
Jkown and loved. The Missionary party embarked on the 20th 
nly 1840, in the ship, Jessie Logan, and reached Calcutta on 
ic 20th November following. 

Mr. Evans was sent out more immediately wdth a view to 

is undertaking the superintendence of the Benevoknt Institution 

I 8]^ccesBor to Mr. Penney. The maintenance of this Institution 

a vigorous condition being deemed an object of great importance 

id Mr. Evans having had experience in tuition, he was requested 

act as its superintendent. Mr. Evans entered upon this 
ngenial undertaking with great energy, while Mrs. Evans took 
arge of the Female Department of that Institution. 

Mrs. Evans, it should be here mentioned, was a native of 
verpool and a member of a well known family, being a sister 
Rev. Joseph Bayn-ss, of Wellington. 

Mr. Evans had not been a month in Calcutta when the Church 
icided on 13th December 1840, to invite him to become its 
istor and addressed him on the 21st idem what might be termed 
unique letter. He replied, on the 23rd idem, accepting the 
istorate and presided at the first Church Meeting on 7th January 
41. On the 10th June 1844, ha finally resigned the 
atorate and his resignation was accepted. He remained on in 


dalcutta, however, as a Missionary and assisted the Chuith in 
Ternacular and other work. 

The year 1844 is reported to have been a peculiarly unhealtby 
one in Calcutta and many natives as well as Europeans were Bwejit 
away. The missionary staff, however, remained unbroken at its 
close, but. in the autumn of 1845 Mrs. Evans died. As Mr. Evaia 
had previously been much reduced by fever and was overwh^ed 
by this domestic sorrow, on peremptory medical advice he Bought 
restoration by a voyage to England. He left in December 1845, 
arrived just in lime to address tho Annual Meeting of the Sodfity 
at Exeter Hall in 1846, and then retired to the Channel Islancb 
in the liojx) of such recovery as would warrant his return to India; 
but this hope had to be relinquished. He tried a small Pastorate 
in Devonshire and afterwards was called to the position of Secietazy 
and Superintendent of the Birmingham Town Mission. The woA 
accorded with his tast-es and habits and he spent seven years in it. 
His sympathies v/ero, however, all the time still with the mission- 
aries in heathen lands, so when he was invited to become the 
travelling agent, and, eventally, the Secretary to the Bible Trans- 
lation Society, he i-esponded at once and entered upon the engage- 
ment in 1856, and continued to discharge its duties for eleven years. 

By that time having completed his sixty-fifth year age began 
to tell on him and to point to an early retirement. Mr. Evans, who 
had lived as a widower for three years, married a sister of h* 
deceased wife who survived him. They spent their last years in 
Waterloo, near Liverixx)l, wheie he lived till his death in h* 
seventy-fourth year, on 16th July 1876. Most of the details in 
the above sketch have been taken from one about Mr. Evans by 
the Kev. C. M. Birrell, which was sent to tba writer by Mr. A. 
H. Baynes, now Honorary Secretary to the Mission. Mrs. Evans 
was his aunt and when he was out here some years ago he visited 
her grave in the Scotch Cemetery. 

Now, as to the details regarding Mrs. Evans. The following 


ount of her is extracted from Carey's Oriental ChriBtian Bio- 
\phy, and speaJks for itself: — 

Mrs. Anni'3 Evans, the wife of the Kev. W. W. Evans of 
> Baptist Mission, was bom in Liverpool, and in early life was 
Wight to a personal change of heart, so that with her sister 
s. Parsons she was baptized when about the age of sixteen. Her 
ther had been left a widow with the charge of eight children, all 
whom were brought to know the Saviour at an early period in 
lir history. Her two sons became Ministers of the Gospel, one 
Wellington, Somersetshire, and the other at St. Catherine's in 
Qada. Mrs. Evaius soon after her conversion was actively en- 
;ed in Sabbath School efforts and in promoting the interests of 
t Bible and Tract Societies. She was united in marrjage to 
. Evans on the 19th May 1828. With him she removed to 
adon when he was elected Assistant Secretary and Accountant 
the Baptist Missionary Society, and aJtsr several years of great 
fulness in Hackney, London, she volunteered her ser- 
96 with thoise of her husband to promote tha same cause in 
lia. They arrived in Calcutta on the 20th November 1840. 
E^. Evans undertook the superintendence of the female depart- 
at of the Benevolent Institution, her husband undertaking the 
I'd department, wliere she was very usefully engaged until within 
bt days of her death. She was also active in promoting the 
erests of the Lall-Bazar Church of which Mr. Evans was pastor 

nearly four years. Among the members of that Christian 
jiety she was endeared to many, whilst 'in the missionary circle 
i was beloved by all. Mrs. Evans had been ailing for some 
le, and rather more than a month before her death she sufPared 
ich from diarrhoea and from unaccountable excruciating pain^ 
the region of the stomach. She, however, was relieved of the 
mer complaint and the latter symptoms also became more 
derate. But on Tuesday evening the 23rd September 1845, she 
8 taken ill with fever, and three abcessss formed on the liver, 
ich, notwithstanding the efforts of hsr medical attendants, in- 


creased, till on 3rd October 1845, one burst and she died without 

a struggle. The last words of a religious nature which she uttered 

were "Faint, faint, yet pursuing." 

As previously stated, she lies buried in the Scotch. Cemetery 

where her grave was only recently rapaired. The following is the 

inscription on it: — 

In memory of Anne Baynes Evans, 

the beloved wife of the Rev. W. W. Evans, 

of the Baptist Missionary Society, 

Sh3 arrived in India, November 20th, 1840, 

and died October 3rd 1845. 

"She sleeps in Jesus and is bless' d" 

Dr. Wcnger in his unpublished reminiscences refers to her in 

the following terms: — 

"On the 3rd October (1845) Mrs. Evans died. She 
was probably, taken all in all, the most lovely member of our 
Mission carcle, and had laboured diligently during her sojourn of 
nearly five years in the Girls' I>3partment of the Benevolent In- 
stitution of which her husband superintended the Boys' Depart- 
ment. It was arranged that my wife's sister Annie shoidd succeed 
her in the school." 

The following lines are inscribed in hsr own handwriting in 
Dr. Wcnger 's album : — 

Oh Prayer thou mine of things unknown, 

Who can be poor possessing thee? 
Thou wert a fount of joy alone. 

Better than worlds of gold could be. 
Were I bereft of all beside 

That bears the form or name of bliss, 
I yet were rich, what will (sic)^ betide, 

If God in mercy leave me this. 

(Sd.) A. B. Evans. 
Calcutta, 30th November ISU- 

Let ua now proceed to the details of the Pastorate. 

* There would seem to be some error here, but no alteration can well *» 
made by the present writer. 


The following is a copy of the ktter addressed by the Church 
to the Rev. W. W. Evans on 21st December 1840 inviting him to 
the Pastoratd and which faithfully portrayed the state of the 
Church at the time : — 

Dear Sir, — The Church of Christ mieeting in the Lall-Bazar 
Chapel having been deprived of a Pastor by the departure of the 
Rev. R. Bayne for England, and understanding that you are free 
from all other engagements except those connected with the 
superintendence of the Benevolent Institution, beg to address you 
and earnestly request that you will kindly undertake the Pastoral 
charge over them, discharging the duties of that relation as far as 
the engagements already advert^ed to will admit. We are few in 
number and generally poor, and all need the kind but firm and 
watchful superintendence of a faithful Minister of Christ who will 
not bd backward to rebuke, reprove and exhort, doing all in the 
name and by the constraining love of Jesus Christ and of souls 
whom He has died to save. We therefore, Dear Sir, would desire 
to know if you think you could accede to our invitation, and, if bo, 
we would pray that we, might be found such as you would approve 
at least in feelings of kindness towards yourself and in a desire to 
^lengthen your hands in your labours of love amongst us. 

We are, Dear Sir, on behalf of the Church, 
Your affectionate Brethren in Christ, 

(Sd.) J. C(arrau,) ) J, 
^ -^ ^ '^ ^ Deacons. 

E. G(rayO i 

Mr. Evans' reply of 23rd December 1840 is equally faithful 
«nd candid as will be seen from the copy v/hich follows : — 

Respected Brethren, — I have the pleasure to acknowledge the 
receipt of your letter on my reiturn from Lukhyantipore yesterday, 
inviting me to become your stated Pastor, in the name of the 
Lord Jesus. 

I sincerely thank you for the very considerate manner in which 
you have presented your request and for the candid statement you 
"*ye made of the actual character and condition of the Church. 
Faithfulness and candour are valuable qualities in business so 
*^ed and important, and, the manifestation of these, I assure 
you, hafi increased my sense of affection and respect for you as a 
^^^ristian Sixjiety. Accepting your very cordial invitation to 
undertake ministerial, as well as pastoral duties amongst you. 


watching over your souls for good as a servant of Christ, I wish 
remind you, dear Brethren, that the treasures of Gospel truth az 
grace are deposited in earthen vessels, that tlie excellencies of tho 
treasures may be seen and acknowledged to be of God and not 
men. I entreat you, therefore, with earnestness and affectioa 
boar me much on your minds in prayer, that God, whose I a 
and wli/om I delight to ser\^e, may bring me amongst you in t! 
fulness of the blessing of the Gospel of Christ Jesus, and that I 
may render me eminently useful for many days. As I shall u 
feignedly dejiend, dear Brethren, on your sympathy, respect « 
afTection in tlic further discharge of my very responsible duty 
your Paster, so it shall ])e my uniform desire and aim to manifc 
Wh of these graces towards every one of you in the Church. 
proj)ase rommencing a coui-se of Pastoral visitations that I m 
obtain your time state and bo the better prepared to minister t 
Word of Life in such wise as to encourage the depressed ai 
doubtful, and stimulate the lukewarm, direct tbe inexperienoc 
tenderly guide the youthful and the aged, and under the Kvi 
blessing, instruct and comfort all, that thus the great Head of t 
Church may .sanction and sanctify our union, and make us as 
people, increasingly devoted to His praise in the earth. 

It now only remains for me to request your acceptance of n 
cordial afTection and to desire you that my name, together wil 
that of Mrs. Evans, may be entered in your books as Memb^B' 
the Church. 

Commending you to God and the Gospel of His grace, aa 
leaving all further arrangements to future time 

I am, dear Brethren, 

Your afTection ate and faithful servant in 
the enduring and saered bonds of the Gospel. 

(Sd.) W. W. Evans. 
Baptist Mission House, 
Cnlcvtia, 23rd Deremher 1840. 

The proceedings of the Church meetings began to be signi 
with the very first one Mr. Evans presided at, and, at the seoon 
which was held only three days after, viz., on 10th January 1841,1 
made some remarks on the importance of enlarged zeal for t- 
general spiritual advantage of the Church. 

Then we read that on the 28th March it was agreed that 1 
names of the members should be read over every six months a 


st cards should boused at the Communion. Thus would indicate 
it the Church Roll was not kept up properly, so a new one was 
it in hand later on. > 

Then on the 8t'h August it was agresd that a series of prayer 
^ings should be held as soon as convenient for a revival of 
digion and the eixtension of Divine truth, and some of the rules 
md regulations of the Church were read for the information and 
jmdanoe of new members. Again, special prayer — meetings were 
uld during the first week of November and it was. decided to send 
(Wfc, tracts and copies of the Scriptures to respectable native 
geDUeinen and the Europeans and Ea^ Indian inhabitants residing 
in Uie vicinity of the Chapel. Thus, Mr. Evans endeavoured in 
way possible way to stir up the members to zeal and good works,, 
Ui» result being that during 1841 twenty-five were admitted. 

In 1842, again some trou biers showed themselves in Israel for 

wfind the following recorded in the proceedings of 16th January 


In consequence of certain expressions and the indication of 
lome feeling of dissatisfaction on the part of a few of the 
Members, the Pastor after reference to them, tendered his 
Agnation as he oould not consent to retain his office and dis- 
iarge the duties of his station under such circumstances. After 
mutual explanation it appeared to be the regret of all that such 
oiigs had transpired and that they should be forgiiven and for- 
5]tteii, on which the Church was requested to signify their wish 
^th regard to the Pastor resuming his office of duty. As the 
^ of . the Church was unanimous, and all circumstances fully 
^plained, Mr. Evans again accepted the call of the Church and 
^ted some respective conditions, of his continuing the duties of 
te office. 

This boing the Jubilee year of the Missionary Society a collec- 
l<tti was made on the 16th October for the Jubilee Fund which 
motinted to Rs. 300. 

The Chapel had to be repaired this year, so when the repairs 
ere- completed, reopening services were held on the 29th May 
ben Mr. Mack of Serdmpore and Dr. Yates preached two 
eellent sermonB. ~ ' 


It wae decided on the 11th August to erect a small Chapel at 
Ckx)ly Bazar (now generally called Hastings) for the members rend- 
ent in that locality which Chapel was opened on the 2nd November 

On the 12th October a plan was presented by the Sub- 
Comrndttee appointed for the purpose regarding the visiting d 
Church members but the details of the plan are not recorded. 

On the 12th February 1843, the depressed stata of the Sundiy 
School was brought to the notice of the members, and on the 6th 
July the allowance from the Church to the Missionary Society for 
the services of the Pastor was raised from Ks. 60 to Rs. 70. 

On the 29th December Mr. J. C. Page who was » 
member of the Church was ordained to the Ministry. Not miny 
years afterwards Mr. Page was the instrument of building up the 
work of the Mission in Barisal and those parts where there m 
thousands of Christians at the present day. 

On the 7th March 1844, a new Register of MembeiB WM 
ordered to be prepared and on the same date a Sub-Committee wtf 
appointed to ascertain the practicability * and desirableneflB d 
punkahs for the Chapel. 

It will thus be seen that Mr. Evans interest in the materiel 
and spiritual condition of the Church led him to strive to set right 
whatever he considered to be otherwise, with the result that will 
next have to be touched upon. 

On the 10th June 1844 the letter — a copy of which is below— 
from Mr. Evans resigning the Pastoral office was read. 

To The Members of the Church in Lall-Bazar. 
Dear Brethren, — On my arrival in this country I was urgwitly 
solicited to accept the Pa^oral office among you as a Church Vii 
people. I had previously determined to be free in this respect lad 
to discharge my duties as a Minister of Christ as my Bervioci 
might be required, but your destitute condition at that tin^i 
after consulting my Brethren led me to accede to your unanixDOQ* 
wishes and I consented to become your Pastor as far as attentJoB 
to other mdssionary engagements would allow. 


To the best of my ability I have invariably sought to promote 
inr spiritual good amidst many interruptions and much of 
izious imperfections. 

My numerous engagements in other respects, the staJte of my 
salth, and now, other causes, render the continuance of my ser- 
joes undesirable, and, rather than endanger my health and 
ustrate all my attempts to be useful in these departments of 
bour, I beg to tender my resignation of the Pastoral office 
ncMigst you from the present date. 

I shall hand over the books and papers of the Church to my 
rather Thomas, who has kindly consented to preside at your 
leetdng this evening. 

With earnest prayers for your future welfare, 

I am, 

Dear Brethren, 

Yours very truly, 

(Sd.) W. W. Evans. 

10th June 1844. 

I^e troublers were again at work in Israel as will be seen 

vm what ensued, but it is not necessary to go into the details 

iffice it to say, that it was arranged for a further meeting to be 

eld for the "other causes" mentioned in the above letter to be 

iquired into and that it appeared that the evils had arisen more 

xna misunderstanding than from any evil intention. The Chair- 

laa of the meeting reproved the troublers for their unlovely and 

nbecoming conduct, after wEich the following Resolution was 

wrried : — 

"That as an evil spirit appeared to exist in the Church a 
)ason be set apart for humiliation and prayer when Saturday 
Tening and Tuesday morning were agreed upon for that 

At the meeting of the 17th July the following letter to Mr. 
vans was passed, and was signed by the Chairman and Deacons 
1 behalf of the Church. 

Calcutta, 17th July 1844. 

To Rev. W. W. Evans. 

Dear Sir, — ^We beg to acknowledge the receipt of your letter 
lerein you, for various reasons, some of which are specified^tf 


signify your reeignatioo of the PastoraJ charge over us as a 
Christian Church. 

We regret that any circumstance should have occurred to have 
deprived us of a Pastor, especially as we have been more than once 
in the destitute condition in which we now are. But we indulge 
the hope that our future good may be promoted by our present 
painful circumstances. 

We cannot allow you to leave us without expressing our s&» 
of the great obligations under which your ministrations have \ui 
us, and offering you our sincere thankd for the affection and inter- 
est in our spiritual welfare which you have manifested during the 
three years and a half you have labour^ among us, 

We trust your labours have not been in vain and wepny 
that the Lord may be with you and bless you abundantly; ttf 
would we close this leitter without expressing our high respect ■■' 
esteem for your estimable partner Mrs. Evans whose nttj 
excellencies and uniform kindness have greatly endeared her to w. 
Our earnest prayer is that she, with you, may partake richly ^ 
every New Covenant blessing. 

Signed on behalf of the Church, 
J. Thomas, Chairman, 
Jas. Irvine, 

E. Gray, [ Dea^om 

L. Mendes, 

After this the following entry occurs: — 

" At the Church meeting on the 11th Fieibruary 1845, it having 
been stated by the Rev. J. Thomas that the Rev. W. W. Eva« 
our late Pastor on behalf of himself and Mrs. Evans had expressed 
a desire to withdraw their membership from the Church and bii 
accordingly requested that their names might be taken off tl» 
Register of Church Members, it was resolved unanimously tW 
the request of the Rev. Mr. and Mrs. Evans be complied wiA 
and we earnestly desire that their futurs steps may be guided l>f 
heavenly wisdom, and that they may not only enjoy much of ^ 
Divine favour in their own souls, but be made eminently useful ii 
promoting the cause of our Gk)d and Saviour." 

This would indicate that there were no more troublers in IsnA- 

Mr. Evans, however, remained on in Calcutta till after th 

death of his wife on 3rd October 1845 and assisted in vemacultf 

and English work at Cooly Bazar. The following rcmi* 


ppeaiB in the Churcli's letter to the Miasiooiary Association, dated 
il6 21st December 1845 : — 

"The English services at Cooly Bazar have been conducted 
XD the most part by our late Pastor Mr. Evans, who, as long ae 
it health permitted, never failed to attend and some of whose 
let efforts to make known the Gospel, before he embarked for 
bgland, were spent there." 

His health and spirits soon broke down after his wife's death 
Qd he had to leave for Europe in December. 

Tbsore is no Tablet in the Chapel commemorating Mr. Evans' 
«6lx>rate. Every effort has been made by the present writer to 
kirocnie portraits of Mr. and Mrs. Evans but he has unfortunately 
ijldd as. none seem procurabb in England even from the members 
F their family. 


The Benevolent Institution. I 

It has been stated in Chapter VII. that a letter was leceiwd 
from Mr. King of Birmingham in 1809, regarding the working of 
certain Charity Schools in that town, which was psad in Calcutta in 
September of that year, when Mr. Leonard suggested that ft 
similar school might be opened in Calcutta. The idea was takes 

Intebior op the Benevolent Institution, Calcutta. 

up by the Serampore Missionaries, so on Christmas Day of II 
Dr. MaiBhman preached his sermon at the Lall-Bazar Chapd in 
aid of the projected Charity School from Psalm 37 : 3, when 
the sum of Rs. 269-9-0 was raised at the collection ; other oontiabiK 
tions were sent in afterwards which raised the total to Bs. 300. 
In February 1810, Mr. Peacock was chosen Msster as thi 
school already had between 30 and 40 children, and on the SOtis 


March of that year Mr. Leonard \va£ appointed one of the Teachers 
^ more children came for instruction than could be received j Mr. 
Leonard was a Deacon of the Church. He was shortly after appoini- 
Bd Head Master in succession to Mr. Peacock when the latter 
irent to Agra with Mr. Chamberlain. 

In 1811, a Girls' School was modelled after the same plan 
la tlie Boys' School. In December 1811, Dr. Marshman wrote 
i letter describing the benefits likely to result from these schools 
md Bhowing the extensive advantages the cause of God might 
?eap fxom this field. 

The school had at first been started in a house in £)mambagh 
jane in which the private Seminary of Mr. Gumming had formerly 
een held^ and, within the first six months more than 80 children 
rera in. attendance. No report, however, wa& published till the 
nd of 1812^ which embraced the three years 1810, 1811 and 1812. 
b ahowB {liat the collection at the Ghapel on Christmas Day of 
810, amounted to Es. 529 and that on Christmas Day of 1811 
t> Bs. 291-9^0. 

The school was more especially intended for the children 
f the poor nominal Christians who were steeped in ignorance 
ad sin, and for whose temporal and spiritual benefit nothing was 
ipparently being done. The following account of a poor castaway, 
ilio was practically a savage, and not even a nominal Christian, 
a BO interesting that no apology is made for reproducing it in 
MerUo from that report, and, if this individual alone were the 
mly visible result, the missionaries might consider that they had 
Deen amply repaid. 

"Thamas Chance, a lad about 12 years old, after having been 
Knnetime in the school was placed with me, wrote Mr. Leonard 
die Head Master, as a boarder by his generous benefactor Captain 
(Williams, who in one of his late trading voyages had occasion 
ic touch on the coast of Sumatra in a part inhabited by Battas, 
rheie, amongst other things, he one day observed three boys oon- 
ined in a kind of wooden cage, cooped up like hogs, and, enquiring 
flic their circumstances, found they were fattening for the knife ^ 
ind were for sale. Captain Williams instantly bargained for tli||H|| 


and, for 150 dollars, had the high gratification of carrying them 
safely to his ship. Whether the other two died of not, I cannot 
say, but Captain Williams wishing to train up this boy to lisefnl 
life, brought him to our school. When he was first placed with, us 
we found it excaedingly difficult to make him understand the mo»b^ 
simple things, and more bo, to persuade him to touch food in the 
presence of any of our family. He continued so for more than a 
month, although we used every moans we could devise to cultivate 
familiarity with him. He picked up a few words of broken 
English on board and in Captain William's family, but appeared to 
have no idea whatever of any .other language, nor does he seem to 
have any idea of father or mother. I have repeatedly questioned 
him upon the subject, but have received no other reply than that 
all be remembered was Captain Williams carrying him to the ship. 
His rude state when placed with us both as it regarded ideas and 
articulation was such as made it exceedingly difficult to get him 
to either understand or to pronounce, however, I am happy to 
inform you that he has since surmounted these obstacles by his 
voluntary and indefatigable diligence. But even here his strange* 
ness of disposition has still appeared, for, although he seldom 
parts with bis book while daylight continues, it is not often that 
we see him at his studies (out of school hours) as he prefers the 
most dark and retired corners of the house. One of his favourite 
places of retreat has been an old palankeen that stands in a corner 
of a lower room. In this he has remained shut up many hoiBl 
in the day, allowing himself only sufficient light to see his lettCH. 
He lately took a. great liking to writing and became so familiar 
with my second son as to allow of his ruling his book and setting 
him copies, but he has now so far improved as to do without hii 
assistance, he rules his book himself and goes on writing in hi 
own way. He begins likewise to read and pronounce pretty 
clearly ; in short, if his life be continued, I have every reason to 
hope he will prove a valuable member of Society. This poor 
savage boy in the few months he has been in the school has 80 
far advanced as to read the New Testament fluently, defects in 
his pronunciation excepted, and to write a legible hand." 

Nothing more is traceabla about this boy. 

The next published Report contains interesting details regard- 
ing some of the boys admitted, clearly showing the necessity for 
the establishment of such a school with a view to raising them a 
little in the social scale even by the restricted education that they 
received at it. 



• jShorty afterwards it was decided to adopt the Lancastrian 
mtem of teaching and Dr. Lancaster was asked to select and 
md out some one who had bsen trained up in it. All this time 
Jr. Leonard had been in charge of the school, but now Dr. Lan- 
ister selected and sent out Rev. J. Penney who had been specially. 
maed by him, with a special letter of recommendation addressed 
> Dr. Carey. Mr. Penney embarked for India towards the close 
f 1816, which was the year Mr. Leonard left for Dacca, where 
e afterwards started a similar institution. Mr. Peacock was 
gain put in charge till Mr. Penny arrived on 1st February 
81T. After Mr. Penney took over charge of the Institution Mr. 
^9acotk went to Chittagong, where he also started a similar school 
I 1819. 

Land was purchased measuring 1 biggah, 14 cottahs and 
ehittacks, morid or less, and a schoolhouse was erected on it 
ipable of accommodating several hundreds (up to 800) children and' 
le cost of grounds and schoolhouse amounted to Rs. 24,000. 

When Mr. Penney arrived he took the charge of the Boys' 
Apartment and Mrs. Penney of tba Girls' Department and between 
mm they used to draw Rs. 300 a month in all. 

The collections at Lall Bazar were as below on Christmas. 
»y of each of the years specified : — 




Christmas Day 















. „ 













1834 . 




from which it will be noticed that the collections decxeased a£ 

number of the other objects of charity increased, and eventi 

they ceased altogether. 

The names of persona of all ranks aire found in the lisl 

Donors and Subscribers. Thus: — 

The King of Denmark used to give Rs. 50 annually. 
The Baretto Fund „ „ „ 300 „ 

Lord William Bentinck ,, ,, ,, 200 „ 

In 1826, Government on the recommendation of Mr. 

Lushington, gave a lump sum of Rs. 13,000 as below: — 
Rs. 10,000 to wipe out the debt, and 
Rs. 3,000 towards the repairs needed. 

and the same year Lord Amherst sanctioned a monthly gran 

Re. 200 for the future support of the school, which was oantii 

till 1882. 

Mr. Statham in his ''Indian Recollections" states: — 

" At the last examination of the children at which I 
present (which would be 1826 as he left in 1826), there wet 
the Boys' School 2 Europeans, 22 Indo-Brifcons, 102 Portugi 
22 Hindoos, 7 Chinese, 3 Mussulmans, 2 Africans, 2 Annci 
and 2 Jews. Total 164 and 94 girls of the same nations ii 
other school. These all evinced by their great improvement 
great attention bestowed by Mr. and Mrs. Penney on their e 
tion. The needlework exhibited by the girls was peculiarly 
and clean. In fact, their specimens were such as would have 
credit to any ladies' school in Britain." 

In 1829, Mr. Beddy acted for Mr. Penney and Mrs. Bedd 
Mrs. Penney from February to May as they went to Saugo 
a change. They were both members of Lall-Bazar. 
Penney died on the 24th December 1829. Mrs. Beddy acted 
for the greater part of 1830, i.e., until Mrs. William Rol 
(formerly Mrs. Lish) took charge in October of that year. 

Shortly after, his arrival in India in 1830 Dr. Duff en 
for his English School a Mr. Pereira who had been train 
this Institution and he gave Dr. Duff every satisfaction. 


yw is a sketch of Mr. Penney teaching the children. 

OF Rev. J. Penney teachinq some op the Children of thr 
Benevolent Institution. 

kind permisnion of the. Lihmrian of the Imperial Library from 

Mr, Cohsworthij GranVs Litkograpkic Sketches.') i 


At the end of 1852 Mr. Penney'e health was much impaired 
and a change to England became necessary. But before starting 
he married the widow of the son of Mr. Brunsdon the missionary. 
He rsiurned to India on the 26th September 1834 in robust hfialtli. 
Mr. Kirkpatrick acted for him during his absence of two years. 
Mr. and Mrs. Penney were never members of the Lai Banr 
Church, but, when the School property was sold in 1888, the Be?. 
A. McKenna, thair son-in-law, asked the permission of the Chnwii 
to allow Mr. Penney's Memorial tablet which was in the Bsoevoknt 
to be placed in the Lall Bazar Chapel, which was done, and it ii 
still there. The inscription on it runs thus: — 



is erectsd 

to the memory of 

The Kev. James Penney, 

for 22 years 

the able, esteemed and successful Teacher 


The Benevolent Institution, 


a Memorial of gratitude and respect 

by his Juvenile friends and pupils 

whose morals and lives were improved by his 

instruction and example. 

He was born in London 1st February 1792, 

Arrived in India, 1st February 1817, 

Was arrested by the hand of death on 

the 1st February 1839, 

and after a struggle of only a few hours, 

fell asleep in Jesus. 

"Mark the perfect man and behold the 

upright, for the end of that man is peace." 

Psalm XXX vii., verse 37. 


While Mr. Leonard had charge of the school he used to 
ring a contingent of boys to the Chapel every Sunday. 

Many of the girls and boys of the school joined the Lall 
tttlu: Church and many of the members of the Church, male and 
smale, were teachers in the school and some were Superintendents 
a the Boys' Department and others in the Girls' Department. 
Ekns, in October 1830 the charge of ths Girls' Department was 
p¥ai to Mrs. William Robinson and she gave up her own school 
« tiiis afforded her a larger sphera of usefulness, beside being a 
^d appointment. 

The Rev. W. W. Evans and his wife came out in 
1840 specially for the charge of the Institution as Mr. 
md Mrs. P'dnney had done previously, and while Mrs. Evans was 
l»i» Miss Carrau and Miss Gonsalves both members of this 
3hurch (and the latter of whom is still living) were teachers in the 
ftmale Department. 

At the public examination of the pupils which was held on 
lie'21et and 22nd January 1844, it was stated in the report that 
n© presented on that occasion, that Mr. and Mrs. Evans had 
»«en constant and uninterrupted in their attendance and that 
lie children were greatly and desiervedly attached to them. 

When Mrs. Evans died on the 3rd October 1845 her plaee was 
5«ven to Miss Annie Lawson, a daughter of the Rev. John 
tAWBon who had been co-pastor between January 1816 and 
October 1819, but she herself was not a member of this Church. 

On 8th dctober 1849 ,Mr. Robert Robinson was appointed 
^Tiperintemdent of the Boys' Department and held the post for 
'^0 or three years.. He was a son of Rev. William Robinson and a 
l^ttnger brother of the Rev. J. Robinson but he was not a member 
^this. Church. Prior to him had been Mr. R. A. Fink (a son of 
flev. J. C. Fink) who had gone to Cjhittagong. 

'. On 3l8t Aiigust 1851 Miss Annie* Lawfeon resigned her post 
«d from 1st Septembdi^ of that year Miss Efnily iEink a daughter 


of the Rev. J. C. Fink just referred to, and who subsequently 
married the Rev. R. Robinson, was appointed to the Girb' 

After Miss E. Fink's marriage with the Rev. R. Robinson 
her eldest sister, Miss Susan Fink, was appointed to the GiiV 
Department in 1852. After 18 years of continuous service she 
was granted 6 months' leave in 1870. After rejoining aha 
continued in charge till March 1876 when she died after 24 yein' 
seirvice in the school. 

In 1859 Mr. J. B. Lawson, a son of the Rev. J. Lawson jvfc 
referred to, was appointed Superintendent of the Boys' Department 
and he held the post for some years. 

During the second period of his Pastorate the Rev. J. Sik 
was Secretary to the school, and, while he was away the Bef. 
G. Kerry who acted as Pastor, had been Secretary so that in evsj 
way the School seemed more or less intimately connected mih flu 
Church and the several Pastors and the members of the Chnidi 
always took an interest in it. In fact, it appeared to some astt, 
adjunct of the Church. 

In the course of years things got lax, so in 1869 Mr. J. IX 
Rodway was sent out from England specially to take charge of 
the school and to put it into a sound condition. He came out 
under an agreement for three years. The Baptist Missiooarf 
Society gave a donation of Re. 900 towards the funds, besfde pi^ 
ing Rs. 2,500 for the passages of Mr. and Mrs. Rodway, Bf 
entirely changed the system of teaching so thai the school begtt 
to look up again. At this time Mr. F. P. Lindeman one of tiii 
members collected Rs. 2,099 for the Institution. Mr. Rodwift 
however, did not stay beyond his three years' agreement all 
went away in 1872 when Mr. Ardwis© was appointed to act U 
Head Master, the old designation having been changed. 

In 1877 Mr. S. C. Aratoon, a member of this Churcb !«• 
appointed Head Master. During this year, Mr. Lawrence several 
his connection with the school. He had been connected witk 
it for a long period, having befen one of Mr. Penney's pupils lal 
assistants. Mr. Austin also left. He had endeared Himself to 
most of the boys by his great kindness to them. 


On the 24th April 1876 the then Lisoitenant-Govemor of 
Bngal, Sir Richard Temple, visited the school, and viaits wero 
lid to it hj the Inspector of Schools. 

In, 1863 awards had been given on two occasioDs by 
[agistrates of Calcutta from moieti>e8 of fines levied by them on^ 
Bvaons having in their possaesion counterfeit -gold coins, viz, : — 
Bupees 520 by Mr. G. S. Fagan. 
Bupees 400 by Mr. J. B. Roberts. 

In 1877 Government sanctioned a Capitation Grant which 
'« not to exceed Re. 75 a month, and, in this year, a legacy 
mfUXK invalid through a techincal informality. 

When Mr. Blacki^ assumed the pastorate at the end of 1877,. 
M became Secretary of the school and in 1879 the Viceroy (Lord 
^ytton) gavie a donation of Rs. 200 and Mr. Dear of Monghyr ona- 
f Bb. 500. Mr. Dear's name, as a donor to the funds of this Insti- 
bfcion^ appears for the first time in 18^ when he gave Rs. 10. 

It is a singular thing that in 1879 the Head Master was am 
^menian, the second Master a Hilndu, the third a Chinese, the 
Yvrth a Hindu and the fifth a Jew. 

About 1880, Mr. A. C. Ward, another member of the Church 
old the appointment of Head Master which he retained till his 
iaath in 1886. 

In 1884 and in 1885 the Viceroy gave Rs. 200 each year and' 
X the latter year the Lieoitenant-Governor of Bengal gave Rs. 
©• After this the Missionary Society had to give large grants 
iQar after year to make up deficits. Thus, in 1885 they gave Ra. 
JOG, in 1886 Rs. 2,050 and in 1887 Rs. 1,000. 

The annual grant from Government ceased to be paid from and 
iber 1882 and the school was closed in 1888. Thus closed an 
mfcitution which for nearly 80 years had done such good service 
or the class whom it was intended to reach. The Serampore 
KldHionaries have been blamed by some for diverting their labours 
Uto this channel, instead of on Natives for whom Dr. Du£P begaa 
io labour as soon as he came out in 1830; but this class of nominal 
Soistians seemed in such a low and d^raded condition that the* 
Mrts of the good men o7 Serampore were move3 with compassaom 
ar them. Now things entered upon another stage. 


In January 1889 Mr. R. Belchambers, the Rev. C. Jordan and 
the Rev. Dr. Rouse, the then Trustees, were directed to prepare a 
scheme for establishing a Trust Fund, which they did, and on the 
22nd July of that year an application was made to the High Court 
for permission to sell the premises and apply the proceeds to the 
payment of school fees for poor children. On the same day 
Justice Norris decreed that the Managers* scheme should be eane- 
tioned, the property sold, and fees paid. The property was ac- 
cordingly sold for a nett sum of Rs. 31,300. After deducting 
certain expenses, eventually Rs. 25,000 were invested m 4 peront. 
Government Promissory Notes, and the interest of the funded 
amount has hitherto been usad for the purposes of the Trust. The 
first child taken on under the new scheme was in March 1891 and 
others in 1892 and 1893 and eventually a Bengali boy was admitted 
as one of non-European* habits. In addition, the Fund ha* 
contributed Rs. 30 a month to the Old Church Free Day School 
as they have a free Department doing the work that used tobedoM 
by tha eld Benevolent, which was always known in the locaUly M 
Penney 's School. 

A sum of Rs. 1,335 was obtained later from the Official 
Trustee. under the will of Mr. Lawrence De Souza. 

In 1898, the 4 per cent, investments had to be transferKd ta 
the 3^ per cent, and 3 per cent, loans whichi reduced the income 
of tho trust considerably. 

The present Trustees were appointed on 4th June 1902. Thef 
are the Revs. H. Anderson, T. W. Norledge and J. Sutton Page. 

The Dunn Bequest of Rs. 10,500 was received in Ssptember 
1904 and the Dear Legacy of Rs. 50,000 was realized in 1906 and 
Government Promissory Notes up to tha value of Rs. 52,000 n^ 
purchased. Government Promissory Notes up to the value d 
Rs. 90,700 constitute the Trust Fund at the present time and* 
is on this sum that interest is now drawn. ; 



It is intended to give as briefly as possible only the main 
ictB in the personal history of the Serampore missionaries in- 
bridnally, and not the history of the work done by them col- 
Nitively, as the writer thdnks that this book would be incomplete 
rxUiaat some such epitome. 

The Rev. William Carey, D. D. 

QBy kind permission of the Baptist Missionary Society ^ London.') 

"He wbs born in the village of Pury, or Paulerspury, in Norih- 
iptcmahire^ on the 17th August 1761. His grandfather and 
bher were successively the pariah clerk and schoolmaster of the 
lage. His father's name was Edmund Carey. His uncle, Feber 
ney, was a gardener in that village. At the age of fourteen 
f7S), be waa bound as an apprentice to Clarke Nicholls, a Shoe- 
iioer at Hackleton which was a few miles off. His master died about 



two years after his apprenticeship commenced (i.e., in 1777) and 
he had to pay something to his widow to get off the remainder rf 
hie apprenticeship. He then engaged himself as a joumeymaB 
shoemaker to a Mr. T. Old, who is described as a " worthy and 
respectable man." The Kev. Thomas. Soott, the author of flu 
Commentary on the Bible, who was Pastor at the village of Ravea* 
stone a few miles distant, used to pay pastoral visits to the UsuSj 
of Mr. Old and there met young Carey, who had been led toBflri- 
ously reflect on his spiritual condition through the instrumentditj 
of a fellowHservant. 

He was brought up a strict Churchman as became the 8« 
and grandson of the Parish Clerk^ and was in due time confiiQed, 
but he saw many inconsistencies in the established ChuTdiiD^ 
in course of time he came across Robert Hall's "Help to IkSy 
Travellers " which had recently appeared. This encouraged to 
to give himself up to the exclusive service of the 
Jesus Christ. He had joined the small Church fonned 
Hackleton by a few pious men an3 at the age of eighteen (lift 
attempted to preach to them. He was then asked by some d 
people of the village of Earl's Barton to preach to them, 
lie did for three years and a half. He was also asked to pMflk 
at his own village of Pury which he used to do onoe a moiA 
Whilst employed in £his way hia views on the Bubjecb of 
becamed changed and he imbibed the conviction that Baptism 
immersion, and that after a confession of faith, was ScripteW 
and Apostolic. He was accordingly baptized by Dr. John RyliiA 
his future associate in the cause of Missions, on the 5th OctoM 
1783 in the river Nen, a little beyond Dr. Doddridge's Chapel h 
Northampton, and, not long after, joined him»&lf as a membtf 
to Mr. SutcUff's Church at Olney, and, later on, was set apiri 
to the Ministry. 

Before he had reached the age of twenty (1781), Mr. Oil 
^ied and Caney not only purchased Ms businesB from his widot 
but married her sister and engaged to support her as well. Th 


whom he thus married was Miss Dorothy (Dolly) Placketb. 
r his marriage he ranted a little cottage at Hackleton, but 
•ade became dull he had to sell off his stock at great sacrifice, 
he same time he was attacked with fever which hung on him 
eighteen months. Though feeble he was obliged to travel 
it from place to plaod to dispose of his goods to procure food. 
»ve him from starvation his brother made over to him what- 

he could spare from his own scanty earnings and a small col- 
ioii was made for him at Pury. With this aid he removed 

diange of air to the village of Piddihgton. Unfortunately 

cottage he selected was situated in a swamp and its miasma 
QgU on ague and fever which made him prematurely bald. 

In 1784 the Baptist monthly prayer meeting for Missions was 
ted and early in 178 6 — at the age of twenty-four and a half — ^ho 
owd to Moulton where he took charge of the little Church as 
x>r. 'They could give him only £11 a year for his support to 
i £5 wer3 added from some fund in London. The school 
jh he started dwindled away, so he had to resort to his former 
e for subsistsnoe, and, once a fortmght, walked eight or ten 
B to Northampton with a wallet of shoes for sale and returned 
. a fresh supply of leather to complete another batch. 
On the 10th August 1786, he was ordained Pastor at Moulton, 
a Ryland, Sutcliff and Fuller took part in the service. The 
rdi increased and a larger Chapel had to be built. But the 
ge did not present a sphere suited to a man of Carey's char- 
r and aspirations. He, therefore, in 1789 accepted the inviitar- 

of the Church in Harvey Lane, Leicester, and removed to 

town at the age of twenty^ght. After having been there 
ar and ten months he was solemnly set apart to the office of 
CD on the 24th May 1791. On the 31st May 1792 he preached 
Famous sermon at the Association Meeting at Nottingham on 
Expect great things from God, 
Attempt great things for God. 
On the 2nd October 1792 at Kettering the services of 



the day, the ministers, twelve in number, withdrew to the parloorl 
of Mrs. Wallis, the widow of one of tlie Dsacons, whose anoeBtopJ 
had established the first Baptist Churcli in the town a centiuyl 
before. After a long and anxious discussion tbey pledged theDhl 
selves in a solemn vow to God and to each otber to make, at ib J 
least, an attempt to convey the Gospel message to some portaoBJ 
of the heathen world. When the subscripfion paper whddi wail 
handed round was filled up Car^y offered to embark for any coon- 
try they might select. Thus was the Baptist Missionary Society 

Mr. John Thomas, the Surgeon of the " Oxford " IndiamtB I 
returned to England in 1792, and, on hearing of the fomutioBJ 
of the Baptist Missionary Society at Kettering, wrote a letter to J 
Dr. Carey stating the efforts that had been made among thij 
natives of Bengal. Eventually on 10th. January 1793, Cawywrfj 
Thomas were appointed at Kettering missionaries to the Wl 
Indies, for preaching the Gospel to the heathen and on the 204j 
March 1793 they were set apart at Leicester. 

There appeared to be no prospect of the missionaries 
a "License" so it was determined to send them out without < 
An attempt was made to come out in the Oxford Ind 
but, at the last moment, the commander refused to take them t 
they had to re-land with all thedr baggage. Mr. Thomas 
efforts to secure a foreign vessel and heard of a Danish East \ 
man. This turned out to be Kron Princessa Maria (C» 
Christmas) on which they embarked at Dover on the 13th Jn 
1793 and arrived in Calcutta on the 11th November foUowinf*] 
Through some unknown cause no list of the passengers was | 
to the Pilot and Mr. Thomas and Dr. Carey entered the 
wd'thout being molested or even noticed. 

The expense of living in Calcutta being very great, and tt«j 
money raised by the sale of their goods being exhausted, a cli6fl|iir| 
locality was sought, and Dr. Carey removed to Bandel. But tWl 
place was not adapted to his plan of missionary labor so he f^\ 


ieded in company with Mr. Thomas to Nuddea, where they 
nided only a few. days and then returned to Calcutta. Mr. 
Sbomas set up house in Calcutta without referenoe to the neces- 
Umb of his colle«iigue, bo Dr. Carey had to seek a place for himself 
pd found shelter in a small house at Manicktollah, which was 
&red to him by the generosity of an opulent native. Into that 
imue he and his family of seven persons (eelf , wife, wife's sister 
dud four childrsn) removed at the beginning of 1794. Twenty 
r«ttrg afterwards when the tables were turned as to the circum- 
toioes of both Dr, Carey placed this native gentleman in a eitua- 
iaon of ease and comfort. In spite of all difficulties Dr. Carey 
ifplied himself to the Bengalee language and to his attempts to 
mnab the rough translation of the Bible which Mr. Thomas had 

On the 20th January 1794 he was offered the occupation of 
in old bungalow in the Sundarbuns till he could obtain a suitable 
Aiidence for his family, but he could not remove to it for want 
I funds. At last he got some money from Mr. Thomas, so, on 
ae 4th February 1794, he embarked in boats for the wilderness, 
lerally not knowing whither he want. When he had provisions 
A for only a single day he perceived a European on the bank 
fthe liver at Dehatta, a village about 40 miles from Calcutta, 
ith a gun in hand following his sport at a littl& distance from 
ift bungalow. ThiB waa Mr. Charles Short, an Assistant under 
Q>VBmment in the Salt Department. Dr. Carey left the boat 
Id walked up to the house with all his family and explained his 
resent circumstances and the object whiich had brought him to 
kis country. Mr. Short invited Dr. Carey to make his house 
8 home for six months or for a longer period, till he oould 
xmde suitable accommodation for his family. Soon after, how- 
er. Dr. Carey proceeded to the opposite bank of the river to a 
loo called Hasnabad and began to erect hns " huts " for his family 
lilie tract of land cleared of the jungle which he had obtained 
ISth January. This was, of all places, most unfavourable for 


the development of missionary plans, and, providentially, lie wtf 
»oon redcued from it through the kind serviceB of Mr. Thomas and 
Mr. Udny. The latter wae in domestic trouble and Mr. Thanai 
went up to Malda to condole with him. Mr. Udny needed aaoA* 
ants to superintend two of his indigo factories. One he offend 
to Mr. Thomas, who accepted it with delight and authorized hi» 
to offer the management of the other to his frieoid (Dr. Carey). 
Mr. Thomas' letter reached Dr. Carey on 1st March aaid it did 
not take him long to accept the proposal. He had not evieneom- 
pleted his " huts," and did not stay to do so, but set out on fl» 
23rd May and reached Mr. Udny's house at Malda safely on Ito 
15th June. He was appointed to the charge of the factoiyat 
Mudnabatty, about 30 miles north of Malda, and 'Mr. Tlnfias 
to the charge of that at Mypaldigy, about 16 miles further noA- 
He was to PDceive Ks. 200 monthly as well as a commissioxi on ill 
the indigo manufactured. As soon as he had taken charge <rfth 
factory he wrote to the; Society in England that he would 
require any further support from them. (The whole sum 
the Committee remitted to India between May 1793 and May IW 
for the support of two missionaries and their wives and fco 
children, was only £200). 

In September 1794 he had a violent attack of fever .and 
he was still ill hisi eld-est boy, aged five years, died on the 
October. He sought a change in a boat journey with Mr. Thoitf 
towards Thibet, but had to give it up ae the season was agaiiJ 
them. The fever, however, was not removed before 4th DecendNl 
of that year. 

In April 1795 his congregation was increased to 600 nath« 
of all descriptions. The translations had gone on very do^t 
but by August of that year some portions of the Bible were reift 
for the press — all at his own expense in addition to a school k] 
kept up. Under a new order of 1795, unlicensed Euiiopeans ii«* 
required to enter into covenants with the Government and to tti 
securities for the performance of them in sums varying from XMH 


» £2,000. Undeii iihis order Dr. Carey was returned as an Indigc 
lantsr residing in the District of Malda and Mr. Udny and 
nother friend stood his securities. In the early part of 1796 
Ir. Carey was obliged to discharge his munshi, so the translations 
KOgressed still more slowly, but by June nearly the whole, of 
hd Pentateuch and the New Testament were complete. 

In that same year his affairs took a gloomy turn as Mr. Udny 
incurred great losses owing to the failure of his brother's large 
house of business and Mr. Udny had to give up th.e factory at 
Mudnabatty, just when some natives appeared ready to join the 

Mr. Fountain reached Mudnabatty on the 10th October 1796. 
Kb had conie out to Calcutta in an American ship and entered 
Hie city without observation and received friendly assistance from 
Kr. Udny and Mr. Brown to enable him to proceed up-country, 
ft wias at this juncture that Dr. Carey wrote to Mr. Fuller pro- 
wundihg the Moravian system of having one Mission famUy, 
fiiicb a few years later was carried into effect at Serampore. 

On the 6th March 1797, Dr. Carey and Mr. Thomas took an 
icursion into Bhootan. They succeeded in reaching Bote Haut 
nd were well received, and, later in the year, when the Mudnar 
»tty factory was given up Dr. Carey purchased from Mr. Udny 
fimall factory called Kidderpore to which he removed with; his 
imily. He entered into a fresh covenant in 1797 as an Indigo 
lantsr and waa free for five years. 

In September 1798 a printing press was purchased from Cal- 
ttta and sent up. Dr. Carey had written from there to Mr. Fuller 
January 1798 that the Mission should be strengthened and 
is letter reached Mr. Fuller at the beginning of August 1798. 
wordingly, in course of time, Dr. Maishman, Mr. Ward, Mr. 
"uniadon and Mr. Grant embarked on thie American ship 
'iterion (Captain Wdckes) on 29th May 1799. The ship reached 
ugor on the 5th October and the Captain entered their names 
Christian missionaries proceeding to the Danish Settlement at 


Serampore. Th«re was no one to receive them at Calcutta, \fA 
Captain Wickee procured boats for them and escorted by bis siictt, 
they reached Serampore on Sunday morning, the 13th October 
1799. On Monday the 14th the misEuonaries waited on the Govw- 
nor of Serampore with the letter from the Danish Consul in LondoA. 
On that same day when Captain Wickes applied at Calcutta to 
enter his vessel he was informed that instructions had been issued 
by Grovernment to refuse it, unless the four missionaries appeared 
at the Poldce Court and entered into engagements to return imme- 
diately to England. The missionaries at Serampore were infonned 
and next day waited on the Governor and explained the dif&cultieB 
of their position and he took them under his protection. They 
wrot3 at once to Dr. Carey and urged him to come down as quicUy 
as possuble and aid them with his advice at this crisis. Ward and 
Brunsdon came down to Calcutta to make interest for pemuBSBOn 
to remain. The Governor-General saw he had gone too far and 
gave in with a good grace and removed the interdict oil the 
Criterion. But none of the new missionaries could go to Dr. 
Carey, so they had to await his reply to their communicatJon. 
In the meantime, Mr. Grant died on 31st October. Dr. Caieyli 
reply was received on 3rd November showing that he was very 
unwilling to abandon Kidderpore. The Governor called on the 
missionaries on the 6th November and pressed them to make 
Serampore the Headquarters of their Mission, assuring them d 
the protection of the Danish Crown so that they would h«^ 
notlning to fear from the opposition of their own Grovemment. 

Lord Wellesley would on no account' permit the existence d 
a Press in the vicinity of Malda, and he was not altogether avene 
to their settling at Serampore where he would not need to disturb 
them, so the missionaries saw it their duty to give up Kidderpore 
and the Malda District. On the 12th November Mr. Fountain 
arrived at Serampore in order to be married to Miss Tidd who had 
come out with the missionaries for that purpose, and on the lift 
idem he and Mr. Ward set out to visit Dr, Carey with a view to get 


toft to remove to Serampore: Mr. Ward proceeded under the pro- 
tdrtBOQ of a Danish passport. They reached Dr. Carey's bungaJaw 
Stt 1st December. The pros and cons were put before Dr. Carey 
IM eventually he yielded und>e>r the assurance from Mr. Ward 
HMt he had a passport from the Governor of Serampore and did 
ikt therefore, fear interruption. 

Dr. Carey arrived at. Serampore with his family consisting of 

four aons and a wife (the last in a state of hopeless insanity) on 

LOth January 1800. They then purchased a dwelling-house and 

Fonnad themselves into one Mission family. They immediately set 

up the Press and Mr. Ward at once commenced printing the 

hriptures in Bengalee. An impression of the first page of the 

Sew Testament in Bengalee which had been composed by Mr. 

Wtxd was taken off by Dr. Carey on tha 18th March and on 16th 

Kay of that year the first sheet of it was struck off. On the 

Hb. February 1801, Dr. Carey enjoyed the supreme delight of 

receiving the last sheet of it from the Press. The typa of the 

Cnftter portion of it was set up by Mr. Ward hdmself, assisted 

ij Mr. Felix Carey, and by Mr. Brunsdon, when his health per- 

oitted him to labor. With such diligence had the work been 

VMhed forward that even under every disadvantage it was oom- 

*lefced within nine months. As soon as the first copy was bound 

b was plac?d on the Commundon Table in the Chapel (at Seram- 

Kawl) and a meeting was held of the whole of the Mission- f amilv 

aid the newly baptized heathen, to acknowledge their gratitude 

God for the completion of this important work; Dr. Marsh- 

Um thus describes the occasion in a letter written by him to Dr. 

tyland on the 5th March 1801 :— 

"We hav.3 lately had a meeting for the purpose of returning 
Links to our God for His goodness in enabling us to finish the 
ew Testament. 

"Our Hindu^ brothsrs and sisters were present and Kristno 

• By this Dr. Marshnmn meant converts from Hinduism. Copies of this New 
lament were subsequently presente<l to the Governor of Serampore and to the 


(the first oonvert) engaged in prayer. After prayer and prwe 
at proper intervals, Brother Carey delivered an exhorUtioii 
in Bengalee and English from Col: III. 16, "Let the irord 
of Christ dwell in you richly.'' The subject having dwelt raflw 
forcibly on my mind, produced the following lines, which ve» 
then sung : and which, on account of the occasion, I take ib 
liberty to insert." 

1. Hail^ precious Book Divine! 
Illumiu'd by thy rays. 

Wo rose from death and sin, 

And tune a Saviours praise: 
The shadas of error, dark as night, 

Vanish before thy radiant light. 

2. We bless the God of grace. 
Who hath His word reveal 'd. 

To this bewilder'd race, 

So long in darkness held : 
His; love designs; His people pray; 

His providence prepares the way. 

3. Now shall the Hindus leam 
The glories of our King; 

Nor to blind Gooroos turn. 

Nor idol praises sing: 
Diffusing heavenly light around. 

This book their Shastens shall confound. 

4. Deign, gracious Saviour deign. 
To smile upon Thy word; 

Let millions now obtain. 

Salvation from the Lord: 

Nor let its growing conquests stay, 

Till earth exult to own its sway. 

They formed themselves into a church on the 24ih Apd 

1800 and elected Dr. Carey as sola Pastor. Oh the 22nd DeceO' 


if that year the first Natives broke caeto and on the 28tb 
the firet native convert, Krishna Pal, was baptized. 
Trom 1st January 1801, the Marquess Wellesley's scheme of 
lollege of Fort Wdlliam was put into effect and on 8th April 
Mr. Brown made the proposal to him of Dr. Carey's being 
nted Teacher of Bengalee, but he was appointed to an^ 
or grade on a salary of Ks. 500 a month as he was a 

3e commenced his duties on the 12th May of that year. On 
:tli September 1804, Dr. Carey as Moderator of Bengalee and 
jrit at the public disputation was called upon to deliver public 
hes in both these languag^as before the Governor-General and 
le Chief Officers of Government. On the 6th February 1805 
IS made, in addition, Professor of Mahratti with an addition 
> income and from the 1st July 1807 when the clause abrogat- 
le obligation for Officers of the College to profess the religion 
e Church of England took effect, he was raised from the 
of Taacher to that of Professor and his allowance was in- 
d from Rs. 500 to Rs. 1,000 a month. 

)n the 7th December 1807 the first Mrs. Carey died having 
in a state of mental aberration for 12 years. She was carried 
a fever after a fortnight's illness. On the 8th of May 1808 
Jarey married Miss Charlotte Rumohr, who was of a noble 
J in the Duchy of Sleswick, her sister being married to the 
berlain of the King of Denmark. 

n June 1809 Dr. Carey was attacked by fever which rapidly 
ht him to the brink of the grave, and he did not recover 
.ugust, much prayer having been made for his recovery, 
g the night of the 11th March 1812 the printing-press at 
pore was totally consumed by fire, which seriously hindered' 
rinting of the Scriptures. The loss was reckoned at not lees 
Ete. 70,080. 

ti 1815, Dr. Carey began to feel the need of a fellow-mis^ 
y for the translation work. In 1816 the misunderstandi: 



betwsen the Serampore Missionaiics and tte Society, begaiQ and 
the breach was not heal 3d, as in 1827, the two separated. Though 
Dr. Carey was sensitive about this, yet the difference befciwen 
himself and the Junior Brethren in 1817 did not render him in- 
sensible to the importance of their labours. The Junior Bietluoi 
separated themselves in 1818 from their Seniors under the oonvio* 
tiion that the Society was right in their view in the oontroyenij 
and started the Mission in Calcutta in connection with the Paient 
Society. In 1820 a reconciliation meeting took place, and, by 
1822, Dr. Carey was able to write that the most perfect hannony 
subsisted between them and the Junior Brethren. 

In September 1820 he was instrumental in establoehiiig tie 
Agri-Horticultural Society in Calcutta. He had written i^ W^ 
to England that a cabbage-seed coidd not be bought out hero ipihr 
£2 2s., but 40 years after, the best could be obtained for trinr 

At the beginning of 1821, Dr. Carey was attacked witt ds- 
eaea, which for a time appeared to threaten has life, but he re- 
covered after a while. When he was ill the Governor of Senw- 
pore called with a most favorable letter from the King of Demnaxk. 

On 30th May 1821, Dr. Carey lost his second wifei and in 
1822, he married as his third wife Mrs. Hughes, a widow of fwty- 
five. She was assiduous in promoting liis comfort, and was tb* 
best of nurses for a man of sixty-two. The banns for the marriage 
were published in the Cathedral at Calcutta. She survived him 
only a year. 

In October 1823 he received from Government an appoint- 
ment to a new offic?, dn addition of that of Professor viz,, tiiat 
of Translator of the Regulations of the Governor-General in Gouncil 
into the Bengalee language which he held till July 1830. 

On the 8th October of this year Dr. Carey had a fall in getting 
out of his boat and injured his hip-joint severely, which resulted in 
an alarming fever on the tenth day and his life was deepaired of, 
but he was spared, though he never perfectly recovered from tMa. 


or six montlis he was unable to walk without crutches. The 
atch€is are shown to visitors among the Carey relics at Serampore. 
uring his illness there was a heavy and unprscedented inunda- 
>n an October. The substantial river bank in front of his house 
,ve way under the rush of waters from the River Damuda, and 
the course of a few days there was a depth of 50 feet of water 
iere the public road had recently stood. The river was rushing 
:e a torrent within ten feet of Dr. Carey s bedroom in which 

View op the Flagstaff Ghat, Babbackpore. 

Opposite the Serampore College, as it was in the early years 

of the 19th century, 

w> rents had become visible, when he was obliged, with great 
iluct^nce, to hasten from it. He took refuge in one of the suites 
' apartments allotted to the ProfeB6ors on the College premises, 
id there he continued to reside till his deathi. 

In 1824 he was elected President of the Agri-Horticultural 

At the beginning of 1826 the reply of the Missionary Society 
their letter of January 1825 for a second grant of £1,000 was 
oedred and had a serious effect on Dr. Carey as it dispelled every 
:pectation of a future union. He wanted to abandon the 


premises at Serampore and take others on the other side of tlu 
river, but calmer counsels prevailed. 

From 1st July 1830 his allowance as Professor was reduced 
from Ks. 1,000 to Rs. 500 a month, owing to the financial exigencw 
of the Government. This was practically a pension. 

In July 1833 so great a change took placa in him that kl 
was not expected to live and hds children were summoned to In 
bedside, but he recovered in a most miraculous manner, and al- 
though he was ever after almost confined to his bed, he lingsed 
on till the 9th Juna 1834 when he passed away in his 73rd JW, 
of which more than forty had been spent in India. Lady Beniasck 
crossed over repeatedly from Barrackpore to see him, and Dr. 
Wilson, the Bishop of Calcutta,, also came to his dying bedtfd 
sought his benediction. 

Thus passed away the Benefactor of Asia, but no memorUt 
national, catholic, or sectarian, marks the work of Dr. Carey, exa^ 
the Lall Bazar Chapd and the Serampore College ; and it has beet 
decided that from and after the 1st January 1909 the Centenirf 
Day — the Chapel will be called the " Carey Baptist Chapel " after 
him and the Church, the Carey Baptist Church. 

The Rev. Joshua Mabshican, D.D. 

roRTBAiT OP Tin: Hbv, ^t. Mabshmax, D.D. 
\Bi, iiM.f yrrmitsioH o/ th,- fi,tf>ti*t M'*iioHtrp Society. London,) 


Dr. Marshman was bom at Wastbury Leigh, in Wiltshire, on 
!20tli April 1768. His family traced its descent 
a an officer in the Parliamentary Army, who retired 
t private life in Wiltshire, after Charles II 
>anded that body in 1660. Like his comrades, when deprived 
all further hope of public employment, he betook himself 
^ useful trade; and his grandson, as a smith, realized 
It waa then considered a little fortune, which he bequeathed 
his only son at his death in 1720. This independence enabled 
i laifcter to indulge an idle and dissipated habits, and ensured 
rndn. His wife was a woman of strong character, and had 
nind a superior education. When abandoned by her husband, 
3 leduc&d to destitution, she determined to support her family 
her own labors, and at the same time apprenticed her son John 
ashman, the father of the Serampore Missionary, to a weaver, 
the age of twelve.- But he was treated with such severdty by his 
Bter, that at the end of three years he escaped to London, where 
er suffering many hardships, he at length entered as a seaman 

the Viper, and then in the Hind ships of war. The 
omander of the latter was Captain Bond. The Hind was 
t to Canada, and he had thus am opportunity of being present 
the capture of Quebec (the tercentenary of which has reoently 
•n celebrated), the action in which the gallant Wolff fell. After 
dng been for years at sea, he obtained his discharge, and retum- 
' to Wiltshire and settled at Diltona Marsh as a weaver of super- 
> woollen cloth, then the staple manufacture in that distinct. 

removed from here to Westbury Leigh and was subsequently 
atble to afford his son any education beyond what his native 
lage supplied, except in his own Christian principles ; and he 
ad to see the principles he had instilled, ripen into the most 
arged and active benevolence. Dr. Marshman from a very 
'ly age exhibited so extraordinary a thirst for knowledge, as 
tx)nvince his family and friends that he was destined for som^- 
ng higher than the loom. 

His father was a member and deacon of the Baptist Church 


there, who, in 1764 married Miss Mary Gouzener, a desoendMitof 
one of ih& French refugees. She was a woman of greet, piety aoi 
exemplary benevolence. It was under these favourable leligioai 
associations that Joshua Mamhman was trained up. 

At the age of seven (1775), he was sent to the little viDigi 
school and gradually developed a desire for readdng until it bal 
such a hold on him that he thought nothdng of walking a doM 
mil'SS for the loan of a book. 

At the age of fifteen (1783) Mr. Gator, a bookseller iiiHoI- 
bom, London, and a native of Westbury Leigh, visited the ^iDip 
and proposed to receive young Marshman into his shop, ud 
accordingly, to London ho went, but after five months his fatlier 
recalled him to Westbury Leigh. Here he resumed his hbmn 
at the loom. He offered hilnself for membership to the QlmA 
at Westbury Leigh, but was kept on probation for seven jcm^ 
and eventually left the place without having been baptixed. 

In 1791 lie married Miss Hannah Shepherd, the granddaughtal 
of the Rev. John Clark, who was for sixty yeais the Pastor of tto 
Baptist Church at Crockerton, in Wiltshire, where he pwictod 
his last sermoni in 1803 in his ninety-fiiBt year. In 1794 k» 
accepted the post of Master in a school supported by the Bwii 
mead Church, Bristol, on a salary of £10 a year, ajid had p» 
mission to take private pupils. He accordingly removed to BrM 
at the age of twenty-six. During the same year he was receiW 
into the Church at Broadmead after baptism. His friend ttJ 
pupil Mr. Grant having offered himself for Mission work he M 
so too in 1799, and was accepted along with three othere. Oi 
the 3rd May of that year he and l^lr. Grant were ordained A 
Bristol, and on the 10th idem a farewell meeting was held. Oi 
the 25th May the missionary party embarked and on the S9tt 
idem they set sail in the American ship Criterum commiuuM 
by Captain Wickes. To prevent immediate banishment by land- 
ing at Calcutta they were furnished with a letter of intiodadiioi 
f rem the Danish Consul in London to f he Governor of Senapon. ' 


hi reaching Calcutta, through the kindness of Captain Wickes, 
hoj got boats, and, under the eeoort of his sircar, arrived at 
teampore on Sunday, the 13th October 1799. 

After Dr. Carey came down to Serampore the following year, 
Dr. and Mrs. Marshman opened a Boarding School. Though 
lomed with Dr. Carey and Mr. Ward in on 3 object and with one 
impulse, there were particular objects which engaged Dr. Marsh- 
Duns time and attention and these will now be specialised. 

On 1st October 1800 Dr. Marshman began to preach in 
Bengalee to the Natives. In April 1802 he undertook his first 
yJA to Jessore, and in May 1803 he undertook his second visiit 
tfcere. Early in 1804 he proceeded on a missionary tour with 
Krishna Pal and other converts to tho Jessore District. 

At the beginning of 1806 lie gave himself diligently to the 
itady of Chinese with a view to the translation of the Scriptures 
Bto that language. For fifteen years he laboured devotedly giving 
p every moment he could spare to the work of this translation, 
n it was carried through the Press. To his personal exertions in 
i07 the Lall Bazar Chapel is mainly indebted for its erection. 

On Christmas Day 1809 he preached the inaugural sermon 
t behalf of the Benevolence Institution, which was indebted tx> 
ta for its subsequent vigor. He was associated with Dr. Carey 
the translation of the Ramayan into English and gave up much 
ae and labour to the plan of native schools. 

In 1814, Dr. Manshman published his '' Clavis Sinica'' or 
r of the Chinese language, the result of eight years of labour and 
dy. In April 1818 the publication of the "Friend of India" 
English was commenced as a monthly magazine. In the first 
)k of December 1822 the last sheet of the Chinsce translation 
the Bible was sent to Press. Thia was the first Chinese work 
r printed from moveable metallic type. These had been 
mted by the Kev. J. Lawson. In 1836 Mr. J. R. Morrison, the 
of the distinguished Missionary, Dr. Morrison, joined Mr. 
olaff in the request that an impression of their New TeBta> 
it, of which they sent the manuscript, might bs printed at 



Serampore from these meitallic types. They were also used in 
printing for the *Roman Catholic Vicar- Apostolic of Cochin-China 
his ''Anamitic and Latin Dictionary.' The advantage of thu 
mode of printing instead of from blocks was thus beginning to be 
appreciated even by tlie missionaries in China. 


TrxT. '• \nd he railed iht multitude, and said unto them, Hear, and 
umlrr-iand: m>i thai which" go€th into the imnith defilethanuini bnt 
thai Mhichcoineth out of the mouthy this defileth the man." 

Math. XV. 10, 1L | 


^ -& m iff n^^ 


o ^ ^ 7^ ^ #1 

# n ». ° ^ A 


Text. ^ In the beginning God created the beaveni and the earOu And 
the earth wai without (brm and void, and darknesi waa npon the &ct 
of thedeepi and the Spirit of God moved npon thefeceof dtewatmt . 
And God «ald, Let there be light: and there was light" Gnr. L 1— ft, / 

§ i: ^ W ^ tt ^ # : 


Metal Types introduced by Mb. Lawson. 


i In March 1822, his daughter, Mrs. WilliaxoB, died, and he felt 
Iwr death very much. Mr. Ward's death in March 1823 also 
^ected him very much and he wrote, "I have indeed lost the 
4mre to live." 

At the end of 1825, he detetnmned to visit England, and 
BjBBlbarked in January 1826. He travelled through the United 
■Xingdom and visited Denmark, where he obtained a Charter for 
rilie College from the King. He returned to Serampore on the 
SKh May, 1829, looking, as his friends remarked with deep regret, 
'"flfteen years older." 

In 1830, as an outcome of the reply received from the Com- 
mittoe in England, he vacated the house at Serampore which he 
^lad occupied for 30 years and removed into a small house which 
^ had erected for him&slf. 

-6. At the beginning of 1833, he experienced another visitation 
Sol mental weakness and wandered about the premises like a 
re; and Dr. Carey's death the following year, seemed to 
en a return of his mental debility, so he took a change to 
herrapoonijee) where Mrs. Marshman had previously gone. 

^ In 1836 his health began to fail, and the calamity which befell 
mk daughter, Lady Havelock, at Landour on the night of the 18th 
^October 1836, when she was nearly burnt to death, inflicted a 
•hock on his feelings and constitution from which he never 
Moovered. He wandered about the house in a state of gloomy 
idbstration occasionally talking without object or coherence until 
fhe news was received that she was out of danger. 

On the 5th December 1837, he gently sank to rest in the 70th 
year <tf his age, and, as the funeral procession was leaving the 
louse where he died, mails were delivered announcing that the 
tBhnanpore Mission was no more. Thus passed away the last of 
ilia Serampone triumvirate and the Serampore Mission simul- 
teneously, the latter as a separate organization, being practically 
Imiied in his grave. 


The Rev. William Ward. 

(Jiy kind permu-^ion .;/ the Bavtisf Missionary Sfciety^ Londo%) 

Ho was born at Derby on the 20tli October 1769. — He was the 
of Jolin Ward, carpenter and bmlder. His father didd whei 
was a cliild and his education devolved upon his mother, a pe 
of superior partes and exemplary piety, who attenided the min 
of thd Methodists. He v/as placed under the tuition, first of 
Congreve, and then of Mr. Breary, of Derby. On leaving 8i 
he was plao^^d as an apprentice with Mr. Drury, who was ai 
head of a large printing establishment in the town. He soon 
to the grade of corrector in the Press. At the end of his &p 
tioeship he undertook the editing of the "Derby Mercury, 
behalf of has master. Under his management its circulatioii 
to 1 ,500, and it became one of the most influential papers i 
country. He imbibed democratic feelings and oognpoeed & 
tical address which led to the prosecution of the London paj 
which it appeared, but the paper was acquitted. Unfortnn] 
at a subsequent period he admitted without the consult o 
Church a democratic orator named Thelwsll into the Bi 
meeting house to deliver a political lecture with the result 


3at odium was broughb on the character of the Danomination 
the town. Having worked up the " Derby Mercury," he wag 
lUced to remove to Stafford, where he oommsnced another 
imal, but he subsequently proceeded to Hull to undertake the 
itorial managament of th© "Hull Advertdser." Six years were 
us passed in the duties of an Editor. 

In August, 1796, hs was baptized at Hull by Mr. Pendered 
id began visiting the poor. This brought him into acquaintance 
ith Mr. Fisliwick of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, who was charmed 
ith his address; and was anxious that his miniKterial talents 
loold not remain buried in obscurity. He placed him at his 
m expense under the tuition of the Eev. Dr. Fawcett, to whose 
sidence (Ewood Hall) he removed in August 1797. After a time 
> renounced politics and journalism and gave his heart to the nobler 
K^tion of preaching the Grospel. He would not so much as take 

a newspaper till after ten years* residence at Serampore and 
len read the Morning Font, a weely journal published in Calcutta, 
.exchange for his contributions to it. 

After he had been with Dr. ^awoett about a year, a member 
\ the Baptist Miss:ionary Committee visited " Ewood Hall '' in 
Wtfch of recruits for Dr. Carey's pressing requests for additional 
dpers and he conversed frequently with Mr. Ward. About four 
ears previously Dr. Carey had been introduced tO' Mr. Ward on 
tie eve of his departure for India and had remarked that if their 
ibours were blessed with success they would need an individual 
: his calling to enable them to print the Scriptures, and he hoped 
) would consent to follow them. This remark was forgotten at 
ie time by Mr. Ward, but was vividly recalled now, so he deter- 
ined to offer himself without delay for service as a Missionary 

tile hope of being employed in printing the Scriptures. He 
IS accepted, but for three months he supplied the pulpit of the 
>v. S. Pearoe at Birmingham. On the 7th May, 1799, he and Mr. 
xinsdon were ordained at Olney. The farewell service was held 

ibe 10th May, and eventually he embarked in the Criterion 


with Marshmau, Brunsdon and Grant at the end of tU 

On the 10th May, 1802, Mr. Ward was married to the iridw 
of Mn. Fountain at the Mission House, Serampore, by Dr. Carfly. 
With Mr. Ward, she had come out in the Criterion, as Miss !Md 
in 1799, for the purpose of marrying Mr. Fountain. 

As his health became impaired he took a trip in 1803, to 
Dinagapore to visit Mr. Fermandez, and he returned to Seramporo 
on the 16th December of that year. 

In 1806, he printed off the first sheet of the Sanscrit S«v 
Testament in the Nagree type. On the 1st June of that year, b 
opened the mat shed ini Calcutta for Divine Service and en fl* 
25th January 1807 the little Chapel in the Chitpore Bead. 

Towards the close of 1810, he published the first editKm ot 
his work on the " History, Literature and Mythology of flie 
Hindoos, including a minute description of their manners and 
customs, and translations from their principal works," in tio 
Volumes. It is now out of print and is of considerable value. 

On the night of the 11th March, 1812, the Printing Office »t 
Serampore was totally consumed by fire and the labour of twdw 
yeai's destroyed in a few hours. The discovery that the matriofli 
and punches were intact was a source of inexpressible delight to Mr, 
W^ard; or, otherwise, the work of the missionaries would luwe 1 
been crippled for a long time. 

Again his health began to decline and at the beginning cf 
1818, he was advised to take a trip on the river, so took the oppo^ 
tunity to visit Chittagong, Mr. D'Bruyn having been killed thera 
about fifteen months before. This excursion produced only tem- 
porary relief and his medical advisers insisted on a voya^ to 
England. He embarked accordingly on the 15th December 1818, 
and landed in May 1819, feebler rather than stronger. Af&r 
completing the canvas of England on behalf of the Serampore 


Ikge, he visited Holland, but his visit produced little result 
> returned to England aft«r three wesks and then went over to 
nesrica in October 1820. His journey through that country is 
id to have been one continuous ovatibn and he succeeded in 
■ing ten thousand dollars for the College. He returned to 
piglond in April 1821, and embarked, on his return voyage for 
idia in May, with Mrs. Marshman, bringing with him 
b. Mack. They arrived at Serampore on the 20th October of 
kit year. 

After his return from England, he was enabled to resume 
lui labours in the Mission and in the College with all the energy 
Ustspcved health, but after a brief period of only sixteen months 
A life was suddenly terminated by cholera. 

On Sunday, the 2nd March 1823, he was at Calcutta and 
taached in the evening from " Lead us not into temptation " in 
Q searching a manner as to attract particular notion. He also 
ttended the monthly prayer meeting held on Monday evening 
I the Lall Bazar Chapel after having spent the day in visiting 
Mr the last time the flock he so much loved. On Tuesday morning, 
le 4th, he returned to Serampore. He appeared quite well 
le whole of that day as well as the next, in the evening of which 
I preached the weekly lecture in the Mission Chapel at Seram- 
»e from "He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved, 
c." No one suspected that this was the last message he had 
deliver in his great Master's name. He retired about 10 o'clock 
at night, but about 5 a.m. on Thursday, the 6th, he felt him- 
If troubled with what he considered simple diarrhoea, but that 
temoon it became evident that the disease was cholera of a 
rolent type; at 11 o'clock on Friday, 7th March, he b^an to 
ik and by 5 o'clock that evening he was a corpse. 

He appears to have been distinuished by anj amiable and 
. affectionate disposition. By his death one strand of the thres- 
IcL cord was snapped, and H had its effect on the other two. H« 
Bd at the age of 53 only. 


The Rev. John Mack. 

Mr. Hack was born at Edinburgh on th.3 12th March 1797.— 
His father was a Solicitor-at-law and held an influential eituatkm 
in the Sheriff's Office at Edinburgh, but died while Mack was young. 
He was brought up by his mother, who was a lady of eteriing 
piety. He was given a thorough academic education in Scotiand, 
first at the High. School and thsn in the University of Edinburgh. 
The certificates of proficiency which he received from his Bevffai 
Professors were flattering teet'imonialB of his attainm;3nt8. He 
subsequently attended a course of chemical Isctures at Grays lad 
the surgical lectures of " mild Abemethy." 

He was onginally int-ended for the Church of Scotland, buti 
with a view to acquire a thorough English ptyle in speaking, 1» 
was appointed an usher in a respectablo school in the West of 
England. Having changed his vie^v^ regarding Baptism ind 
Church polity through the influence of Mr. Winterbotham, * 
Baptist Minister in tlie neighbourhood, he was baptyized batore a 
large congregation. This change in his views was a sad blow to 
his relatives, and especially so to his mother, whose heart- had been 
set on his being a Minister of the Church of Scotland. He thai 
entered the Bristol Academy to qualify for the Ministry. Mr. 
Ward on his return from America in 1821, selected Mm at Briatd, 
and he was set apart as a Missionary to the heathen in tJie Chapel 
in which lie bad bsen bapt;ized. 

He was an excellent classic and thoroughly versed in the 
different branches of Natural Science, though chemistry was h» 
favourite study. He was an elegant and powerful speaker. In 
all respects he was an accomplished man, and a fitting afiBOciAie 
and colleague of Carey, Marshman and Ward, to whom he became 
as warmly attached as they wera to one another. 

He embarked with Mr. Ward and Mrs. Marshman in May 
1821, and as soon as he arrived at Serampore he entered upwi 
hds duties as Professor at ths College and for fourteen yeare be 
was steadily engaged in training up missionary labour in India. 
He prepared the first Bengalee map. 

'ough the kindne^n of the Haptitft MiJtsionartj So'itty^ London.'^ 





On the 27th June 1832, he was oardained Co-Pastor withi 

Carey and Maorshman of the Church at Ssrampore. The 

rer was offered by Dr. Carey and the charge delivered by 

. W. Robins<m, Pastor of the Lall !bazar Church, from 

I 11: 24. 

In 1836, he took a tour through the Eastern Provinces of 
gal, the Khassia Hills and Assam, but on his return was 
eked by fever from which he recovered with difficulty. He 
eventually to take a voyage to England but was delayed 
the close of the year before he could start. He reached 
{IttDd in April 1837, and while there sigfned the Act of Re- 
oo of the Serampore Mission with the Parent Society which 
» date the 7th Deoember 1837. 

He returned to India at the beginning of 1838 with a deter- 
ation to continue the labours of his deceased colleagues. He 
: charge of Dr. Marshman's Seminary and raised its reputu- 
to the highest degree and made it the first private educar 
al establishment in India. He also sustained the pastoral 
•ge of the Chiirch at Serampore, both European! and Native, 
cted the Missionary efforts of the station and its neighbour- 
J with zeal and gave his invaluable aid to the general cause 
Missions in India. 

Soon after his first arrival in India he gave a series of lectures 
Chemistry in Calcutta, the first ever delivered in the city, but 
proceeds he handed over to the Mission. Later on he pre- 
3d an elementary treatise on Chemistry. 

To have been associated with Carey, Marshman and Ward; 
hxve assisted in their labours, and participated iii their joys 

sorrows, he considered the glory of his life. 

As a public writer he had few equals in India. 

When the Friend of India was started in 1835 at Seram- 

>, he took an active share in its editorial management. He 

the most perfect contempt for money, except as it could be 



used to benefit others. His liberality was not limited \^ 1 
means and he had the far more rare and difficult virtue tiwt 
generosity of feeling. 

His end is reported to have come on this wise. On bis retuB 
from his ride he hoped to conduct school as usual, but a littt 
after 10 o'clock in the day it became evident that be had f alka 
M. victim to cholera from which he suffered extremely till abook 
7 P.M., and about 10-30 p.m. he fell asleep. He died on the 304 
April, 1845, and thus fell the last of the Serampore giarUtA . It il 
thought by some friends that on the preceding evening he b* 
partaken rather too freely of the leechee fruit of which he is B«ii 
to have been passionately fond. 

The Tablet in the Lall Bazar Chapel was put up by one ol 
his pupils. This is what another pupil of Mr. Mack's, whowai 
known to the writer for many years before his death, has pi 
on record in his reminiscences of Mr. Mack: 

" The Reverend John Mack, who was both Head Teacher 
owner of the Serampore Seminary, was a man universally belowi 
by all his pupils. He was kind, but he was firm;, he waste < 
father to has boys, he was very painstaking and a ripe scholw 
he was a thorough tutor; he was just in all his dealings: he " 
not spare the rod, but he used it with becoming niodera;b]on. 

" The boys lost in him a father and friend as well as tutor: 
Serampore Church a beloved Pastor, the Native Christians a lath^i 
in Christ, the residents of Ser-ampore a friend. The native c<» 
munity held him in high esteem and the rich Babus patrwii* 
his school by sending their sons to be educated by him. "Ee^ 
too liberal-minded, too benevolent. It was very fortunate W 
a few months previous to his death he insured his life, though hi 
was in good health at the time." 

Probably feelings similar to those expressed above prompt* 
Mr. W. H. Jonas to put up the Tablet in the Chapel. 

Mr. Mack is referred to in the highest terms in the Bef* 
E. S. Summers' memorial sermon for the Rev. R. Robinson, wh 
was trained under Mr. Mack and who imbibed much of his tutort 
mind and spirit. 


was tLuB cut off in tha? prime of life and in the midst ^6f 
ilness when length, of days and increasing usefulness seemed' 

Mh. J. C. Marshman. C.8.1. 


\ chapter will be incomplete without a ]X)rtrait of Mr. 
arshman, the historian, which is, accordingly given above 
e is no occasion to write a biographical sketch of him . 


The Pastorate of the %ev. James Thomas. 

{From 11th June 18U to 20th July 1858) 
It will be necessary first tx> introduce Mr. and Mrs. Tl 
to the reader before proceeding to detail the events of the p 
ate, but let it be borne in mind at the outset that this was 
Thomas' third wife, to whom he was married on the 4th J« 
1842 and who survived him and lived on to a good old age, 
ing away in her 81st year on the 25th October 1898. It 
thus be seen that she was his co-laborer for the whole time 
he was Pastor. The biographical sketch of Mr. Thomas in 
followed by a brief ona of Mrs. Thomas. 



The Rev. James Thomas was bom in Bewdly Forest in Wosv 
^rshire on the 18th September 1799. He was the son of Bev. 
1 Thomas, who was bom on 28th May 1760, in Kidderaainster. 
i after his birth his parents removed to Brosly, in Shropshire, 
DD his father became the Pastor of the Baptist Church and 
Be he labored for upwards of thirty years. His mother was 

barn in Bewdly Forest. Both parents were truly pious and 
Died servants of Christ. They had a large family, but the 
'iisi loved her children and was the means under God of lead- 
f'flwBi to the Saviour. She died on 15th March 1835, but her 
Amd lived to the advanced age of ninety years. 

Mr. Thomas went to L#ondon when about sixteen years of age 
I there surrendered his heart to the Redeemer and at the age 
eighteen he was baptized by tbs Rev. Mr. Williams, Pastor of 
• Baptist Church in Grafton Street, of which he was admitted 
fiember. Soon after his conversion his mind turned strongly 
f^ds the Ministry of the Gospel, and consequently in 1821 he 
Bied the Baptist College at Bradford in Yorkshire then und2r • 

direction of two eminent men. Dr. Steadman and Dr. Godwin. J; 

ire were a number of Baptist Churches in Yorkshire, at that 
e without stated Pastors, so that tbs students at Bradford were j 

[uently called upon to supply their pulpits and this interfered | 

nderably with their general studies- { 

Having been accepted as a candidate for missionary service 
[ndia, Mr. Thomas left Bradford in 1826 and entered the Bap- 

CollegD at Stepney, the President of which, at that time was 

Newman. Here he became acquainted with the Rev. George 
nee, who was a fellow-student and who eventually came out 
h him and survived to preach his funeral sermon. Mf . Pearce 
laelf died on 6th June 1887 at the age of 81. While at Stepney 
order to qualify himself the better for his work. Mr. Pearce 
I, Mr. Thomas (1) took up the study of the Hindustani 
^age undto Dr. Gilchrist, and (2) attended the London Hosr 
ii in the Whitechapel Koad, where he hoped to gain some 



knowledge of surgery and medical practice that might be of use 
to him when settled amonjg the natives of India. These two objects 
occupied the whole of the four months of his residence at Stepney. 

About the middle of May 1826 the missionary candddatea re- 
ceived notice from tha Committee to prepare for embarkation and 
on the 17th idem, he married Miss Ann Poole in London. She 
was the daughter of Mr. Edward Pcole, a Deacon, of an Independ- 
ent Cliurch. On the 7th of June, 1826, he was ordained to the 
work of a missionary at Shrewsbury when his father offered the 
Ordination Prayer and Dr. Steadinan, his beloved tutor, preached 
the Ordination Sermon from the words. " He endured as seeing 
Him, who is invisible,' and on the 22nd Mr. and Mrs. Thomas, 
with Mr. and Mrs. George Pearce, embarked at Deal on the Flor- 
entia having been duly furnished v/ith passports from the East 
India Company for India. 

Th& Court of Directors used to make a heavy charge for these 
parchment passports with a view to make them prohibitive, ZA 
they could not refuse to give permission to missionaries to go, but 
showed their reluctance in this way. 

They arrived at Calcutta on Sunday, the 22nd October 1826, 
after a voyage of four months. Dr. Yates was then the Pastor 
at the Circular Koad Chapel and before he began his evening eeflv 
mon he gave a hearty welcome from the pulpit to the two young 
brethren just arrived and at the close of the service they had a 
joyful and hearty welcome from the members of the Clwirch. On 
his voyage out Mr. Thomas, had made good use of his time by 
oontinudiig his study of Hindustani with the help of Dr. Gilchrist'B 

The missionaries after landing had to report themBelves at 
the Police Office and each had to declare on oath that he would 
conduct himself peaceably and without detriment to the interests 
of the Hon'ble Company s Government, etc. The Sabbatb Day in 
Calcutta at that time was known only by seeing the Union Jack 
Positing 'm the breeze at Fort William, but the mer<Au|n.tB' offices 


e all open and the ships discharged and took in cargo jiust 

same as on any other day. 

For eighteen months after their arrival in Calcutta, Mr. 
omas and Mr. Pearce ware supported by the " Union '' of the 
oior Brethren. Mr. Lawson had died just a year before, viz.^ 
Hie22nd October 1825. Dr. Yates was at that time in very poor 
iltli and in order that he might have the opportunity to recruit 

health by a visit to England, Mr. Thomas was asked to take ' 

tha pastorate of the Circular Eoad Church, Mr. Boardman * j 

i aho been invited, but declined to take it, promising, however, J ! 

pcwch as often as he could. With this promise of assistanoe, I ! 

K Thomas undertook the pastorate for two years, viz., Feb- J ! 

iiy 1827 to February 1829, when Dr. Yates returned and was 
du unanimously invited to become Pastor and the sum of Kb. ' 

I was presented to Mr. Thomas by the Church " as a token of the • 

titude of the members for his kind services, and their sense of % 

affectionate and constant solicitude for their spiritual welfare." 3 

\3i the help of the Lord he was enablsd to put new life into 5 

Church. « 

From July 1829 he was stationed at Howrah, or, moie ^ 

perly speaking, Sulkea, where he was enabled to do some good, ^ 

h among the European and the native population. Here he ( 

liblished schools and bsgan to use his knowledge of Hindustani < 

going about from house to house for conversation with the 
iple and before long commenced giving roadside addresses and ' 

>d to cross over often to Calcutta to preach at the roadside 
*pel in Jaun Bazar. He also prepared Hindustani tracts, one 
fcMed "Reasons for not being a Mussalman," was the means 
opening the eyes of many Mahomedans to the claims of Chris- 
•ify and has gone through many editions and been widely cir- 
wed. During the eight years he was stationed at Howrah 
Wal were added to the English-speaking Church. Ram 
idina, a pupil of his school became converted and his subsequent 
cistian life gave great satisfaction, but ere long he was carried^ 



off by cholera. Mrs Thomas died at Sulkea on the 11th 3vm 

1833. 1 

When in 1836 it became necessary foa: the Bev. W. H. Peaw 

to go to England on account of failing bealth thei^e was no ob» 

on tlie staff of the Mission, who had any knowledge of pTintiqg 

and the multifarious and important matters in connection vift 

the Baptist Mission Press. After long and prayerful conaLdentiODf 

Mr. Thomas was selected. He was quite startled at the Aout 

as he had no idea whatever of the work. Morsover, he tbUlni 

fellow missionaries his object for coming out to India and tlubl* 

oould not put that aside for the other work, but they in twi 

pointed out to him that he would be the instrument of aduevny 

greater good through the means of the Press, bo he consented uA 

this object he kept in view all the 22 years that he was connBcbBS 

with that Press, and, what faithful and untiring labor it was, vil 

well-known to the community and to the missionaries in particular. 

He, however, continued to supply the pulpit at Howrah for at knfc 

three years. Mr. Pearce returned in September 1839 and 

about a month's time Mr. Thomas made over the Press to hoit 

but retained charge of the Scripture Depository. On 17th Mi«k 

1840, however, Mr. Pearce died and the entire work at the Pwi 

devolved upon Mr. Thomas again. Besides the work of the Pwi 

he was the Corresponding Secretary of the Mission in India, a dirij 

which draw heavily upon his time. He became Pastor of ^\ 

Lall Bazar Church in 1844 and remained so for nearly 14 j«Wi 

till his death in 1858. He was also engaged in the revision q( 

the Hindustani New Testament to which he added marginal not* 

Mr. George Pearce said : 

" This accumulation of labor necessarily occupied every momenft 
of his time, and more indeed than the twelve hours of day gw« 
to a man to work. It trenched upon the allotted rest of m^ 
seldom did he retire to rest before midnight, and frequently i* 
was later. It is wonderful how his constitution bore it all afli 
bore it so long. It is also remarkable that he was never ill mow 
than twice, I believe, during his long residence of thirty-two ye*^ 
in this country and that without any trip to England." 


His son William in his reminiscenoes of his father has place! 
the following on record : — 

"Religion was truly the grand spring and sustaining power 
of his laborious life. In eveoy movement of his life he seemed 
to have respect to the will of God. That was paramount with him 
to every other consideration. He was a man of eminent integrity; 
he acted in the fear of God, as in the presence of God/' and this 
k oorroborated by Mr. George Pearoe's statement that " his brethzen 
kad always perfect ooaifidence in him. The Society at Home had 
Mpect confidence in him. Two deputations from the Baptist 
IGffiion in England hiave visited this country within the last few 
jears, they both looked into the affairs of the Press; they did 
n carefully, and both deputations left behind them the most ample 
and honorable testimony to our friend's upright and efficient man- 
igement of the establishment.'' 

In support of the above the present writer trusts that he will be 
I ttcosed for giving below in eostenso the concluding remarks of Dr. 
[Ibderhill, the Secretary of the Society, in hia report on the Baptist 
[jlBBBion Press, dated Calcutta, 4th October 1855 : 

''I must confess that I have been led greatly to admire the 
wgadty, the prudence and skill, together with the untiring and 
■eceesful industry brought into play for the prosperity of the 
hm by your Superdhtendent. A large proportion of your Widows' 
ttd Orphans' Fund, say £12,000 ; the means of expending some 

. filyOOO on your Indian Mission during the past fifteen years, in 
icUiticsn to the funds derived from the Society; the increase of 
tke Capital of the concern by some £12,000 since 1842, and now 
*Sun a prospective addition of £4,400 to the Widows' and Orphans' 
fond, a total of nearly £50,000 exhibit results of astonishing 
iBBgnitude calling for devout acknowledgement to Him by whose 
pnnddence this instrumentality has been placed in our hands for 
tteiextension of His Kingdom, and also for the warmest and most 
'•Mty thanks on the part of the Committee to Mr. Thomas, by 
^iose daily and nightly toil these great things have been accom- 

: jBAed." This is the testimony which Mr. Pearce refers to above 

i ^i it speaks for itself. 


. The end came in this wise. He had been feeling very unwell 

i tte whole of Wednesday, the 14th July 1858, but was at his work 

^ day as uisual and in the evening, though a wet one, he attended 

^Clmrch meeting at the Lall Bazar Chapel. The matters that 



came up at that meeting were oonnected with repairs to the Chapel 
roof, fixing Jhilmils (screens) and th^ examination of the beams 
of the verandah, but, the last item of the agenda was 
probably what led the good man to make the effort 
to go in spite of ill-health and bad weather. The Pastor 
stated that his "son John had expressed a desire to be 
baptized and to join the Church, ' and after a deputation had 
been appointed to see him "the meeting closed with the 
Benediction," but the Minutes remain unsigned to this day, the 
servant of the Lord having been translated to glory within the 
next few. days. On his return home he said he felt better and sat 
down to read. At 2 a.m. he got worse and the Doctor had to be sent 
for. By 8 a.m. all the eymptoms) denoted cholera and his suffer- 
ings were so severe that nothing could be said to him. Next day 
the cholera symptoms subsided, but were followed by extreme 
exhaustion. He could speak only a word or two at a time and 
it was difficult to hear him. To the last he seemed to entertsin 
hopes of his own recovery. On the Sunday he suffered much from 
exhaustion. On Monday the Doctor pronounced it to be pleuri^; 
after this, there was no further hope of his recovery and he 
passed away on Tuesday, the 20th and was buried the sameevenii^ 
in the Scotch Cemetery where his grave can be seen to this day 
in good condition. 

On the 26th July 1858 a meeting of the Church was held at 
which the following resolution, regarding their late Pastor, waa 
passed and placed on record : — 

"That the Church deeply and sincerely laments the removal 
by death of their much esteemed Pastor, the Rev. James Thomas, 
who for thirteen years had the oversight of the Church and for 
a gr^at portion of which period he rendered to it his gratuitouB 


The Church desire to remember with gratitude the readin» ^ 
and cheerfulness with which, under the then painful oircumstanoa 
our late Pastor accepted the call of the Church to take its pastoral 
charge and the untiring interest he ever evinced on acoou^t of 
Its spiritual welfare. Though burdened with a large amount of 


iness in connection with the Baptist Mission Preee^ he nevier 
got the Church of which he had taken the oveirsight, and gave 
it as much of his; time and strength and labor which other 
iness would allow. His zeal for the honor of his God and 
ioux, and the purity of the Church were a prominent trait in 
diaracter ; though unwilling to give a hasty credence to reports 
ught against any member of the Church, when satisfied of their 
IMulness, he was not lacking in the exercise of Christian di^ 

The Church mourns his loss, but while it grieves on account 
luB removal it rejoices in the perfect assurance that what is • 

I CSrarch's loss is his everlasting gain. 2 

The Church desires to sympathize with the widow and fatheov \ 

B dildren of its late Pastor, and prays that Christ, the Head C 

tte Church, will graciously vouchsafe to them the consolatdons t 

His Holy Spirit and give them to realize the blessing of the ] 

mise. "Leave thy fatherless children, I will preserve them ^ 

^ and let thy widows trust in Me." I 

Not long after Mr. Thomas' death a Memorial Tablet was ; 

up in the Chapel, the inscription on which is as below: — } 

Sacred • 

To the Memory of • 

The Eev. Tames Thomas j 

For thirtean years 
the beloved Pastor of the Church ( 

meeting in this House of Prayer. I 

"Not Slothful in Business, fervent in spirit, I 

serving the Lord." ; 

He devoted thirty-two years of his life 
to the furtherance of the Gospel in India, 
in connexion with 
the Baptist Missionary Society. 
He was born in England ?he 18thi of September 1799. 
Arrived in India the 21st October 1826, 
and died on the 20th July 1858. 
" For my Name sake thou hast laboured 
and has not fainted." 



The inscriptLon on his grave is as below: — 

Sacred to the Memory 


The Rev. James Thomas, 

Superintendent of the Baptist Mission Press 


Pastor of the Church'in Lall Bazar. 

During a Missionary career of 

thirty-two years, 

He proved himself. 

A devoted Minister of the Gospel, 

A wise Counsellor, 

A pattern of consecrated industry, 

and, above all, 

An humble believer in Christ, 

the Saviour of sinners. 

He was born in England, 18th September 1799, 

Arrived in India, 22nd October 1826, 

And died in the Lord, 20th July 1858. 

" Not slothful in business, fervent in spirit, serving the L 
Bom. XII: IT. 





Mfb. Maortha Thomas, the third wife of the Eev. James Thomas, 
waa the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Wilson of London. She 
was bom on the 22nd February 1818 an3 in 1840 arrived in India, 
having been sent out by the Ladies' Society of London to become 
Head Teacher in one of their schools at Solo, Krishnaghur, in 
charge of the Church Missionary Society. She must have endeared 
herself to the workers of that Society, for ever after, she was much 
thoughib of by their missionaries, who often used to put up at the 
Baptist Mission Pr^ss when they came to Calcutta. Mr. Thomas' 
second wife had died on 23rd September 1840. As there was an 
infant only ten days old and several young children, Mr. Thomas 
very naturally saw that a third marriage was a necessity. He 
was married to Miss Wilson on 4th January 1842 at the Circular 
Boad Chapel by Dr. Yates. It will, therefore, be seen from tins 
that she was his fellow-laborer throughout the whole period of 
his pastorate and shared his joys and sorrows in that work. 
When Mr. Thomas died on 20th July 1858, she oould njot 
leave the country immediately but sailed for England on the 17tb 
December in the ship Surrey, 

On the 26th July 1858, a letter of sympathy and condolence 
was addressed to Mrs. Thomas and in September she replied say- 
ing among; other things, " I shall ever feel a lively interest in your 
welfare as a Church." 

On the 7th December the record runs: 

" It was proposed by^ — ^and seconded by — ^that as Mrs. Thomas 
was on the eve of leaving the country for her native land, a Bible 
be presented to her accompanied with an address expressive of 
lihe Cfhurch's sympathy with her in the affliction she had been 
called to sustain and as a token of the gratitude they felt for the 
deep interest evecr evinced by their late Pastor in their spiritual 
welfare. To this an unanimous consent was accorded." 

As soon as the Rev. W. W. Evans resigned the pastorate in 
June 1844 the Rev. James Thomas took temporary charge of the 
Church and at the end of his career when recording their resolu- 
tion regarding him and his work the Church remarked: — 


" Tb^ Church desires to remember with gratitude the readinMi 
and cheerfulness with which, under the then painful circmiusUooei 
our late Pastor accepteH the call of the Church to take its pas- 
toral charge." 

As we have seen, the circumstances were indeed padnful, but 
God sent the right man to effect a different state of thingi^ 
for before long a very different spirit prevailed and peace, happi- 
n-ess, and kindly feelings were manifested. Mr. Thomas appre- 
ciated this very much and he used to speak about it to Us ms- 
sionary brethren. His face used to brighten up when he moied 
aljout among his people, and the members came to love him laj 
much. After the services whan the members met each other tlwie 
were smiles, greetings and warm hand-shakings, no matter whafler 
they were European or Native, rich or poor, learned or ignonnt^ 
fair or dark skinned, as they were all one in Christ Jesus. ■ 

The Church saw that Mr. Thomas' hands were, if poBBbte^l 
over-full of work, so on 5th November 1844 they addressed til 
Eev. Mr. Denham asking him to take the Pastoral charge tnff 
them, but on 11th February 1845 he replied declining to accept 
the pastorate, offering, however, to preach when in CalcutU. 

A new Deacon was appointed permanently in August 1M4 
as one of the existing Deacons was very infirm through age. Tte 
it was decided that the Native members should have Church MW*" 
ings in th^ir own language. After that it was decided "to haaj 
up in the vestry a list showing all cases reqiiiring visits, Cbxvti» 
sympathy, and the prayers of the Church." This showed wW 
the weak points were which apparently had been neglected. NW. 
owing to the low state of the funds, it was decided to reduce ti> 
payments to the Missionary Society from Rs. 70 to Rs. 50 montMy. 

On 23rd December 1844 a farewell meeting was held in hon* 
of Mr. and Mrs. E. Gray, who were leaving the country forgool 
and proceeding to Scotland. On this occasion a Bible wm p* 
sented to them as a token of love and esteem. Mr. Gray was • 
Watch and Clock-maker and had succeeded to the business <rf Mft 


vid Hare, well known for his zeal in promoting the secular edu- 
ion of the Natives.* There is a reminiscence of Mr. Gray to 
8 day in the Chapel clock, which he put up and which has 
ved the Church for 65 years I 

In February 1845 the Church again made a move to try and 
are a Pastor, and this time the Local Committea of the Mis- 
aary Society, was addressed begging them to take into con- 
eration the claims of the Church and to use their influence with 
» Committee in England to obtain a Pastor for them. In Sop- 
onber of the same year a Committee was appointed to enquire 
lat iteps should be adopted to secure a Pastor for the Church, 
d flie following month that Committee reported that there was 
libelihood of getting a Pastor at present. 

In 1844 eight were received into the Church and in 1845 ten, 
tt, the Church was not satisfied, so on the 11th December it was 
solved to hold a series of morning meetings to implore the Divine 
essing for a revival. 

On the 26thi December 1845 Mr. John Robinson was ordained 
the Ministry at the Chapel. 

In April 1845 a Committee had been appointed to enquire 
to the practicability of hanging punkahs in the Chapel, but 
ds could not be carried into effect for a considerable time, the 
inkahs not being hung up until 1851. 

In January 1846 the Church wrote a letter to the Rev. Wil- 
im Robinson asking him to take up the pastorate again, but 
»re is no copy of this letter on record, nor of his reply. 

On the 20th January 1846, the Church adopted the Minute 
Inch had been adopted by the Circular Road Church regarding 
embers not going to Theatres, Balls, Dances, etc., and ordered 
lat it be entered on the records of the Church, and a copy, signed 
' the Pastor, forwarded to every member of the Church. This 

* When David Hare sold his business it became a joke among the young 
igB of Calcutta that ** Old Hare had turned Gray.'* 



jesolution has never been modified or cancelled since. As this ii 
an important Minute a copy is given below in exten$o: — 

Copy of Minute unanimously adopted on the 8th January 
1846, to be entered on the Church records and a copy signed Ijy 
the Pastor to bs forwarded to every member of the Church (CSt- 
cular Road). 

It having come to the knowledge of the Pastor that wmb 
of the members of the Church have attended Balls or Duunng 
Parties it is considered advisable that the sentiments of the Chnrdi 
should be explicitly stated. 

The attendance of persons at Balls, Theatrical Exhibitumi 
and such like has ever been deemed by the Church inccnsiBtent 
with a Christian profession. In the case of membeiB such con- 
duct is a breach of the pledge given to the Church at their recep- 
tion, and an open violation of the command ''Be not oonknoed 
to this world." The Church has no hesitation in placing on xeoord 
its unqualified condemnation of such conduct. This meefcmg, 
however, addresses itself to the erring members in the spini of 
love and entreats them for t^^eir own safety and comfort, and for 
the Lord Jesus Christ's sake to separate themselves from all sach 
worldly associations and to yield themselves in all their engage- 
ments unto God as those that are alive from the dead. 

But the Church is in duty bound to separate dtself from every 
member that walketh disorderly, and this meeting is fully convinoed 
that the unflinching execution of a wholesome discipline is sk 
this time imperatively necessary to maintain the purity of the 
Church, to encourage and enforce a Scriptural separation from 
the world, and to prevent (as far as in it lies) worldly amusemenfi 
from destroying the souls of those for whom Christ died. Th«»- 
fore the Church, now assembled in the name of the Lord Jen* 
Christ, deliberately and solemnly resolves to suspend from Cbnn 
munion, and, should it be found necessary, ultimately to exclude 
altogether from the privileges of the Church, any member, who 
shall hereafter be known to disregard in the manner abovemen- 
tioned the commands of God and the entreaties of his breUuKH. 

This meeting further considers it the duty of every member 
to make known to the Pastor, and through him, to the Chmdii 
any instance that may come to his knowledge, of the diBordeily 
conduct under consideration in order that the same may be duly 
investigated and the character of the Church vindicated. In thii 


my will the memberb of the Church fulfil their duty to each 
bher and to TTim who has redeemed them by His blood. 

Signed by request of the Church, 

A. Leslie. 
XOth January 18^6. 

Shortly after followed another important resolution which 

M oome to on the 22nd June 1847. The record runs thus: — 

The Church having noticed with much pain and grief imscrip- 
iral alliances formed by several of its members resolved that in 
itnre such unscripturaJ marriages will nof be tolerated by the 
hajdi and any members forming such connections will be amen- 
Ue to the censure of the Church and dealt with according to 

Thus one by one efforts were made to remove the plague spots, 
id, in order to help to build up the Church again, on the 27th 
'<yFember 1847, Class-Leaders, were appointed, whereby the wants 
f the members generally would be looked after and they be more 
xquently visited. Thus: — 

Class 1 ... Leader ... ... Mr. L. Mendes. 

>» ^ ... ., ... „ J. L. Carrau. 

,, 3 ... „ ... ... „ R. W. Chill. 

,» ^ ... „ ... ... „ D. H. Chill. 

,.5 ... „ ... ... „ W. Blakely. 

»» ^> ... „ ... ... „ W. J. Ryper and 

J. Floyd, 
The congregation had diminished so greatly that on the 16th 
fevember 1847 it had actually been proposed to close the gallery 

> SB to bring the congregation together in the seats below, but 
Us proposal was rejected. 

At this time a proposal to light the Chapel with gas was put 

> the vote and lost. 

In 1847 there were only seven admissions, but after that 
latide began to turn for in 1848, there were 21, in 1849, 17, and 
I860, 17. 


On the 27th February 1848 was baptized MiaB C. V. God- 
salves, who ds alive to this day, being nearly 79 years of age, vA 
is thus tha oldest member of the Church. 

On the 12th June 1849 the Pastor intimated that fle?enl 
members were engaged in the Gospel Field, and thoiight that the 
Church should sanction their being so employed. On the 144 
August he brought the matter again to notioe and said iiat in 
these efforts to do good they should T>e countenanced by the 
Church, and supported by its prayers, and a resolution to tie 
effect that the members named had the full concumenoe ol ft* 
Church and its earnest prayers for a blessing on their effortott 
win souls for Christ. It was at the close of this year that Mr. 
Thomas signed the Association letter as Pastor. 

On the 6th April 1850, Mr. Thomas was afflicted wiUi • 
heavy bereavement in the death of a beloved daughter nanttd 
Elizabeth Ann. She had been her father's companion to tta 
Chapel for years, and was much beloved of all the membeis 86 d* 
had a very affectionate nature. It is thought that she had giWB 
her heart to Jesus in early life, but, as she had not made a pnUic 
profession of her faith though she was over 20 years of age, tsi 
was suddenly cut off, the father grieved for her, being 
uncertain whether she had found the pearl of great price below 
she fell a victim to the attack of cholera which carried hsr off. 

At the Church Meeting, which was held on the 16th Apd 
1850, the record regarding this event runs thus: — 

" It was proposed by Brother Carrau, and seconded by Bzotbv 
Hassell, and resolved unanimously that we desire as a ChuTcbte 
record our cordial sympathy and condolence with our Pastor on tta 
occasion of the recent bereavement, which he had in the Providence 
of God been called to endure. And while we have every leaan t* 
unite our thanksgiving with his for that infinite grace wbini 
enabled his daughter in the prospect of death to rejoice in tihe 
hope of the glory of God, we would also unite in fervent pr»J« 
that the Father of Mercies, and the God of all comfort woild 
grant unto him abounding consolations, and aboindantly sanctiff 


lis bereavement to all the* members of his family. At the same 
me we would not ourselves forget the solemn lesson this Provi- 
moe reads to us, to be ready also, seeing we know not the day 
>T the hour when the Son of man oometh." 

On the 18tb June 1850 a paper was read proposing to form 
choir for conducting the singing, but after a long discussion 
16 proposal was negatived. 

This year money had to be raised a^ain to repair the Chapel. 

At the end of the year it was reported that the number of * 

iwibeiiB on the Rolls was 152. The number at the end of 1844 j 

RB8 given as 122 BO that tbare was a clear increase of 30 in the ; 

z years. 

On the 21st October 1851, Mr. Thomas was asked to take per- 
Mn&nt charge of the Church which he accepted the following I 


It was announced at that meeting that Rs. 1,234 had been 
cpended on repairing the Chapel and Bs. 388 on suspending : 

le punkahs. 

On the 16th March 1852 a letter was read from Mr. W. H. 
ones requesting permission to erect a Tablet in the Chapel to [ 

le memory of Dr. Carey and his colleagues, and it was unani- j 

tonsly agreed to grant Mr. Jones' request and to return him I 

letteir of thanks for his kind offer. Mr. Jones, though not a ; 

iesKiber of the Church a.t this time had been a member some years 
P!9yioT]sly. In September 1842 a Sub-Committee had been 
jipointed to ascertain the expense of erecting a tablet in the 
Impel to the memory of Cary, Marshman and Ward, some persons 
vviag expressed an interest in the propriety of such a step, but 
Killing further is on record about this matter until Mr. Jones 
l|de this move on the 16th March 1852. It certainly is remarkable 
gvA the Church which the Serampore Missionaries foutided, and 
I cpiineption with which they laboured so long and so hard, never 


erected a memorial tablet. The inscription oiTthe Tablet put op 
by Mr. Jones ia given below: — 

In memory of 

The Serampore Missionaries 

William Carey, D.D., 

Joshua Marshman, D.D., 

William Ward, 

and of their colleague and successor 

John Maeky 

who preached the Gospel faithfully 

in this place for many years, 

and whose praise is in all the Churches. 

'•' The righteous shall be had in everlasting remembrance.*' 

This Tablet is erected 

as a mark of grateful veneration 

by one of their pupils, 

A.D., 1852. 

In 1852 a fresh list of the members was drawn out, and, 
after being engrossed, was hung up in £he vestry. 

Mr. Thomas' name was this year enrolled as a member of iba 

On the 19th November 1852, the Lecture Boom of the Oalentti 
Christian Juvenile Society in Bow Bazar Street was opened by Mr. 
Macleod Wylie. This Society was originally started by Be^. Johi 
Lawson in 1 81 6 under another name. From and aifter thdt time hub/ 
of the members of the Society were members of Lall Bazar. Tbaf 
used to hold their meetings in different places, but one place wInM 
they were pretty frequently held was the Benevolent Institnticm. 
As they felt the need of a Hall this one in Bow Bazar was bxult. Tbk 
Juvenile Society was the precursor of the Young Men's Chrisliaa 
Association in Calcutta which was not founded till the year 18M. 


The latter Association died out after only a brief ezistenoe 
I tile Juvenile Society then changed its name in 1856 to Calcutta 
wag Men's ChHstian Association. 

On the 27th October 1853 a plan was agreed upon for trying 
bidng about greater social interoouise between members, and 
rUa decided to hold a meeting for unitedly reading the Scriptures. 

In 1854 repairs to the roof had to be taken in hand, but 
the season was too far advanced, Mr. Mendes. was placed in 
ids to execute siich temporary repairs as were absolutely 

In July of this year as the receipts were short of the expendi- 
10 it was decided to discontinue the payment of Es. 50 to the 

On the 24th August a collection was made on account of the 
kywB, and orphans of tba sailors and soldiers, who had gone 
bbe Crimean War which amounted to Rs. 55. 

A proposal was made to introduce a Harmonium, but it was 
Qtnally dropped as the members were against it. 

On the 24th August 1854 it was resolved to have a Sunday 
col, if one could be started, and it was accordingly started 
the 15th October of that year. 

In November the work of executing thorough repairs to the 
ftpel was given to Mr. Mendes and Mr. Ryper was entrusted 
Oi the repairs to the Oooly Bazar Chapel. In February 1855 
r. Mendes was instructed to put up jhilmils to the verandah 
kidi was done at a cost of Bs. 700. 

On the 1st July 1855 the Chapel at Cooly Bazar was sold to 
i London Mission for Es. 1,400 which was paid by instalments, 
fetmal statement in regard to the sale was drawn up on the 1st 
if 1857 signed by the Rev. James Thomas and the Eev. E. Storrow 
A Mr. J. Imlay, but the final instalment was not paid till 
ibmary 1858. The London Mission had been conducting ser- 
ies at Oooly Bazar for years, just as the Baptists had been 
ing, but as the land on which their Chapel, which had been 


opened in 1847, was raquired by Government they, gave tHem il 
lieu the land on which their present Chapel waa built. 'Hni 
was in 1854, and the Baptist Chapel was almost adjoining, and 
was stated by the London Mission to be required for muBioniiJ 
purposes, probably as a rssidence for the London MisGaoa Societjfll 
Missionary in charge. It seems to have been mutually amngd 
for the Baptists to withdraw from Cooly Bazar ; hence tluB aale. 
The London Mission Society Chapel was duly opened on the 27th 
September 1855 Mr. Leslie of the Circular Road Chapel pttdfld 
one of the opening sermons on Sunday, the 30th Septenjiber, isd 
Dr. Underbill, the Secretary of the Baptist Missionary Sode^i 
spoke at the public meeting on the 2nd October. Thesd detaili 
are mentioned to show the cordiality that existed between fa 
two Societies. The London Mission appear not to have made my 
use of ths building they purchased from this Church, but Bcid ii 
again before long. 

Having parted with this Chapel the Church did not confiid* 
it necessary to build a bungalow Chapel at Cooly Bazar for tin 
native members there. 

On the 30th January, 1856, Mr. Angus McKenna wasbaptued 
at the Chapel. He afterwards became a Missionary of the SocietJ 
and laboured for many years in connection with it. 

A storm having thrown down the Venetian screens on tltf 
East and West side of the verandah, new ones had to be put in 

We now come to the Mutiny year, 1857. On the 3rd M»J 
the Mutiny broke out at Eucknow, by tte 10th it had extcndrf 
to Meerut, and on the 11th to Delhi. On Sunday, tlie 1^ 
June, there was a panic in Calcutta — whence its name Panic Sa* 
day — it was the universal opinion that the mutineers would eater 
Calcutta, and attack all the European inhabitants, while at DiviB» 
Service, but they were themselves disbanded instead at Barradh 
pore. There was, however, no service at the Chapel on that date- 

On the 19th August a collection was made for the widows ari 


lians of thoee who might be killed in the conflict against the 
tinous sepoys which amonnted to Bs. 173. 

Sunday, the 4th October 1857, waa the day appointed by 
reniment for special prayer for a blessing to rest upon all the 
males €aken for the repression of the Mutiny. 

On the 3rd March 1858 there waa a repetition of ''Panic 
Mby'' at Calcutta. 

^The last Church Meeting attended by Mr. Thomas was held 
Sud 14th July 1858 when he announced that his son John wished 
lib baptized and join the Church. 

Slie admissions in the later years of Mr. Thomas' ministry 
W1851, 5; 1852, 6; 1853, 5; 1854, 1; 1855, 10; 1856, 8; 
7^ B; and 1858, 1 only; but the seed sown bore fruit in the 
m tiwt followed. 


The Indian Mutiny. 
It is not the writer's intention to give a History of tlie Mutiny 
or of the several events connected with it aa so many boob iiava 
been written on the subject, and others may yet be written aa 
further freah facte come to light. He wishes., however, monfuir 
cularly to give the reader the benefit of what one of the monbett 
of the Church has placed on record as to what he and hit ooB* 
panions in Calcutta did at that time, as the writer thinks Iub M»^ 
ments will be of sufficient interest to be read even by outsidflB. 

The Mutiny broke out at Lucknow on 3rd May 1857 tiid«- 
tended to Meerut by the 10th, and to Delhi by the 11th id«ii. 

To counteract the malicious falsehoods that were being cDf* 
culated that the Government of India were meditating interferen« 
with the religions of the country they issued the following Pro- 
clamation disclaiming any such intention: — 

No. 952. 
Fort William — Home Department. 
The 16th May 1857. 
The Governor-General of India in Ooancil has warned th 
Armj of Bengal that the tales by which the men of certain Bflgi- 
ments have been led to suspect that offence to their religion * 
injury to their caste is meditated by the Government of Into 
are malicious faleshoods. 

The Governor-General in Council has learnt that tUi 
picion continues to be- propagated by designing and evil-mindrf 
men not only in the Army but amongst other classes of f* 

He knows that endeavours are made to pursuade Hindoo> 
and Mussulmans, Soldiers and Civil Subifecte^ that tKSlr religiott 


tiireatened secretly, as well as opanly, by acts of the (Jovern- 
Bnt, and that the Government is seeking in various ways to 
.trap them into a loss of caste for purposes of their own. 

Some have been already deceived and led astray by ffiese tales. 

Once mora, then, the Governor-General in Council warns all 
uses against the deceptions that are practised on them. 

The Government of India has invariably treated the religions 
dings of all its subjects with careful respect. The Govemor- 
meral in Council has declared that it will never cease to do so. 
e {iow respeats that declaration, and he emphatically proclaims 
lat the Government of India entertains no desire to interfere 
:tii their religion or caste, and that notfidng has been or will bo 
ioe by the Government to affect the free exercise of the obeer- 
aice of religion or caste by every class of the people. 

The Government of India has never deceived its subjects, 
crefore the Governor-General in Council now calls upon them 
refuse their belief to seditious lies. 

This notice is addressed to those who hitherto by habitual 
jralty, and orderly conduct, have shown their attachment to the 
)vemment, and a well-founded faith in its protection and justice. 

The Governor-General in Council enjoins all such persons to 
use before they listen to false Guides, and Traitors, who woidd 
id them inio danger and disgrace. 

By order of the Governor-General of India in Council. 

(Sd.) Cecil Beadon. 
Secretary to the G(yvemment of India. 

But even this Proclamation did not seem to have as great an 

xrt as was desired. The member referred to has placed tho 

lowing on record: — 

" The citizens felt it to be theu: duty to protect their hearths 
I homes, and with all their courage and resolution they would 
rer have succeeded. It was wholly through the blessing of our 
avenly Father that the scenes that were witnessed in the Upper 
>vincee were not enacted in Calcutta. Fear and panic pnevailed 


throughout the City and its surburbs. Before the Volunteer 
movement was set afoot^ we young people thought it best to mftb 
some demonstration. As we'reeided in the outskirts of the C% 
we used to patrol the lanes in the neighbourhood of our dweUii^lp 
with muskets on our shoulders^ which, were lent to us for tk 
occasion by the Head Inspector of the Entally Police. Li tb 
meantime the residents of Calcutta urgently pressed the GcfvermX' 
General, Lord Canning, to allow the Chxistian population to enrd 
themselves as Volunteers for the safety of the City. It was scxoe 
time before Lord Canning could ses the necessity for it, in fact 
not until things began to look serious. It was well for the (Sty 
of Calcutta, humanly speaking, that the Volunteer moTODSSt 
was granted, as that alone checked the malcontents, as the natives 
expressed in fear and trembling that the gentlemen had beoone 
soldiers and they had better not create a tumult. 

"Panic Sunday," as it was termed, was a day not tobeior- 
gotten; many families fled to Fort William; it was carm&J 
reported that when the citizens were at Divine Service the popnlir 
tion would rise en mamse, headed by the Sepoys of Barrackpoie, 
who had risen in rebellion, and were marching down to Calcatta> 
a;nd^would take that opportunity to kill the Kafirs and poaaes 
themselves of Calcutta, thus verifying tlie prophecy at the Batfle 
of Plaasey, which was, that one hundred years hence Calcafcti 
would be re-taken by the Mabomedans. It is very remarkable, 
however, that on that day everything was very qiuet. It waa a 
false rumour that reached the City; it was not that the Sepo^ 
were marching down, but that they were disarmed, as they wete 
all in a state of frenzy, and brooded mischief. One of our dtueoB 
good-naluredly gave up his two^rtoreyed dwelling-house for the 
use of the Volunteers; the Commandant of the Army placed a 
large cannon from Fort William in the gateway of this house wKch 
was situated on the Suburban side* of Circular Road. It waa a 
very kind act on the part of the citizen and a ?8W 
thoughtful one on the part of the Commandant, for ft 
was rumoured that on the night of the Mohurram whiA 
was fast approaching the Mahomedans intended to begin 
their diabolical work of slaughter of all Christians on the ni^ 
designated kutat-konrat, i.e., night of slaughter, for, as they 
expressed it among themselves, instead of slaughtering goats and 
sheep as is their custom, they would slaughter the Kafirs. But 
m the good Providence of God the Mohurram passed off very quietly, 

* This is probably the house now known as Topghvr which has a cannoa 
on each side of its entrance gate. 


d that night in particular the Natives ware very much alarmed 
•seeing such eaimest demonstrations manifested by the otherwise 
ftoeable residents that they carried their Tazziahs quietly and 
derly, so that the Police had an easy task before them. Stilly 
ete were many fanatics in oonoealment, who often made theiv 
does heard in out-of-the-way places. The Mahomedans were very 
irbulent and endeavor^ to provoke a Breach of the peaoe^ bufc 
le Clmstian population were on their guard, though they had 
i hear and endure^'temarks and provocations not only from their 
im menial servants, but from pedestrians in the streets, as the 
■It spark of resentment would have caused a conflagration which 
w Mahomedan population including the fanatics c^ the other 
neds, were impatiently waiting for. A respectable Mahomedani 
nnafked to a citizen that the whole population to a man was 
mared to revolt, but they had no leader. Thus the good hand 
I the Lord prevented the outbreak." 

The Government next issued the following Proclamation fixing 
onday, the 4th October, to be observed as a day of special prayer 
ve a blessing to rest upon all the measures taken for the repi^ession 
^rabellion and crime and for the restoration of peace, order and 
tttentment throughout British India. 

No. 1788. 

Fort William, Home Department, Ecclesiastical. 

The 7th September 1857, 


In the presence of the heavy calamities and sufferings which 
jr the acts of wicked and bloody-minded men have fallen upon 
9»1 persons of every class in many parts of the Queen's Ibminions 
1 India, the Bight Hon'ble the Governor-General in Council desires 
). invite all faithful subjects of the British Crown to join in a 
smble offering of prayer, supplication, and confession of siiia 
I Almighty Grod, and to implore a blessing upon all measures 
ien. for the repression of Rebellion and crime, and for the restorar 
on of peace, order, and contentment, throughout British* India. « 

To thia end the Govemor-C^eneral in Council proposes that 
inday, the 4th October shall be observed in each Presidency as 
day of Special Prayer. 


For all congregations subject to the spiritual authority of the 
Bishop of Calcutta, Hds Lordship will be requested to prepare a 
Form of Prayer suited to the occasion. 

By order of the Governor-General in Council, 

(Sd.) Cecil Beadon, 
Secretary to the Government of India. 
The extraordinary Proclamations of 

(1) Khan Bahadur Khan, the rebel chief of Bareilly, iaraed 
in July or August 1857, and 

(2) Feroz Shah, son of Bahadur Shah, ex-king of Ddhi, afe 
Bareilly issued on 18th February 1858 distinctly reoc^nized misswn' 
ary effort, among other things, as contributing to, and very neariy 
accomplishing the oveirthrow of both Hinduism and MahomedaniflnL. 

It may not be out of place in this narrative to insert at tiiii 

Btagei the Royal Proclamation of 1st November 1858, taking o?er 

the Government of this country as also the subsidiary Proclama' 

tion of the Government of India thereon. Here they are : — 

The Royal Proclamation. 

Allahabad, Monday 1st November 1858. 

The Right Honorable th© Governor-General has receivied the 
Commands of Her Majesty the Queen to make known the follow- 
ing gracious Proclamation of Her Majesty to the Princes, the 
Chiefs and the people, of India. 

Proclamation by the Queen in Council, 
To the Princes, Chiefs and People of India. 

VICTORIA by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom rf 
Great Britain and Ireland, and of the Colonies and Bependencies 
thereof in Europe, Asia, Africa, America, and Australasia. 

Whereas, for divers weighty reasons, We have resolved, by 
and with the advice and consent of the Lords Spiritual and Tem- 
poral, and Commons, in Parliament assembled, to take upon Otu> 


Ives the Crovemment of the Territories in India, heretofore ad* 
blistered in trust for Us by the Honorable East India Company : — 

Now, therefore, we do by these Presents notify and declatie 
sA, by advice and consent aforesaid, We have taken upon Our- 
Ives the said Government, and We hereby call ux>an all Our Sub- 
3t0 within the said Territories to be faithful and to bear true 
legiance to Us, Our Heirs and Successors, and to submit them- 
Ives to the authority of those whom We may hereafter, from 
ne to time, see fit to appoint {o administer the Government of 
nr said Territories, in Our name and on Our behalf. 

And We, reposing especial trust and confidence in the loyalty, 
id judgment of Our right trusty and well-beloved Cousin and 
randllor, Charles John Viscount Canning, do hereby constitute 
id appoint him, the said Viscount Canning, to be Our First 
Loeroy and Governor-General in and over Our said Territories, 
A to administer the Government thereof in our name, and 
merally to act in Our name and on our behalf, subject to sudi 
dexB and regulations as he shall from time to time, receive from 
3 through one of Our Principal Secretaries of State. 

And We do hereby confirm in their several Offices, Civil and 
ilitary, all persons now employed in the Service of the Honor- 
iki East India Company, subject to Our future pleasure and to 
ch laws and regulations as may hereafter be enacted. 

We hereby announce to the Native Princes of India, that all 
eaties and Engagements made with them by or under the authority 
the Honorable East India Company are by Us accepted and will 
I scrupulously maintained, and we look for the like observanos 
. their part. 

We derire no extension of Our present territorial possessions ; 
d while we will permit no aggiesdon upon our Dominions or 
ir Bights to be attempted with impunity. We shall sanction no 
croachment on those of others. We shall respect the Bights, 
[gnity, and Honour of Native Princes as Our own, and we desiiv 
ttb they as well as our own subjects should enjoy that prosperity 


and that social advancement which can only be secured by internal 
Peace and Good Government. 

We hold Ourselves bound to the Natives of Our Indian Terri- 
tories by the same obligations of duty which bind Us to all. Our 
other Subjects; and those obligations, by the blessing of Almigh^ 
Gk)d, We shall faithfully and conscientiously fulfil. 

Firmly relying Ourselves on the truth of Christianity, and 
acknowledging with gratitude the solace of Religion, we disdaua 
alike the right and the desire to impose Our convictions on any 
of Our Subjects. We declare it to be Our Royal Will and HeaBore 
that none be in any wise favored, none molested or disquieted, by 
reason of their religious faitb or observances, but that all flliall 
alike enjoy the equal and impartial protection of the law ; and.wa 
do strictly charge and enjoin all those, who may be in authority 
under Us that they abstain from all interference with the Bell- 
gfious Belief or Worship of any of our subjects, on pain of oar 
highest displeasure. 

And it is Our further will that, so far as may be, Our Subjedi^ 
of whatever Race or Creed, be freely and impartially admitted 
to Offices in Our Service, the duties of which they may be qualified 
by their education, ability, and integrity duly to discharge. 

We know and respect the feelings of attachment with whiiai 
the Natives of India, regard the lands inherited by them from 
thedt ancestors, and We desire to protect thwn in all rights ooo» 
bected therewith, subject to the equitable demands of the SSaid; 
mnfl We will that, generally, in framing and administering the 
Law, due regard be paid to the ancient Rights, Usages, and Cm 
toms of India. 

We deeply lament the evils and misery, which have been 
brought upon India by the acts of ambdtiouBi men, who have d^ 
ceived their countrymen by falsa reports, and led them into opep 
rebellion. Our Power has been shown by the suppression of that 
Rebellion in the Field. We desire to show Our Mercy by pardo^ 


ig the ofiEences of tliose who have been thus misled, but who desire 

> return to the path of duty. 

Alre&dy in one Province, with a view to stop the further 
Fusion of blood and to hasten the pacification of our Indian 
ominions, Our Viceroy and Governor-General has held out the 
pectation of pardon, on certain terms to the great majority of 
ose, who in the late unhappy disturbances have been guilty of 
fences agadnst our Government, and has declared the punishment 
[lich will be inflicted on those whose crimes place them beyond 
« reach of forgivenesa. We approve and confirm the said act of 
or Viceroy and Governor-General, and do further announce and 
-odaim as follows: — 

Our clemency will be extended to all offenders, save and except 
Loae who have been^ or shall be convicted of having directly taken 
art in the murder of British subjects. With regard to such, the 
imands of justice forbid the exercise of mercy. 

To those who have willingly given asylum to murderers, know- 
g them, to be such, or who may have acted as leaders or instiga- 
m in revolt, their lives alone can be guaranteed ; but in appor- 
oning the penalty due to such persons, full consideration will 
I given to the circumstances under which they have been induced 

> throw off their allegiance, and large indulgence will be shown 

> -those whose crimes, may appear to have originated in a too 
redulous acceptance of the false reports circulated by designdng 

. To all others in arms against the Government, We hereby 
touBe unconditional Pardon, Amnesty, and Oblivion of all 
MeaoeB against Ourselves, Our Crown and Dignity, on their return 
tethoiu homes and peaceful puxsiuits. 

It is OurHoyal Pleasure that these terms of Grace and Amnesty 
•Iwold be extended to all those who comply with their concGtions 
^fofPe the First Day of January next. 

When, by the blessing of Providence, internal tranquility shall 
^ i^tored, it is Our earnest desire to stimulate the peaceful in- 


diistry of India, to promote works of public utility and improve- 
ment, and to admdnifiber its Government for the benefit of all Our 
Subjects resident therein. In thair prosperity will be Omt etrength, 
in their contentment Our security, and in their gratitude Our best 
reward. And may the God of all Power grant to Us, and to those 
in Authority under Us, strength to carry out these Our wishes 
for the good of Our people. 

By the 
Eight Hon'ble the Governor-General 
of India. 
Foreign Department, Allahabad, 1st November 1858. 
Her Majesty The Queen having declared that it is Her gnuwHis 
pleasure to take upon Herself the Government of the BritiA Ter- 
ritories in India, the Viceroy and Governor-General hereby not* 
fies that from this Day all Acts of the Government of India will 
be done in the name of the Queen alon«3. 

From this Day all Men of every Bace and class who underlie 
administration of the Hon'ble East India Company have joinel 
to uphold ths> Honor and Power of England will be the servaoiB 
•of the Queen alone. 

The Governor-General summons them, one and all each in Iiis 
degree, and according to h'is opportunity, and with his whole heiit 
and strength, to aid in fulfilling the gracious Will and Pleasure 
of the Queen, as set forth in Her Boyal Proclamation. 

From the many millions of Her Majesty's Native Subjecte in 
India, the Goveamor-General will now and at all times exad> a 
loyal obedience to the call which, in words full of beneYolenoe and 
Mercy, their Sovereign has made upon their allegiance and faiti- 

By Order of the Eight Hon'ble the GoveYnor-Oeneral of India. 

(Sd.) G. P. Edmonstomx, 
Secretary to the Govermetit of India, 
with the Governor-General. 


After tlie Mutiny was all ov«r a Proclamation was issued by 
e Gk)vemment of India, appointing the 28th July 1859 to be 
■served as a day of General Thanksgiving to Almighty Grod for 
is signal Mercies and Protection. A copy of the Proclamation 
given below. 

Fort William, No. 1302, dated the 1st July 1859. 

The restoration of Peace and Tranquillity to The Queen's 
Dminions in India makes it the grateful Duty of The Viceroy 
id Governor-General in Council to diTiect that a day be appointed 
T a solemn Thanksgiving to Almighty God for His signal Merciea 
id Pirotection. 

2. War is at an end : Rebellion is put down, the nodse of 
ms fe no longer heard where the enemies of the State have per- 
rted in their last struggle, the presence of large forces in the 
W has ceased to be necessary : Order is ranestablished, and peace- 
1 puxBuiie have everywhere been resumed. 

3. The Vioaroy and Governor-General in Council desires that 
lursday the 28th July 1859 be observed as a Day of General 
lanksgiving for these great Blessings, and as a holiday through- 
tit British India by all Faithful Subjects of the Queen. 

4. Especially His Excellency in Council invites all His 
ajesty's Christian Subjects to join in a humble offering of grati- 
de and Praise to Almighty God for the many Mercies vouch- 
ed to them. 

5. The Bishop of Calcutta will be requested to pirepare a 
ran of Prayer to be used on the Day above mentioned by the 
mgiregations under his Lordship's spiritual authority. 

By order of the Govemor-Ganeral in Council. 

(Sd.) W. Grey, 

Secretary to the Government of India. 

A Thauksgiving Service was accordingly held on the 28th July 

59, in the Chapel, when a collection was made on behalf of the 

mstian Tract and Book Society, which amounted to Rs. 791 

lich sum was duly made over to Mr. Maeleod Wylie. This was 


in furtherance of the Society's effort to supply the Europeao 
soldiers with suitable books. The day was made a pubUc holiday 
and services were held in most of the Churches in the City and 
sermons preached setting forth the reasons for thankfulnees to the 
Lord on the occasion of the restoration of peace in India. 

Thus closed this dark chapter in Indian History and in the 
goodness of the Lord it has not been repeated since^ 

A copy of the Eoyal Message that has recently been iesned 
will now be given because of the spirit that is at present mani- 
fested in this country and the unrest that prevails. 

The King's Jubilee Message which was Proclaiked by thi 
Viceroy of India at Jodhpore in November 1908, runs as 

BELOW : — 

1. It is now fifty years since Queen Victoria, my bekyved 
mother, and my august predecessor on the throne of these BealxDS, 
for divers weighty Treasons, with the advice and consent of Parli* 
ment took upon herself the Government of the territories there- 
tofore administered by the East India Company. I deem tins ft 
fitting anniversary on which to greet the Princes and peoples of 
India in commemoration of the exalted task then solemnly unde^ 
taken. Half a century is but a brief span in your long aimals, 
yet this half century that ends to-day will stand amid Uie floodi 
of your historic ages a far-shining landmark. The ProclamaiaoB 
of the direct supremacy of the Crown sealed the unity of Indian 
Government and opened a new era. The journey was arduoos 
and the advance may have sometimes seemted slow but the ijioor- 
poration of many strangely diversified communities and of some 
three hundrdd millions of the human race under British guidanoe 
and control has proceeded steadfastly and without pause. We 
survey our labours of the past half century with clear gaze and good 

The Servants op the Crown.* 
2. Difficulties such as attend all human rule in every age 

* These headings have been iDserted for facility of reference. 


Old place have risen up from day to day. They have been faced 
qr tihe servants of tbia Britisih Crown with, toil and courage and 
jitttience^ with deep devotion and counsel and a resolution that 
IBB never faltered nor shaken. If errors have occurred thd Agents 
>f my Government have spared no pains and no self-sacrifice to 
oorrect them; if abuses have been proved, vigorous handA 
laboured to apply a remiedy. 

Internal Peace. 

3. No secret of Empire can avert the scourge of drought and 
pbgue, but experienced administrators have done all that skill 
mad devotion are capable of doing, to mitigate those dire calamities 
cf Nature. For a longer period than was ever known in your 
land before, you have escaped the dire calamities of war within your 
liorders. Internal peace has been unbroken. 

The Proclamation of 1858. 

4. In the great Charter of 1858, Queen Victoria gave you 
noble assurance of her earnest desire to stimulate the peaceful 
industry of India, to promote works of public utility and improve^ 
Bent and to administer the Gk)vemment for the benefit of all 
xondent therein. The schemes that have been diligently framed 
and executed for promoting your material convenience and advance 
-r«chemes unsurpassed in their magnitude and their boldness — 
bfMT witness before the world to the zeal with which that benignant 
pjidQiise has been fulfilled. 

Bights of Kuling Chiefs Respected. 

5. The rights and privileges of the Feudatory Princes and 
Billing Chiefs have been respected, preserved and guarded; and 
the loyalty of their allegiance has been unswerving. No man 
among My subjects has been favoured, molested, or disquieted by 
reason of his religious belief or worship. All men have enjoyed 
protection of the law. The law itself has been administered 
without disrespect to creed or caste or to usages and ideas rooted 
in your civilisation ; it has been simplified in form and its machin- 


ery adjusted to the requiremeutfi of ancient oommiinities slowly 
entering a new world. 

Repbession of "Guilty Conspibacies." 

6. T1l6 charge confided to my Goveamment concerns the dfiB- 
tinies of countlefls multitudes of men now and for ages to ooms, 
and it is a paramount duty to repress with a stern arm guilty oott- 
spiracies that have no just cau^e and no serious aim. These oon- 
spiraciee I know to be abhorrent to the loyal and faithful character 
of the vast hosts of my Indian subjects and I will not suffer them 

to turn Me aside from My task of building up the fabric of eecanisf. 
and order. 

The Royal Clemency. 

7. Unwilling that this historic anniversary should pass with- 
out some signal mark of Royal clemency and grace I have dineebed 
that as was ordered on the memorable occasion of the Coronation 
Durbar in 1903, the sentences of persons, whom Our courts have 
duly punished for offences against the law, should be remitted, CC 
in various degrees reduced ; and it is My wish that such wrong doers 
may remain mindful of this act of mercy, and may conduct them- 
selves without offence henceforth. 

Access to Offices. 

8. Steps are being continuously taken towards the obliteowt 
ing distinctions of race as the test for access to posts of puMio 
authority and power. In this path, I confidently expect and 
intend the progress henceforward to be steadfast and sure, as educa- 
tion spreads, experience ripens, the lessons of responsibility aieweU 
learned by the keen intelligence, and apt capabilities of India. 

Extension op Repbesentation. 

9. From the first the principles of representative institutiooB 
began to be gradually introduced and the time Has come when in 
the judgment of my Viceroy and Governor-General and others of 
my counsellors, that principle may be prudently extended. Im- 
portant classes among you, representing ideas that have be^ 


fostered and encouraged by Britisli Rule, claim equality of citizen- 
ship and greater share in legislation and Grovemment. The politic 
satisfaction of such a claim will strengthen, and not impair, existing 
authority and power. The Administration will be all the more 
efficient, if the officers who conduct it have greater, opportunities 
of regular contact with those whom it affects and with, those who 
influence and reflect common opinion about it. I will not spea^ 
of the meaeures that are now being diligently framed for those 
objecte. They will speedily be made known to you, ?nd will, I 
am very confident, mark a notable stage in the beneficent progress 
of your affairs. 

Reward to Indian Troops. 

10. I recognise the valour and fidelity of My Indian troops 
and at the New Year I have ordered that opportunity should be 
taken to show in substantial form this, My high appreciation, of 
their martial instincts, their splendid discipline, and their faithful 
readiness of service. 

Royal interest in India. 

11. The welfare of India was one of the objects dearest to 
the heart of Queen Victoria. By Me ever since my visit in 1875, 
the interests of India, its Princes and peoples, have been watched 
with an affectionate solicitude that tamd cannot weaken. My dear 
Bon, the Prince of Wales, and the Princess of Wales, returned from 
their sojourn among you with warm attachment to your land, and 
true and earnest interest in its well-being and content. These 
sincere feelings of active sympathy and hope for India on the 
part of My Royal House and Line only represent, and they do most 
truly represent, the deep and united will and purpose of the people 
of this Kingdom. 

12. May Divine protection and favour, strengthen the wisdom 
and mutual goodwill that are needed for the achievement of 
a task as gloidous as was ever committed to rulieirB and subjects in 
any State or Empire of recorded time. 


The Calcutta Christian Juvenile Sooisty. 

In September 1815, the Rev. John Lawson, tiie maternal 
grandfather of the present writer, and the Rev. Eustace Caiej 
nemoved from Serampore to canrj^ on Missionary work in Calcutta. 
Mr. LawBon took up English work, and Mr. Eustace Carey verna- 
cular work. They found such an abundant sphere of labour that 
they were induced to accept the Co-Pafitorship of the Lall Bazar 
Church with the three Serampore missionaries and were accordingly 
set apart as co-pastors on the 11th January 1816. 

In a letter which Mr. Lawson wrote on that very day to the 
Serampore missionaries, and which is printed in their Cireolar 
letter for that month, he reported ; — 

" We are going on much a& usual in Calcutta, I hope our young 
people are gradually advancing in Divine things. May they be 
our joy here and crown of rejoicing in glory. We have set them 
to work in the formation of a Society for visiting and relieving the 
poor, which is to be called. 'The Juvenile Charitable Institit 
tion.' The Rules I will send you when a little more matured 
They seem to have .entered upon this with delight, and I think 
it will be the means of uniting them together, and of calling forth 
their gifts, as reading, and explaining the Sacred Scriptures, and 
prayer, are to attend every visit." 

Unfortunately no further ref erenod is made to the eadd Juvenile 
Charitable Institution in any of the later Circular Letters nor 
were the Rules, which were referred to by Mr. Lawson e?er 
printed in those Letters. It is, however, known from the reo<^ 
of those days that Mr. Lawson had a great influenoe upon young 
people whether youths or maidens. While he was Co-Pastor, the 
youths of the Lall Bazar Church started a Missionary Society, a 
Sunday School Society, and also banded themselves together to 
give a monthly subscription for deposit in the Serampore SavingB 
Bank towards paying off the principal of the debt on the Chapel 


<lu€ fco tli3 Serampore missionaries, who were the Senior Pafitore of 
-the Chxirch. Their pastors used to draw them out for Christian work 
Jrom the age of thirteen. They thus anticipated the work of the 
Youngi Men 8 Christian Association, and the Christian Endeavour 
.Societies many years before they were started even in England. 

In October 1819, Mr. Lawson and Mr. Eustace Carey, rssigned 
t^eir Co-Pastorship and joined the Circular Boad Church, Mr. 
Lawson being chosen the Pastor of the new Church. This will 
probably account for the silsnce of five or six years on the subject of 
.i3u8 particular Sociiety. 

The next notice of the Society was in December 1821, when, in 
.a letter from the Eev. Mr. Penney of the Benevolent Institution, 
it is stated: — 

''Many of the children attend the meetings of the Juvenile 
Society, which are held twice a week, and hear addresses from 
Abraham Pi&ters, Pascal, and others formerly belonging io the 

Mr. A. Peters, who i& referred to above was the first Secretary 
of the Society, and was a very zealous member of the Lall Bazar 
Church. At this time, the services of the Society were held in 
a stable on the premises of the Benevolent Institution in which 
the horses of Mr. Penney were kept. This unobtrusive though 
lUtefTil institution it is understood was extensively encouraged by 
fhe Christian public judging from the earliest report, which bears 
dato 1821. 

The Society would seem to have been formally founded, and 
established as ''The Calcutta Christian Juvenile Society," in 
February 1822, for the following reasons: — 

1. The Annual Meeting of the Society used to be held in 
February of each year for many years running, and ; 

2. Even as late as 1882 the years of the Young Men's 
Christian Association used to be counted as from 1822. However, 
tiie Society was more familiarly known as the Juvenile Society^ 
and was usually referred to as such. 

21 i 


The late Mr. Henry Andi^wsy a member of tbd Union Chapel^ 
Calcutta, who died on 15tli "i/Lty 1897, often told the present 
writer that he took part in starting the Society in <X)tijunction with 
Mr. Lawson. This statement is corroborated by the following:— 

1. The late Rev. Robert Robinson in his ll^morial Sennom 
lor Mr. Andrews said : — 

He was one of the young m«n, who may 
be said to have originally started the Touilg Men's Christian 
AoBociation in Calcutta. The Society he helped to form was known 
in those early days as the Juvenile Society, (the italic^ are the 
present writer's), and it had its weekly meetings for the study of 
the Scriptures^ and for prayer in one of the rooms of the Beno 
volent Institution in Bow Bazar. For many years, it had t 
fluctuating eodstenoe, but it never died, and It has since devielopecP 
into the Young Men's Christian Association 6f to-day, (1897). 

2. In an article entitled ''A tribute to the memory of a 

S. S. Superintendent" which appeared in the India Sunday 

School Journal, shortly after Mr. Andrews' death the following 

statement is made : — 

" He helped to form Ihe Juvenile Society for 
the mental and religious improvement of young people, which 
met in the Benevolent Institution in Bow Bazar, and which has 
now mei:ged into the Young Men's Christian Association." (The 
italics are the present writer's.) 

The opinion has been expressed at the present time, that Mfr 
Andrews was, too young in February 1822, to take part in thefornuh 
tion of this Society, but^ as he was bom on the 5th August 1809, 
he was about 12 J years old at tha time, which was just about tibe 
age at which the young people of those days took part in Cfarifitiaa 

The following were the Rules of the Juvenile Society : — 

Fundamental Rules 



Of the Calcutta Christian Juvenile Society. 
I. That the Society be designated The Calcutta ChristiMi 

Juvenile Society. 


II. That tbe Calcutta Christian Juvenile Society be established 
en those Catholic principles in which all Protestant denominations 
are agreed. 

III. That the object of the Society be the spiritual improve- 
ment of the youth of the city of Calcutta. 

IV. That in furtherance of this objiect the following means 
be adopted, viz. : (1) Divine Service in the Booma of the Society, 
every Friday evening ; (2) Sabbath Schools in the Society's Booms 
or elsewhere; (3) Prayer-meetings in private houses; (4) The dis- 
tribution of Bibles, either in whole, or in portions, and of religious 
tracts, and (5) the Circulation of religious books. 

Y. That Ministers and Missionaries, as well as approved lay- 
men, of all Protestant denominations be' invited to delivier Lectures 
in the Society's Booms, and that no person be allowed to discourse 
at ita meetings on the peculiarities of his own Connection. 

VI. That a President, and two Vice-Presidents be appointed 
over the Society. 

Vn. That Christians of all Protestant denominations h& 
eligible as members of the Committee, and that no person be ad- 
mitted, who is not in full communion with some one section of 
the Church of Christ, and does not sustain the reputation of a fair 

VIII. That a Greneral Meeting of the Members and Friends 
of the Society be held annually in the month of Deoamber, at 
which a report of the progress of the Society, and the state of the 
Funds sEall be read, and Officers elected for the ensuing year. 

IX. That all the meetings of this Society be commenced, and 
concluded with prayer, and that the Members feel it a duty incum- 
bent on them to cultivate the friendship of all institutions engaged 
in evangelical labours. 


I. That the number of individuals composing the Committee 
of the Society, be limited to 12. 

II. That the Committee assemble ordinarily for the trans- 
action of business, on the first Friday evening of every month, after 
the conclusion of Divine Service. 

III. That in the absence of the President or Vice-Presidents^ 
a chairman be elected by the Committee from among their number^ 
and that four be competent to form a quorum, the chairman 
having the casting vote. 

TV. That the Committee appoint a Secretary and a Treasuner, 
and that the duties of thesei officers be vested either in one individ- 


ual, oon jointly, or in two, s&parately, at the discretion of the 

V. That the Treasurer furnish a detailed statement of the 
Accounts at every ordinary meeting of the Committee, and that 
he obtain their sanction to all items of expenditure exceeding 
Co/s Rs. 10. 

VI. That the Committee appoint two Auditors to check the 

VII. That the Society keep up a Circulating Library, con- 
sisting of religious and other useful Books, for the benefit of its 
Members, and Friends. 

VIII. That a Librarian be appointed to take charge of the 
Books of the Society, and that he submit a quarterly report to 
the Committee on the state of the Library, and of any aocessioin 
of works which may be made to it, from time to time. 

Mr. W. Kirkpatrick and Mr. P. DeRozario helped with the 
preaching. Th& former subsequently became a missionary of the 
Baptist Missionary Society. 

The first report of this Society, which was published was that 
for 1823, as stated in the body of the Report itself. It has been 
extracted from the Calcutta Baptist Missionary Society's Report of 
1824. The following items appear in that report. The former 
Society denominated the Indian Juvenile Society, having been dis- 
solved opened the way for the Calcutta Juvenile Society. An 
appeal for funds to purchase furniture for fitting up the room they 
occupied, brought in sicca Rupees 189 and Annas 8 principally 
through the generous exertions of Mr. Penney and with it they 
procured the things that were required for conducting Divine 
worship. They then arranged to hold meetings on Friday evenings, 
the usual routine of which was singing, praying and reading the 
Word of God with observations. They then formed a Library and 
the result of an appeal on its behalf they procured 150 volumes. 
They next started Conference Meetings on the 2nd and 4th Monday 
evenings of each month when a text (previously selected) was dis- 
cussed and everyone present was invited to speak, but the attendance 
at these was rather thin. Weekly meetings for lectures on scientific 


subjects were held, but the attendanoe was eo small that they were 
obliged to be given up. The Calcutta Baptist Missionaries 
pztesented this Society with a pair of new Globes. In addition 
a regular set of lectures on Divinity was arranged for. The Re- 
ceipts for the year amounted to sicca rupees 285, 9 annas and 3 
pies which were all spent within the year. 

In the Baptist Missionary Society's Beport of 1825 it is stated 
that the professed object of the Society was the extension of Chris- 
tianity among the nominally Christian youths of this country. 

The Society is mentioned in the Periodical "Accounts for Janvr 
ary to April 1825. 

In October 1825 some of the young people who were 
originally the fruits of this Juvenile Society desired to be 
baptized and join the Circular Boad Baptist Church, but 
Mr. Lawson, the first Pastor of that Church, was on 
his death bed. When be was informed that these young people 
had expressed their willingness to defer making a public profied- 
sion of their attachment to the Redeemer till he was well enough 
to assist thsm through it, he made the following observations: — 

" Tell my friends not to wait for me ; it is not the will of the 
Lord that I should recover from this illness; and tell them more- 
over, that from the fair evidence which they have afforded of their 
own piety, I am convinced that the Juvenile Society of which 
tibey are the happy fruits, must be owned and blessed of €k)d." 
Sucli was the testimony of a dying saint on the confines of a blessed 
Eternity. The inscription on his tombstone in the South Park 
Staneiet Cemetery states that "his life was useful and his death 
tritunphant." He died on the 22nd October 1825 and was buried 
the next day in that Cemetery by the Bev. J. T. Thomason of St. 
John's Church. 

In the Beport published by the Baptist Missionary Society in 
London in 1826 there are the following references to the Juvenile 
Society : — 

" Within the last two or thrse years a Society has been formed 
among the junior members of the Church (i.e,, the Circular Boad 


Church) in this city together with some other young men 
of the class denominated country-bom, ' for the disBemination of 
moral and religious knowledge among individuals of their own 
age and station," while in a letter from Calcutta to the Society 
dated 17th February 1826 it is stated : " Nearly all the young men 
in this Society are members of the Church in Circular Road." Hie 
Society appealed this year (1826) to people in England for books. 

The annual meeting was hsld on 17tE February 1826. There 
was a great revival this year, in large measure stimulated by the 
Society. . The feeling raised by Mr. Lawson's death had helped 
to start it. Thirty members were added to the Church (i.e., the 
Circular Eoa<l Church). 

At the 5th Anniversary Meeting of the Bible AssodatioD 
which was. held in Calcutta on the 12fh January 1827, it was 
stated that the Juvenile Society (among others) had been assisted 
with a gratuitous grant of English Bibles and Testaments. 

The Kev. J. Statham, a Baptist Missionary who retired m 
1827, has written as below in his "Indian Recollections" which 
wene published in London in 1832: — 

"Many of the young persons educated there (i.e., in the Bene- 
volent Institution) ara now formed into a Society, called the 
Calcutta Juvenile Society, whose object is the dissemination ol 
religious knowledge and the production of religious feelings. 

The following statement, written by one of the members of 
that body, will best illustrata the nature of their object, and dis- 
play the talent they possess : — 

" The diffusive nature of Christianity proclaims its Divine oripn 
and superior excelknce. Most systems of religion that exist in 
th© world, are entirely local : they are intended for certain limits 
beyond which they appear unsuitable. The. Delphic oracle, the 
mount of Olympus, and the fount of Castalia are heard withoat 
veneration by the inhabitants of the Arctic and Torrid i^ionB. 
The waters of the Ganges, and the f ame of Juggernath and the roAs 
of Himaloy (:<f^c. ) altogether lose their character and sanctity in 
the steppes of Tartary and the plains of Africa. Nations iCTiote 
from Greece and India were precluded, by that guiltless circum- 
stance, from the benefits of the religions of those celebrated climes: 
they <»uld not hopa to hear the oracle, or wash in the stream! 


There have been systems, too, which were propagated by their pro- 
leBaoiB, but the mode of propagation banished from the mind every 

-<ypinion that might have been formed of their sacred chaiacter. 
The fire and sword are objects too tsrrible to permit ns to con- 
template the religions, which employ them, with any feelings of 
complacency. At the unsheathing of the sword and the kindling 
of the flame, every appearance of good vanishes, every expectation 
of a Divine origin is annihilated. It is the Grospel 9in}y*that can 
justly claim the character of universality. It addresses men, not 
«6 distinguished into nations and tnb^, but ae comprising one 
great family, and standing equally in need of the promise of mercy 
and the hope of eternal life. Its doctrines and precepts contain 
no exclusive reference, nothing but what is applicable to mem of 
^veacj name and climate, under every circumstance in which it is 
poflsible for them to b© placed, but if the Goepel aspires to universal 
a<Mxi^on, it recommends no equivocal means of effecting that end. 
It requires not bloody offerings, but a living sacrifice. Its instru- 
ments of conviction are not fire and the rack, but the word of 
power, the sword of the Spirit. 

This system, so diffusive, and so calculated for universal advant- 
age, is left to the exertions of those, who have felt its power to 
be extensively disseminated. Willing as celestial natures would 
be, to be, aa they were at the birth of the Saviour, messengers of 
peace to the inhabitants of the earth, that office is imposed by 
Grod on His own people, however, unfitted by their sins and weak- 
nesses for the performance of the duty. What obligations there 
are to constrain God's people to declare His salvation to sinners, 
and with what force may they, who have been made to perceive 
the dangers of their situation, who have received mercy, and now 
X>0flsea8i a good hope through grace, represent to sinners the misery 

-of their situation and urge them to fly to the refuge. 

Such are the objects of "the Calcutta Juvenile Society," 

-objects common to other institutions, but attempted in a parti- 
cular manner. As the Provinces of an extensive Empire are divided 
into Governments and distributed to several individuals, so the 

•charge of different modes of operation, in the kingdom of the 

'<3k)6pel, must be undertaken by particular classes of men, with a 
yiow to bring their energies to bear more efficiently on distinct divi- 

«ions of the same glorious work. There are various descriptions of 
people, to whom the Gospel must be addressed with some changes, 
not indeed in its essential character, but in its external circum- 


The Calcutta Juvenile Society have occupied their ground. 

They have taken the circumstances of the place into consideration. 


its wants and capabilities, and they have directed their efforts Uy 
its cultivation. The field is large, but waste, their aim is to render 
it fruitful, to convert the barren wilderness into a garden of the- 

The members of this promising society are young men, wLo- 
have received the truths of the Gospel not in Word only, but im 
power — and who are desirous that a great reformation should take 
place amongst the hundreds of countryborn youths, vrho swarm in 
Calcutta, with this end in view they hold weekly meetings in a 
neat bungalow Chapel, when some one, before appointed, dfili^vers 
an essay or lecture on some important subject, and devoiikxiial 
exercises are carried oh. On stated occasions, the Rev. W. Yates 
gives a theological lecture, which, is always well attended. During 
the week they hold prayer-meetings in all parts of the city aad 
suburbs, sometimes in the houses of Portuguese Roman Catholus 
by which means many have been led to renounce the enxm of 
Popery. Attached to the Society is a small library, which coo- 
tinues rapidly to increase. One of their number is aimnaDj 
appointed Librarian, and any youth in the city, desirous of wai 
ing, is gratutiously provided with the means. The establishment 
of Sunday Schools is another object steadily pursu>9d by theB^ 
youthful champions of the Cross — and in one of their Annual 
Reports now lying before me, there are interesting accoimta if 
the happy deaths of two of the scholars. It is by means similar 
to those pursued by these Indo-British youths, that we hope to 
see India evangelized. They find their way into habitations where 
the missionary has not access — and born in, and inured to the 
clime they do not fall a sacrifice to active exertions, as the Enjo- 
peans must do. Thus these men will stand preaching to tKe 
natives in the Bazans and crowded streets beneath the rays of t 
mid-day sun which would prove fatal to others. 

Thew are the first fruits of the schools: what the future harvttir 
may be, we know not, but I consider that vast blessings will result 
to India from the establishment of them, as the youths educatecf 
there are sent to all parts of the country as writers and superin- 
tendents, and very pleasing accounts have been received of the 
zealous efforts of some to instruct the children around them.* 

In a letter from Calcutta, dated 21st April 1827, it is statef 
that the place of meeting Had become too small for the work. A 
collection was made in order to build a pucca Chapel. (See Biy 
tist Missionary Society's Report of 1827). There is also this 
further remark: — 


Nor must it be forgotten that the Calcutta Juvenile Society 
who are zealously engaged in conducting meetings from house to' 
house, distributing tracts and establishing Sabbath Schools is com- 
posed mostly of young men who have been educated here (^.e., th^ 
Benevolent Institution). 

From the Baptist Missionary Society's Report of 1828 it seems? 
that the money collected for a pucca Chapel was actually given to 
build a preaching Chapel in Jaun Bazar for the Baptist Mission: 
so that evidently the work of ths Society had fallen back mean> 
while. On the other hand the following remarks are on record : — 

"The members of the Juvenile Society continue to prosecute 
their laborsi with some degree of success. We are happy to per- 
ceive that although several of their (original) number have remove-I 
to different parts'* of India others are raised up to occupy their 
places. The prayer-meetings conducted in private houses are well- 
attended and have proved a blessing to several. We expect some 
of their number will soon join the Church." 

The work is referred to in the Baptist Missionary Society's 
Beport of 1829. The Annual Meeting was held on the 19th Feb- 
ruaary 1829, and was largely attended. The report was sent to 
London. In that year, Mr. Penney carried on a Sunday School 
assisted by the members of the Juvenile Society, which was attended 
by about 30 children, some of whom were Hindus. 

The following remark is extracted from Volume 1. 
of Dr. Cox's (Jubilee) History of the Baptist Mission and is in- 
serted here as it has reference to about this period : — 

" Carapiet Aratoon was exceedingly active in connection with 
the young men of the Juvenile Society in ministering to six nativa 
places of worship, so that more than a thousand persons heard the 
Gospel every month from a single missionary. The village of Bans- 
tollah particularly shared his labors." 

This was the commencement of a work of grace in the villages 
to the south-east of Calcutta. 

The following account of the 11th Annual Meeting of the 

Society, which was held on the 20th February 1834, is taken from 

the Calcutta Christian Observer of April 1834: — 

Calcutta Juvenile Society. 

The 11th Annual Meeting of this Society was held m the 

Female Department of the Benevolent Institution on the 20th Feb- 

3 so 


.ruary, Rev. R. C. Mather in the chair. After a few appropriaUJ 
observations from the Chairman, the Secretary was called upon 
.to read the Report, which embraced the operations of the Societyi I 
in four distinct branches, viz., its stated weekly Bervices, its Sabkl 
.bath School, its private prayer-meetings, and the labours of hsI 
; auxiliary branch in connection with the Institution. The attend- 1 
anoe at the weekly services was. stated to be good ; the acoounti] 
of the Sabbath School were rather unfavourable, owing to the un-l 
concern of parents in respect to tha attendance of their cliildreir] 
:and the inveterate prejudice existing from mistaken views of thel 
objects of religious instruction. Three private prayer-meetings 
had been conducted during the past year, with some little inter- J 
ruption, on the evenings of Tuesday, Thursday^ and SaturdAy, 
In the first of them, the service had been carried on in tie ( 
Bengalee language. Resolutions were moved and seconded by Dr. I 
Corby n, Messrs. Byrn, Woolaston, Kirkpatrick, Lorimer, Hi 
Andrews and Wilson. Very interesting observations were 
by the gentlemen, who advocated the nature and objectE of 1 
Society, and the meeting, which it was gratifying to see so ntfl 
ously attended, broke up in apparent- satisfaction with the bui 
of the evening. 

The Mr. Andrews referred to above was Mr. Henry Andrews ' 
of the Union Chapel, who has been previously mentioned in ttij 
narrative. Lord Macaulay arrived in Calcutta in November 1834, 
and Mr. Andrews had the privilege of working under him duTiEg i 
1836-37 in connection with ths Indian Law CommiBsion. 

The Society was Catholic in itir constitution and wa« tieftHy 
akin to the City Mission of after year^. ^ 

On the 28th May 1836, the Rsv. Jamee Penney and Mr 
William Kirkpatrick bought the land in Bow Bazar (then CiUerf 
Lall Bazar) with two buildings on it for sicca rupe^ 3^300. 

On the Ist February 1839, Mr. Penney died sind in consequence 
new Trustees were appointed in 1845 to whom the property was 
made over by a nominal sale of Rs. 10 for the land and building. 
Of the latter one is described as lower-roomed and the otlier upp^r^ 
roomed. The Trustees were Rev. Thomas Boaz, Rev, Jajnffi 
Thomas, Manuel Wittenbaker, Henry Andrews, and Wiihwi 
Henry Haycock. The Committee consisted of Mesers. Manuel j 
Wittenbaker, Henry Andrews, John Hawkins Cockburn, Leintl 
♦Gomez and William Henry Haycock. 



In the weekly edition of the Friend of India for the 12tli Sep- 
mber ISSO, there is a paragraph, taken from the Bengal Times, in 
bdch eatislaoftion is expressed that a system of monthly lectures 
id been arranged to be delivered in the rooms of the Calcutta 
irisiian Juvenile Society, opposite the Benevolent Institution. 

The old building standing close on the street was taken down 
.d the present building was erected. The other building at the 
cik appears to have been allowed to stand, but it fell down some 
IT years ago. This new hall which is described as the Lecture 
wH of the Society was opened on the 19th November 1852, and, 
x^ Macleod Wylie a well-known Christian gentleman of those 
ijB, delivered the opening addrecs on that occasion. For that 
xjod it was a commodious and comfortable building and pre- 
lied a striking contrast to its ancient humble meeting-room which 
lod on the opposite side of the road. A sketch of the hall as it 
IB a few years back is given below through the kindness of the 
M. C. A., College Branch. 

n Lbotubb Hall op thb Calcutta Chbistian juvenilb Sooibtt 

IN Bow Bazab Stbbbt, Calcutta. 
ff hind permMon of klestrs. J, N. Farquhar and B. R. Bather of the 
Y. M. C.A. College Branch,) 


Though the Committee of the Society had attained their great 
object in the erection of this Hall, it is added that they were still 
exerting themselves to extend the sphere of usefulness of the 
Society. It must be borne in mind that the Y. M. C. A. of Cal- 
cutta, was not so much as in ejdstenoe at that time, not having 
been started till 1854. In fact the Y. M. C. A. movement began 
in England only in 1844 and had not spread to this country, so 
that the Juvenile Society had been doing from 1822 the kind of 
work that the Y. M. C. A. took up in England in 1844 only, or 
22 years behind that Society. 

Mr. Macleod Wylie, who delivered the opening addreBs od 
the 19th November 1852, was the oldest colleague of the Committed 
and hence was selected for the honor. There is so much, of inter- 
est in the address bearing on the work of the Juvenile Society 
that no apology is offered for printing in extenso the following 
long extract from it as given in the Oriental Baptist for February 
1853 :— 

" An examination of the various means employed by the Society 
will be found in it its Annual Reports. But, perhaps, it may be 
asked what good has this Society effected? In answer we make a 
statement of unvarnished facts by saying that not a few have bcien 
brou,ght to the saving knowledge of Christian truth through its 
instrumentality. Two or more of its earlier fruits are to thu day 
laboring as missionaries, ons of whom had sometime ago the pas- 
toral oversight of the Baptist Churches at Agra and Oawnpore 
respectively. One each of the present Deacons of the three Dis- 
senting Churches at Calcutta are likewise the fruits of this Society, 
and there are other men, who have been admitted into the fellow- 
ship of these Churches and who it is hoped have adorned and are 
still adorning their profession by a consistent ooiUBe of sincere 
piety. In respect to one of these fruits of the Society to whom 
allusion has been made, as both a missionary and pastor, our late 
respected friend and oo-adjutor, the Rev. James Penney, bore 
many years ago the following testimony: — 

" We have been in deep distress at Dinapore, wrote Mr. Penney 
to the Committee, with your friend Mr. G. (Green way), who has 
lost his brother by the jungly fever and who himself has, but jaar- 
rowly escaped. These very afflictive occurrences* have brought to 
my acquaintance one of the best Christians I have seen in India. 


His gentleness, bis sound sense and d&epeeated piety, have filled 
me with the highest respact for him, and pleasing anticipations 
that he is intended for some great work on earth, and, I trust 
an exalted seat in heaven. If the Juvenile Society, added Mr. 
Penney, is useful in bringing such men as Greenway into the 
Church and into the Ministry long may it flourish and prove a 
l>le8sing to India.'' 

There is one permanent feature of this Society to which I beg 
permission briefly to advert, namely, its broad catholicity. This 
is stated in Rule 2, which runs as follows : — 

" That the Calcutta Christian Juvenile Society be established 
on those catholic principles in which all Froteeitant Denominations 
are agreed." To these principles the Society has ever adhered by 
preaching the fundamental truth of salvation through the blood 
of Christ, and its Committee have been always composed of Chris- 
tians of all Denominations; it has been an Evangelical Alliance 
in this land for upwards of thirty years. (This would seem to 
imply; that it was established before 1822). On my acquainting 
that eminent minister and missionary, Dr. Duff, about twenty 
yean ago with, this Catholic phase of the Society, he burst forth 
into expnesaions of the warmest admiration and remarked that the 
Society was worthy of the countenance and support of every true 

But, it has })een objected, that since there are so many 
OhorcheB and religious Societies in this city, there is no necessity 
for the continuance of an Institution such as this. If this objection 
be considered valid, then by a parity of reason, all Young Mens' 
SodetieB (and there are many such both in Euro})e and j^erica) 
miut be discountenanced and condemned as superfluous. Did we 
pay proper heed to the words of our Saviour 'the harvest is 
plenteous, but the laborers are few, pray ye therefore the Lord of 
the harvest that He may send more laborers into the harvest' 
"we should tremble to oppose or discourage, any, even the feeblest 
affort put forth to do good. Are the means employed in this great 
dty to diffuse the blessings of the Gospel at all proportioned to 
the vast population, and are there not diversities of operation f 
Why then object, to this Society?" 

On the let August 1854, the Calcutta Young Mens Christian 

A99oe%ation, was inaugurated by a public meeting, which was held 

in the Town Hall. This Association was entirely distinct from 

the Calcutta Christian Juvenile Society and seems to have been 

"eant mainly for the benefit of young Europeans arriving 


in the City as will be seen from Eule 6 of its rules whicli are 
printed below. It is not known where- it held its meetings, but 
it SQon died out. The following extract regarding the Bules and 
Regulations of this Association is taken from the Oriental Baptist 
of August 1854. A comparison of them with the Rides of the older 
Association will soon show the differences batween the two sets of 
rules: — 


We are happy to record the establishment of a Society bearing 
this designation. The arrangements for conducting it are not yet 
fully matured, but some idea of the merits may be gathered from 
its Rules and Regulations, which are as follows : — 

I. — That this Society be called the "Calcutta Young Men's 
Christian Association." 

II. — That the basis of the Association be evangelical and the 
object, the religious and intallectual improvement of Young Men, 

III. — That it be un->sectarian. 

IV. — ^That the Association shall consist of Governing Hem* 
bers and Members. 

V. — That the Governing Members shall be members of C9ir» 
tian Churches, or individuals well knowii_ to Christian Ministers 
and Laymen to be persons of religious character. 

VI. — That the Governing Members consist of Honorary Gov- 
erning, and Subscribing Governing Members. 

VEI. — That any person who shall be nominated by a Member, 
upon payment of the current subscription, shall be admittod to 
the privileges of the Institution subject to the appsroval of the 
Committee. Every Member shall be bound to conform to the 
Regulations of the Institution. 

VIII. — That the affairs of the Association be conducted by 
a Gfeneral Committee, to be elected by the Governing Memben 
from among themselves, and from the Honorary Goiveming Mem- 
bers of the Association. 

IX. The means by which the object of the Associatioii ire 

to be carried out: — 


1.; Itel^|ioii8 instruction, comprising every subject which* 
can be brought to bear on the elucidation and illustration of the- 
Word of God. 

2. Lectures on Religibus, Scientific and Literary subjecte- 
having a religious bearing. 

3. A Library and Reading Room. 

The Library to consist of works of a religious, scientific and' 
literary character, the same being approved by the Library Com- 

4. Discussion on Raligious, Scientific and Literary subjects, 
to be held under the management of the Committee or Membeis. 

5- The encouragement of devotional and other meetings cal- 
culated to promote the welfare of Young Men , 

6. Obtaining acquaintance with Young Men newly arrived 
in the country, and introducing them into Chiistian circles. 

7. The co-operation of Ministers of Religion and the establish- 
ment of Bible Classes adapted to the capacities of Young Men. 

8. The employment of any instrumentality not opposed to* 
Ckrhstaan principles, and which may be calculated to promote the 
veligiouB and intellectual improvement of Young Men resident in 
or visiting Calcutta. 

9. The neoommendation of respectable places of residence for 
new arrivals*. 

10. The formation of kindred institutions in other parts of the- 

11. That the SuBiscriptions be Co.'s Rupee 1 a month, both' 
for Governing Members and Members, and that Donations He Boli< 
cAed from the Public. 

J. H. Norman, Secretary, 

15, Clive Street, 

J. Galloway, Treasurer, 
Oriental Bank Corporation. 

In the Imperial Library at Calcutta can be seen the Report 
wliich was printed at the beginning of 1855, in which the Rules 
and Bye-laws of the Young Men's Christian Association are all 
given in detail as also a Prospectus of the Meetings to be held" 


iduring the first six months of that year. A oopy of the Title pa| 
is given below: — 

Calcutta Young Men's 

Christian Association 

Rules, Bye-laws 


List of Committee 


Prospectus of Meetings 

to be held . 

during 6 months, beginning January 1855. 

Calcutta : 

Printed by Sanders Cones and Co., 

56, CossitoUah. 


The Honorary Secretaries are given as Mr. J. H. Norman, 
Mr. C. S. Lexington and the Treasurer as Mr. Jas. Gkdlo^y. 

In 1855 the Calcutta Seamen's Friend Society, asked fovi 
obtained from th>d Juvenile Society permission to hold their a 
ings for seamen in their Lecture Hall and continued to 1 
their meetings in that Hall for many years, after that. 

The following extract, taken from the Thirty-Fourth 
Report of the Young Men's Christian Association late 
Christian Juvenile Society for the yeax 1856, whicli was mA 
the Annual Meeting of the Society which was held in their ~ 
Hall on the 27th January 1857, explains itself: — 

"Your Committee have deemed it proper, as more agrenHi 
with the objects of the Society to changie its designation from iki 
Calcutta Christian Juvenile Society to that of the Young HcbV 
Christian Association, by which name it is to be called in fntsore/ 

This was a most natural step to take, for thei Society had beei 
practically a Young Men's Christian Association from the momfiBl 
of its birth in 1822 twenty-two years before the formaidon of to 
Association of that name by Sir George Williams in Londoi- 
They did not with the change of name, however, modify any« 
iheir original Rules. This clearly shows that the AaMMaatJOB 
which had been formed on 1st August 1854 had died out. 


After that the Title page always showed the change of name, 
9elow: — 


Thirty-Eighth Annual Eeport of the 
Young Men's Christian Aseociation, 


Calcutta Christian Juvenile Society. 

For 1859 and 1860. 

Instituted in 1822. 

Calcutta : 

Printed hy A. D'Rozario at the Albion Press. 


But there is no need to trace the history of the Association 
wn to the present day, as we have only, to do with the Juvenile 
riety. For very many years afterwards various religious meet-* 
: tued to be held in this hall in some of which the present writer 
oaelf took part, when ha was connected with the Y. M. C. A., 
tch existed in the latter seventies. In 1906, the hall was hand- 
over to the Y. M. C. A. of the present' day by Mr. W. C 
fcdge, the sole surviving Trustee of the property. 

No religious rneetings hava, however, been held in the hall 

some years past, and the premises have bfl^n let to a timber 

rchant from 1st September 1908, for a peril>d of three years, 

k it is undesrstood that at the end of that period the Association 

pes to revive the work in the? Bow'Bbwbot. District. 

The writer tenders his best thanks to MeBsrs. Farquhai*, and 
rber, of the Y. M. C. A. Collegie Brianch, for all the assistance 
f have rendered him in thfe oolleeibion' of fac^ for this chapter. 

.: •: : r; 


Thb Pastorate of toe Rev. JokN SAiiE. 

{From XH February 1869 to 2Srd January 1861, 
and . . 
2nd December 1863 to 2ith March 1868,) 

BsFOBi^ detailing tlhe events of Mr. Sale's pastorate, it 
be necessary to give a brief biographical sketch of both Mr. 
Mkb. Sale, who were jointly, and separately so uaeful m the 
JBazar Church, and did so much for its spiritual, temponi 
Gocial welfare. 

i;,.. ^ .•■'■ 

}'V..t .IF 



The Rev. John Sale. 

He was bom at Wokingham in Berkshire on the 4th of Coptem- 
;r 1818. He received his education for the Ministry at Brad' 
rd, (now Bawdon) Collage under Dr. Acworth, where he was 
Mlow-etudent with the Rev. J. P. Cbown of Bradford and Blooms- 
iiry. He was ordained as a missionary in oonnection with the 
aptist Missionary Society in 1848, and married the same year; 
!r. and Mrs. Sale reached Calcutta in 1849. His first station 
^ Barisal, where he re«iaine4 from 1849 to 1856. He was then 
raioferred to Jessore where he was stationed from 1856 to 1859, 
ivvlb^ing with fostering care the Mission in that District. 
iamg accepted the Pastorate of the Lall Bazar Church, he 
moved from Jessore to Calcutta in January 1859. 

In 1860, he was appointed by the Viceroy — Lord Canning — 
id the Lieutenant-GoV'dmor of Bengal — Sir John Peter Grant— the 
dy missionary member of the Commission to investigate the que&- 
DOS in dispute between the planters, and the ryots, that led 
I the indigo disturbances that year, with a view to deliver them 
Mn the burden of cultivating indigo. After his death, Mr. W. 
8efcon-Karr, a retired Civilian, who was the President of that 
Kmmission, wrote that he never ceased to value the support, which 
ir. Sale gave him at the time of the Commission. 

.The order appointing the Indigo Commission was published 
I page 1,071, of the Calcutta Gazette, dated the 16th May I860.' 

runs as below : — 
. "Notification dated 10th May 1860. Under the provision of 
ttion XII, Act XI of 1860, the following gentlemen have bean 
kfointed Commissioners to enquire into, and report on the sys^ 
)D^ and practice of indigo planting, and the relations between 
le indigo planters, and the ryots and holders of land in Bengal : — 
' ^Tifr. W. S. Seton-Karr, President. 

Mr. R. Temple. 
. ,.Mr. W. F. Ferguson. 

Key. J. Sale. 
"Baclm Chtmdra Mphun Chatterjee.*' 

'Sffom Mr. fiticklkhd's book; " Bengal utider the Lieutenanti|l 


Governors,'' it appears that Mr. Ferguson was appointed to repre* 
sent the planting interest, and the Rev. J. Sale, the interests of the 
tyots. Babu C. M. Chatterjee was the nominee of the British 
Indian Association and the other two were Bengal Civilians. 
Mr. R. Temple subsaquently became Sir Richard Temple, and 
rose to be Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal, and later on Governor 
of Bombay. 

The Cominission examined witnesses from the 18tb May, to 
the 4th August 1860, and the Report submitted by them beaia 
date the 27th August 1860. 

Sir John Peter Grant, the Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal 
wrote thus in the last paragraph of his Minute on the report of 
the Commission, which is dated the 17th Deoe(mber I860:— 

" My high opinion of the manner in which, the Gommission han 
oouduct«ed their enquiries, and reported to Government their cob* 
elusions upon this extensive, and long-controverted subject hai 
been expressed to the gentlemen, who composed it in a sepante 

Mr. Salens health having failed in Calcutta after two years, te 
was ordered to England at the beginning of 1861, and madeovtf 
the pastorate of the Church temporarily to Rev. G. Kerry. Mr. 
Sale returned towards tlie close of 1863, when he resumed tb 
pastorate, which he held till the 24th March 1868, when he )ai 
to relinquish it in order to take charge of the work at Barisal ii 
place of the Rev. J. C. Page, who had resigned. At the tinie 
of his leaving, the Church presented him with a gold watcfa, an! 
a large family Bible, and Mrs. Sale with a silver tea service. Tha 
watch bears an inscription, dated 1868, that the piresentatioii waa 
in recognition of his great services to the Church, and congzeg^ 
tion. These articles are still among the tieasiired poimonmoiui ^ 
the family. 

Mr. Sale remained at Barisal until 1874, wli^n he. had to go 
to England on account of his health, and he eventually died io^ 
denly at Helensburgh in Scotland, at his spn-in-Iaiw's jhovue on 


llie.4tli September 1875, the anniversary of his birthday, at the 
ege of 57 only. 

It was decided on the 28th of April 1880, to allow his friends 
io put up a Tablet to his memory in the Chapel« which was 
done, and the inscripCon on it is as below : — 
In loving Memory of 
The Rev. John Sale. 
For 26 years a faTthful Missionary in Bengal, 
Of the Baptist Missionary Society. 
He was for ten ysars the beloved Pastor, 

Of the Church Meeting in this place, 

A.nd left Calcutt-a to resume Mission work 

in Backergunge. 

In 1860. 

Lord Canning, and Sir J. P. Grant, 

appointed him the only Missionary Member 

of the Commission, which investigated the 

disturbances between the Indigo Planters, 

and the RyoU. 

He died suddenly at Helensburgh in Scotland, 

September 4th 1875 : aged 57 years. 
Absent from the body: present with the Lord. 

Mrs. Sale. 
Hear maiden name was Elizabeth Geale. She was born at Orthes 
in the South of France on the 29th March 1818, but was brought 
• up in Devonshire in England. Her parents were members of the 
r CSiurch of England, who strongly objected to Dissent, and, when 
ilie Avowed her conviction that the baptism of believers only was 
die teaching of Scripture, her life at home became embittered by 
controversy. She asked, and received, permission to seek some employ- 
ment away from home by which she might gain her own living. 
TThrough her father's influence with his friend Sir David Davis, 
physician to Que&n Adelaide, she entered the household of Lady 


Harriet Mitchell, to whose daughter, (afterwards Lady LiBbtun)^ 
she became compauion. This position, she occupied' about foEF- 
teen years, and during the latter part of that time, thiough the 
intervention of Sir David Davis, she received instmetieiL in 801^ 
gery and medicine in one of the London Hospitals. In this waf 
Gk)d was fitting her for her future work. 

Whilst in London, she was baptized by the Rev. W. Bowes 
of Blandford Street Church, of which she became a member. 
With a glad heart, she took up various forms of Christian work,, 
but the Welsh milkmaids in London were her special care. 

In 1848, she married the Eev. John Sale, and left for India the 
same year reaching Calcutta in 1849. 

On arrival in India, she threw herself heart and soul into 
the duties that devolved on her. While in Calcutta, she under- 
took the teaching of Bengali ladies in their homes, but had nol 
made much progress with the work when Mr. Sale's health faikd, 
and he was ordered to England at the beginning of 1861. As Mn. 
Mullens with her two daughters had arrived at the end of 1860, 
Mrs. Sale arranged with her to carry on this interesting woric lit 
her absence, which she consented to do. 

In the London Hospital, she had gained a little knowledge 
of medicine and nursing, and during her missionary care^, die- 
was very successful in the treatment of cases. One instance ii 
recorded thus : — 

On one occasion, a man, who had been attacked by a leopaid 
was brought into the Mission House, his thigh and whole leg tarft 
by the claws of the ferocious beast. The flesh hung literally in 
shreds, and the bone was visible. With much skill and 'piBrnm 
the wound was cleansed, and the bits of flesh gathered carefnllf 
together, then the whole was kept in place with strips of plaater, 
and bound with bandages, wet with calendula. These were kqife 
moist till the skin began to heal, and in due couiBe the patienfe 
recovered completely. 

-"• 'WB ^AttfdiATK 0** THE REXr JOHN gALK. : " ^Mb 

' eke «tart«a a taikcr^s class in Barieal soon after htr *rti^4l 
ere and when in England in 1861, she advocated a adiemfi lor etiab- 
^Bg in Calcutta a Boarding School for €h.e educatiMi, w pay- 
flot; of daughters of Native Christian gonttem«k, attd jpropovnded 
er scbeme at a drawing-room meeting held by Lady Peto, when 
t was fairly launched. When funds came in, she secured the 
prvittds of a Miss Wheeler as teacher. 

Mr. and Mrs. Sale returned to India at the end of 1868, t^Ad 
ady the next year, (1864), the school <^ned with nine pupils. 
But Miss Wheeler married in 1865, and her valuable serviceB were 
tephesd by Miss Hebe Bobinson, a daughter of the Bev. John Bobin- 
MO, who succeeded Mr. Sale in the Pastorate, and grand-daughter 
^Bev. William Bobinson, whose pastorate has already been 
^eed. The school suffered a great blow in 186g, when Mr. and 
Sale had to go to Barisal, but Mr. and Mrs. B. Bobinson 
ved their residence to the School, and at the end of the year 
bad 20 pupils. After Mrs. Bobineon's health failed, and 
I Hebe Bobinson married, Mrs. and Miss Leslie took over the 
ol^ and conducted it till it died out, after an existence of 
'jefu:B, when Misa Leslie's health failed. Aboiii three years 
* the school was started Mr. Sale baptized one of the girls on 
> profession of her faith in. Christ. This was on the lOth. March 
67^ and the girl's name was Minna. 
Mrs. Sale poasessed in a marked degree what is tmned sane- 
eommon-sense, and her taet equalled her cfetermination. 
Iii 1874, Mr. Sale's health completely failed, so thev leiPt India 
|h May of that ysar, after over 25 yeaiB of faithful service. After 
yb. Sale's death on 4th September 1875, Mrs. Sale remained with 
lifc. and Mrs. James Young, (the latter being her daughter), and, 
ftfar Mr. Young's death in 1890, Mrs. Sale r«nained on with hep 
-^Mflwed daughter, but ever retained an interest in Mission work, 
t^ bdia, and in the Lail Bazar Churdi. She was the means of 
^*iteig the Scottish Auxiliary to the Baptist Zenana Society. She 
-ftrew herself into the work connected with the Baptist CftLurdfcL ^ 


Helensbtirgh, which for the laet fourteen yeaiB of her life wu hs 
i^iritual home. 

Her health had been failing for some years, and on tSe 8tk 
-February 1898, she entered into rest within a few weeks of eoBi' 
pleting her 80th year. So passed away a Mother in Israel. 

She came out to Calcutta with her daughter Mrs. Tonnf 
once after Mr. Sale's death, and that was in the cold 

The following instances are tokens of her continued 
'in the Lall Bazar Church: — 

1. Tn February 1882 the Chureb rceived from her 
19} dozen pieces of Tea meeting crockery, with bads^, 

valued at "... ... ... ... £ 5 19 

6 Damask Table Cloths, valued at ... ... £ 7 6 

Total ... £13 5 11 

and a vote of thanks was passed to her. 

2. In October 1882, the Church received a gift of £20, 
MiB. Sale, and friends towards the purchase of the Parsonige. 

It is now necessary to turn to the work of the Churdi 
After Mr. Thomas' death on the 20tli July 1858, lihe r-rj^ 
was supplied by the missionaries at Calcutta and Serampoie. 1 
the very first Church Meeting after his death, which was hM ^ 
the 26th July 1858, it was mentioned that an effort shoiold he nu 
to obtain the temporary oversight of the Church by some one 
. the missionary brethren, and a letter was read from the Ber. JA 
Bobinson of Serampor<e in which he tendered his gratidhM 
services to the Church, whenever, they were needed, profiW 
that on such occasions the Church would send Oungaram to Sen» 
pore tx> supply his place to the native Church. It was abo M^ 
that both Br. Wenger and Mr. Lewis had offered to give all * 
help they oould to the Church, and that if Mr. Sampson of Sen* 


Knre wcare applied to, he probably would be willing to oome down 
m the Sunday and week-night provided his expenses were paid 
ind lodgings provided for him. It was decided to apply to the 
Society in London for the services of Mr. Sampson for the Paetor- 
ite. Letters were accordingly written on the 9th August 1858 to, 
1) the Committee of the Society, (2) Dr. Underbill its Secretary, 
lad (3) Mr, Sampson at Serampore to take temporary oversight 
rf tlie Church. The reply to the last was of course received first. 
Et bears date, the 12th August 1858, and in it, Mr. Sampson, 
mispressed regret that he could not commit himself to any stated 
vists himself, but said that he and his colleagues and Mr. John 
Robinson were willing Between them to taSe the services on two 
Sundays in each monCh until a permanent arrangement CtTUld be 
made, leaving the Church to provide for the other two Sundays. 

An extract is given below from the letter of 19th Aiigust 
1858, from the Church to the Commttec: — 

"The Lall Bazar Chapel, where we meet, is situated im the 
WBiJjr heart of the permanent Christian population of this city, 
■nd in the street which is the principal resort of European sea- 
QDusn. In former years both before and during the Pastorate of 
the Rev. W. Bobinson, the Chapel was generally well attended; 
and, if the congregation has much diminished since that time, 
Ok& pirincipal cause of its decline must be sought in the circum- 
rtanoes that for many years past, whilst Protestant places of wor- 
•Inp were multiplied, our successive Pastors were unable to devote 
fco the Church more than a portion of their time and strength. 
We believe that if we could obtain the services of a Pastor, who 
WMB likely to become a popular preacher, and at liberty to consider 
iub labours in oiir midst as his chief, and most important work, 
with the Divine blessing, the attendance would speedily improve 
Rnd a larger, congregation be gathered from which, ever and anon, 
ffbeace added to the Church such as shall be saved. At 
■U events we pan confidently affirm that the Chapel is situated in 
» locality, where the preaching of the Gospel is most urgently 
needed. The permanent population around us consists largely 
of Soman Catholics, who are unacquainted with the way of salva. 
fcioD, and, the European seamen, who daily pass and re-paes in 
Eromt of it by hundreds, are almost equally destitute of the know- 
ledge of the Gospel . ' 


In addition to this, the past history of the Church supidiai 
encouraging associations, which we trust will lead you to take i 
wami interest in our continued welfare. It has long been tbe 
instrumentality under God of supplying several honoured laboten 
for the Mission field, such as our deceased brethren Leonard voA 
Aratoon. In former years our pulpit was frequently, — nay, miof 
years, regularly, supplied by those eminent men of God, Canji 
Marshman and Ward. And it was in our Chapel that Dr. Jndaoi 
was baptized. Do not circumstances of such deep interest couA 
tute something like a claim upon your kind attention and fa•(i•^ 
ing care ? ' 

The Committee replied on the 14th October 1858, aad, ■ 
their reply gives the terms on which they were willing to lei ttl 
Church have the services of Rev. John Sale, the following eztrut 
is given from their letter in extenso: — 

The Committee desire to express their deep interest in the id- 
fare of the Church Meeting in the Lall Bazar Chapel, and tosaythik 
it is their wish to assist them in every practicable way in ib 
acquisition (^f another Pastor. Circumstances not needful ben, 
to mention, have led the Committee to request the services d 
the Rev. W. Sampson in another field, and they propose to eoM 
him more fully in missionary work immediately on his xeMiB 
from his engagements al Serampore. The Committee^ howefier, 
propose to invite the Rev. John Sale of Jessore to remove to CU- 
cutta in order to assist in the missionary labours it is desired te 
carry on in that large city, and they direct me to say that elMynld 
his ministry be acceptable to the Church in the Lall Baxar, aad lie 
should himself be willing to listen to an invitation from yoa, Ai 
Committea will cheerfully sanction his entrance on t!he F«tora(be 
among you. In suggesting this arrangement it will be unden^^ 
that the Committee desire to exercise no authority over the Mm 
of the Church. They desire to co-operate with you in ^ilarging 
the kingdom of our Lord, and with a distinct impression that die 
ministry of Mr. Sale or of any other of our brelbnni unong yeii, 
will be useful alike to tbs English-speaking populatkni of CUenttt* 
and to the natives of tbe country. They desire to i^fpird yoot 
community as a Mission Church, and to see it and its Pufcor 
actively engaged ini assaulting the strongholds of ttie fridltM 
idolatries amid which you dwell. 

With regard to the pecuniary support of the Pastor, it 

seem that at present the Church is unable to supply the necenaiT 


inctei. The CJommft^ee w«»uld therefore suggest the following 
carangement : — 

That m case a Missionary of the Society should become 
Diir Pastor, he should continue to receive his support from 
le funds of the Society, but that the Church should engage to 
ay monthly into the hands of the Society's Calcutta representa^ 
ve or Secretary, such sum as may be agreed upon, increasing as 
ley might be able the amount until it shall be sufficient for the 
astor's entire support, when another arrangement may mutually 
) agreed upon. 

The Committee most earnestly hope, and pray that the work 
• God may be revived among you, and that His blessing may 
bundautly be poured out on the ministry, which He in His provi- 
5nce may bring amongst you.'' 

The above letter was received at t£e end of November, and 

►r. Wenger presided at the Church Meeting of 7th December 

558, at which it was considered when it was resolved to invite 

[r. Sale. A letter of invitation accordingly issued on the 30th 

leoeinber, ' the delay being due to a slight misunderstanding on 

16 p«rt the Church should take, but Mr. Sale's reply of 3rd 

inuary 1859, accepting the Pastorate, is so characteristic of the 

an that it is felt that it should be reproduced. The following. 

a copy of it : — 

Dear Brethren in Christ, — 

1 have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your kind 
id frank communication dated 30th December 1858. 

In reply to it, I need not enter into any lengthened explana- 
m regarding the poet, as I trust you already sufficiently under- 
^nd my reasons for hesitating to go to Calcutta. The work in 
880ve is so important, and after some five years of anxiety, we 
D beginning to see decided proofs that our labours and prayers. 
ve not been altogether fruitless. 

Until therefore, we were oon^vinced that the work for which 
> were called hence was of sufficint importance to justify us in 
[inquishing the dutiesi devolving on us here, we thought it right 
remain at our post. 

I quite agree nevertheless in thinking with you anjd the 
ttee of the Baptist Missionary Society that the Pastorate of the 
lurch in Lall Bazar offers a fine field of usefulness, and that the 


Baptist MiaBion in Calcutta, and in Bengal, may be much assisted 
by the blessing of God upon the efforts of the Pasfor and the 

On tha receipt therefore, of your invitafion to labour amongst 
you as your Pastor, I feel it my duty in humble dependence on 
Him, who has said " My strength is made perfect in weakness " to 
accept that invitation with the understanding tEat I still continue 
an Agent of the Baptist Missionary Society. 

I mention this latter point particularly because the Secretary 
of the Society (Mr. Underbill), in a letter I recently received from 
him, tells me the Committee has suggested '' that in case a Mission- 
ary of the Society should become Pastor (of the Cfhurch in Lall 
Bazar), he should continue to receive his support from the funds 
of the Society, but that the Church should engage to pay montl]^ 
into the hands of the Society's Calcutta representative or Secretary 
such sum as may be agreed upon etc/' I have no apprenheosioB 
that the interests of the Church and Mission will be antagonistic. 
On the contrary I a^ep^ your invitation in) the hope that both 
as Pastor and Missionary I shall have your hearty coK)pevation 
and prayerful sympathy. 

Let me entreat you brethren, and the Church of which you 
are Officers, to pray for us that ws may be taken to you in safety 
and peace, and that the Head of the Church may so teach, and 
help us, that our coming to you may be the occasion of much, and 
lasting good to all at present conoarned, and to many others. 

Believe me, dear Brethren, to be 
in the bonds of Christ's Holy Gospd, 
Yours very faithfully, 
(Sd.) John Sale. 
Churamoncottee, Jessore, Srd January 1859, 
On 1st January 1859, fifty years were completed since the 
opening of the Chapel, and it was resolved to celebrate the Jubilee 
suitably, the Chapel being cleansd up for the occasion. The 
following extract regarding the services is taken from the Annual 
"Report of 1859, of the Society, and is of interest in many ways 
at the present time with reference to the approaching Centenary. 
Not one of the ministers mentioned as having taken part- in those 
services is alive at the presemt time, which adds a touch of pathos 
to the record: — 

''The Lall Bazar Chapel was originally opened on the l??t Jan- 


' 1809. It wafi resolved to keep the Jubilee of ite existence 
k smtable service. On this account the usual New Year's Day 
Loe beM at Union Cbapel was beld this year at tbe Lall Bazar 
pel. The Rev. J. Pourie of the Free Church preached to an 
ilowuig audience from Ecclesiastes ix. 10, after which the 
d'ft Supper was administered by the Bev. A. F. Lacroix of the 
idon M^sion. At the morning prayex meeting the Rev. C. B. 
m presided, and an admirable address was given by the Rev. 
Xeny of Howrah. In the afternoon there was a Bengali ser- 
I, when the Rev. J. Wenger preached." 

On the following Lord's Day, the Revs. R. Robinson of Dacca 
tW. Sampson occupied the pulpit, the latter addressing himself 
■ij^y to the yoimg. 

In writing to Mr. F. Trestrail, tie Secretary of the Society,. 
# the Jubilee, the Deacons in their letter of February said : — 

" On the first day of the present year the Jubilee of the opening 
mr Ghax>el was oeifebrated by suitable services. It is of the Lord's 
XJ that the Gospel of Christ has been proclaimed in it without 
raiission for fifty years and that the close of that period found 
Cfhurch, if not so numerous or so prosperous as could have 
I wished, yet in a peaceful, and, upon the whole, a healthy 
». We solicit the continuance of your intercession that in 
as to come it may prove more and more like a burning and 
jng light amidst the surrounding darkness." 

Mr. Sale entered on his pastoral duties from 1st February 
9 aii4 he at once began to try and straighten out the thinga 
■ had got crooked during the intervening seven months. On 
30th March 1859 a resolution was unanimously agreed to that 
Sunday School should be recognized by the Church, that Mr. 
Mendes should be the General Superintendent and Mrs. Sale 
Lady Superintendent. 

In order that the Chapel might be mora generally known as a 
» of worship it was agreed on the 20tb April at the suygestion of 
Pastor that a board should be placed at the gate showing what 
d of place it was, the days of worship and the hours of 

On the 22nd June it was unanimously resolved at the suygeHion of 
Pastor that the rule which had hitherto obtained fcft «\\ ^^^>U 


cants for Church membership to appear before the Church should 
be strictly adhered to in the future though it had been, departed 
from in a few special cases. 

On the 28th July a Thanksgiving Service was held fop the 
restoration of peace after the Mutiny in accordance with the Gov- 
ernor-General s order and a collection was made on behalf of tha !tract 
Society which amounted to Rs. 791. A Watch Night Service, the 
first of its kind, was decided upon for the 31st December of that 

Instead of making scattered efforts and having scattered scSiools 
and Chapels, the Church seemed to think it desirable to otmoenttitie 
their efforts and so decided on' 14th February 1860 to offer the 
Chapel at Kidderpore to Rev. G. Pearce, and, if he declined to 
have it, theni to sell it off. 

A Register of Birthsi was started in June of tiiat yeait, and 
on the 30th of that month, the members were requested to register 
the births of tlioir children in it, but only a few appear t» have 
availed themselves of this registration. - " '" '. 

In 1860, Mr. Sale was appointed the sole Missionary Meinber 
of the Government Commission to investigate the Indigo dispuies 
and the work connected with this would seem to have, l^pm too 
niuoh for him, seeing that witnesses were bein^ examined^ fhwi 
18th May to 4th August. Before the end of the year' he was 
ordered to proceed to England owing to ill-health. 

A letter was thei-efore written on 8th January 1861 to the 
Rev. G. Kerry asking if he would take the oversight of the Church 
during Mr. Sale's absence which he accepted on the 23rd January 
and Mr. Sale accordingly made over charge to him and proceeded 
to England. 

In Hr. Sales report for 1860 which he sent to the Society in 
England he wrote as below : — 

• Tlie influx of EurxDpean artizans for th? Railway 
and Gas W<H"ks, the Drainage, and other public works, 
makec: the T«all Bazar Chap?l, a very important sphere of 


eyang^listic effort, while it is admirably adapted for a missionary 
Mttioor <it <)entre of operations.'/ 

». , Mr. Sale having returned to India in November 1863, Mr. 
Kerry on the 2l8t of that month sent m his resignation of the 
Pmtorate, and on the 27th idem a letter was addressed to Mr. 
Sale asking him to resume the Pastorate, and on{ the 2nd Decem- 
ber he consented to do so. The following is a copy of his reply : — 
IDEAS Brethren, — 

Permit me . to express my gratatude to you for the kind 
manner in which you have welcomed my beloved family and my- 
self on our return from England. 

.... Xan 0orry to learn from your kind letter, dated 27th Novem- 
ber 1863^ that anything I had said had left the impression on any 
<Jt ydur minds that my feelings had been hurt on hearing that 
th^re was suome probability, of your choosing another Pastor. All 
I WHhed.'to. convey, to yoii was an assurance that I was very 
SUU0U8 not to stand in the way of any plan* which the Church 
might think preferable to that of asking me to resume the pastor- 
ate at Lall Ba^r. 

The perusal of your letter has removed whatever fear I had 
eiitl^ry^ixied on this point, and I now accept with pleasure the 
imaafimbous invitation of the Church to take the oversight of them 
in the Lord. 

My hope and prayer have been that the Lord would guide the 
Cburdi and ourselves aright and trust it will be seen that the bless- 
ing of tmr Divine Master is on the step we now take, and that hi 
loviii^ po<operation with the Church we may be permitted to see 
iihe glory of Christ promoted and the good of many souls secured 
feoHi in the'-'^^ification of saints, and the oonversion of sinners. 

' "^ I am. dear Brethren, in the bonds of Ch«stian: love, 

Yours very sincerely 
4 v. .. ' (S<i) John Sale. 

. .9f%i I^^iM* 1863. _, 

'^"•'' TiM first >^utich Meeting after Mr. Sale resiumed charge, was 
iMUh'^ th€ dSih December, but no important business was dis- 
dMMfd'ifrt it, and in fact merely formal matters regarding the 
ISkipbl bwit^tf^ we^:>di0cussed ev«n .in 1864, until unfortunately 
on the 5th October 1864 the great cyckme smkI storm wave yisitied th^ 


city which was nioet disastrous in the damage it did to the sor- 
rounding districts. Damage was also done to the Chapel hy thv 
fearful stoorm , the roof which was of zinc having been blown awiy. 

On the 6th February 1865, Mr. R. W. Chill a Deacon d 
the Churchy died in Calcutta. He was a missdonary of the Cal- 
cutta Seamen's Friend Society for over 20 years uid need to ™t 
the shipping every evening and hold services on Sundays, botk 
morning and evening and also on Tuesday evenings with aH tk 
sailors who could be induced to attend the Bethel. He had Iwet 
a Deacon of the Church since 31st January 1854. 

Mr. Sale encountered troublere in Israel as others before lui 
had donie, but by earnest pleadings at the Throne of Grace, I7 ^ I 
pulpit exhortation and especially his own Christian d^oitnot^ I 
he won over the members of the Church. There used to be grib^- I 
ings of members at the Pastor's house and it was here thafc tb* I 
personality of Mis. Sale came in as a Mother in Israel. 

On the 27th June 1866, a man and his wife wished to withdnr 
for a time from the Communion of the Church when it was lOH 
animously resolved that ''the temporary withdrawal of mfmlM^ 
from Communion is not desirable and unlikely to be ben^oil 
either to the members concerned or to the Church,'' and in NovemlNr 
of that year the Pastor mentioned that the names of several ptf^ 
sons were on the Church Register who did not attend the LonPi 
Supper or even the services whilst some others who lived at a do* 
tance appeared to take no interest in the Church, wben itvM 
resolved to take certain actiont to remedy this state of things. 

On the 30th October 1867, the Pastor expressed a wish for a 
Christian Instruction Society to be formed in oonnecfcioii with tta 
Church similar to those existing in England but tihe matter '1M 
deferred for consultation with the Deacons and the fbUcmbf ' 
month the matter was referred to a Committee to consider in IfM 
nianner such a Society might be most usefuUj conducted. ]i9l«> 
the matter appears to have dropped. 


In ihe interval another great cyclone had vidted Calcutta on 
) night of 1st November which raged the whole night. 

On the 16th March 1868, a special Church Meeting was held^ 

» principal business being the resignation by Mr. Sale of Che 

•torate under the circumstances detailed below: — 

"The Pastor then read a letter to the Church in which he 
lormed them that in consequence of the Rev. J. C. Page of 
Mrisal having felt himself compelled to resign his charge of the 
lurches in that district it had appeared to his brethren in the 
iasion and to himself to be his duty to yield to the earnest en-« 
Mty of Mr. Page that he should take up the work relinqu^ed 
' hun and therefore it became necessary that he (Mr. Sale) should 
Bgn his office as Pastor of the Churoh in Lall Bazar. Mr. Sale 
ktod that he did so with great regret and with liv>dly and grateful 
membranoes of the great kindness he had received from the 
rarch whilst he had been its Pastor. He felt comfort, however, 
fhe hope that if they applied to the Bev. John Robinson he 
mid be willing to take the oversight of them. Having read the 
bter the Pastor retired from the meeting." 

From the foregoing it will be seen that the Pastor took the 
itiative in every matter of Church d&cipline or Church reform 
id the Church was just beginning to look up and the old times 
lie returning when he had to leave for Barisal. The admissions 
iring the years of his Pastorate were as follows: — 1859, 14 ; 1860, 
: 1864, 8; 1865, 11; 1866, 7; 1867, 11. 

The following is an extract from his report for the year 1867, 
idch appears in the Society's Annual report of 1868 : — 

'*The schools have continued to aid our interesting Mission 
Barisal. The Church and congregation besides making an 
nual collection for the Calcutta Auxiliary to ihe Baptist Mission 
• eontinued to support two Native Preachers. Help has also 
em rendered to our suffering native brethren in the South Vil- 
fOB. The cyclone of 1st November 1867, which rendered this 
Ip- &3oeasary also injured our place of worship very considerably. 
B have, however, completed the repairs rendered necessary and 
I hope soon to clear off a balance of about £20 still due on that 

Niunbev of members given as ... 133 

Children in Sunday ^hool given as ... 150 

28 ^ 


The acting Pastorate of the Rev. Gsobgb Ksbbt. 

(From 24th January 1861 to Ist December 186i) 


Before detailing the events of the pastorate it will be n 
to give as mucli of a biographical sketch of each as is posB 
they were both jointly and separately bo useful in the ( 
but the materials for this are very meagre. 

The Rev. George Kbbby. 

He was bom in the year 1826. He wae already a& eoqx 
Pastor at Home before he offered himself as |k IGssioniary. 


lained on tbe 20th August 1856, at Hastings as a Missionary 
the same time as Mr. Gramble who went to Trinidad. Mr. Ben- 
in gave a description of Mr. Kerry's field of labor. The mis- 
onaries elect gave interesting state(m'3nts of their experiences 
ter which Dr. Angus oflFered the designation prayer and Dr. Hoby 
iva them paternal counsel. An Independent Minister closed the 
teefeing with prayer. He arrived in India in January 1857 and 
as posted on arrival to Howrah to replace Mr. Morgan who went 
England for the first time after seventeen years of labor at Howrah. 
Aer that he had charge of the Entally Institution for several 
eaiB and also the supervision of the City Mission. 

In 1880, he was appointed the Indian Secretary of th© Baptist 
iiBmonary Society, which office he held till his retirement from 
he Mission in 1397. Through the Press and by appeals to the 
lovemment he renderied great service to the Native Christians and 
he rural population of Bengal in times of distress and oppression. 

On the 11th January 1894, his partner in life died at Calcutta 
fid is buried in the Lower Circular Boad Cemetery. Mr. Kerry 
harried again in course of time and, in 1897 on his retiring from 
he Mission, he proceeded to England in his 70th year, where he 
efctled down, and where he served the Society till his death on the 
2th December 1906 at the age of 80. 

Mrs. Ann Kerry. 

She accompanied her husband to India in 1856 and shared his 
boiB whenever he was stationed. For several years previous fb 
ft death she devoted herself to the work of looking after the 
stive Christian girls and women at Entally. She was also a 
other in Israel. 

The events of the Pastorate will now be detailed. 

When Mar. Sale was about to proceed to England the Church 
Idreesed the following letter to Mr, Kerry on the 8th Januany 


1861^ asking him to take the oversight of it durixig Mr. Sale'i 
absence: — 
Deab Sir, — 

You are aware that the Lall Bazar Baptist Ghureh will ahoitlj 
be without a Pastor owing to our Pastor, the Bev. Mr. Sale, leaving 
us for a temporary sojoiimt in England. 

The Church being desirous to have one to take the o^eiBglkt 
of them during Mr. Sale's absence, we the undermentioned 
Deaoons of the Church in the name and on the behalf of the QmtA 
take the liberty to ask you if you will have the kindness to beoQOM 
our Pastor till Mr. Sale is again in the Providence of God, broqgb 
back to this country and to us the Church. 

We need hardly assure you that we shall be but too hffj 
should this application to you meet with your cordial consent. 

We remain. Dear Sir, 
On behalf of the Church, 
Youre sincerely, 
(Sd.) L. Mkndes, 

R. W. Chill, 
„ W. Young, 

Calcutta, Sth January 1861. 

To this Mr. Kerry replied as below: — 
My dear Brethren, — 

Having received your invitation given in the name of Ab 
Church, to assume the Pastorate of the Lall Bazar Baptist C^rxA 
and prayerfully considered the same, it has appeared to me thflk 
under present circumstances I ought to accept it, subject of oouni 
to the approval of the London Committee of tbd Baptist MisBioiiirf 

In order to an eifficient discharge of the duties of a Paalor it 

will be necessary that you should furnish me with some mesni ot 
moving about the City, otherwise I shall not be able to pay that 
attention to the sick and the members of the Church aiud congve^ 
tion which I shall wish to do, and which, I trust, yon also wiH 
desire. You will kindly take this matter into considen£oD •»• 
make what arrangements shall seem most suitable. 

You will, I trust, remember me daily in your prayers to God 

that He may aid and assist me in the faithfid and effieiMit d» 
charge of the duties to which you call Qie, that you v^anel^W lUJ 



b blefisM abundantly and that many may be brongbt to the know- 
idge of tbe Tmtli aa it is in Jesus. 

I am, My dear Brethren, 

Yours in Christian love, 
(Sd.) Geo. Keirsy. 
OkLOXTTTA, 2Srd January 1861. 

Hie first Church Meeting, which Mir, Kerry attended was held 
HI tke evening of 30th January 1861, but on the 23rd idem the 
Qknrdi bad met, considered his letter, and sanctioned a monthly 
|nat of Bs. 30 to meet the expenses of his pastoral visitations. 

On the 26th June it was decided to send out a Circular to 
EWtty member of the Church regarding the proposal to introduce 
ft harmonium, and on tbe 27th July, a& the voting was in favor 
oi the proposal, one was presented to the Church. 

]ji May 1862 passed away, Mr. Jabez Carey t^ho had been 
i%adnu{lEed as a member of the Church on tbe 10th September 
1837. He was a remarkable man in many ways. 

Ob tbe 2l8t November 1863, Mr. Kerry wrote resigning the 
pm tofa te as Mr. Sale had returned from England and on the 
SSth idem, after the letter had been read, the Church resolved to 
take a presentation to him and they sent him a letter offering 
htaa end his beloved partner the most siucere and hearty thanks 
Sl tJie Church. The presentation comprised a puree containing 
Bs. 200 and the works of Howe the Divine. 

Hie entries in the Church Minute Book are very meagre, but 
kbe foUowing were the admissions for Uie three years, viz., 1861, 13 ; 
1863, 10, 1B63, 6. 

TSie following account of the work of the Church at this period 
ip|Maied in the Missionary ^Herald of November 1861, apparently 
bawd on information, Mr. Kerry himself must have communicated : 

Since Mr. Sale's departure the Rev. George Kerrjr has had 
Auo^ of flie ChurcE meeting in the^Lall Bazar. This street ^'s 
ne <rf tbe main thoroughfares of Calcutta, and is especially Ire^ 
attended t>y sailors and by Europeans having to do with the Shi^ 
^ng of the Port. Thus it becomes an importunYi a^\vi€t^ oWmB 

358 tHS BTOBir Of the lall-bAzab sAFhst osuvkiA. 

bofch in relation to EuTopeana and Natives, and the Ghnrdl has* 
usually ooiusisted of both theee classes. Originally founded by the 
Serampore brethren the congregation has had as its suooeBBive 
ministers, Drs. Carey and Marshman, the Revs. W. Waid, 
E. Carey, J. Lawson, W. Robinson and J. Thomas, under whm 
ministry many souls have been brought to God. 

At the present time there are encouraging tokene of the Divine 
blessing in the ministry of the Word. The congregation continiui 
gradually to increase and there are gratifying proofs of an incraoeed 
zeal and of the growth of spiritual life among the membeiB of flit- 
Church. The vestry at the week-n^ght services is often mosfc i» 
conveniently crowded, so that seats cannot be provided for all the 
attendants. One very pleasing feature is the large influx of sailon 
and other seafaring people from the lodging houses of the nei^ 
bourhood. Thirty or forty men of this class are sometimes pneeni 
on Lord s Bay evening and nearly as many on Monday and Wed- 
nesday evenings. This has npw continued for the past two months.' 
but there is a constant change in the individuals, and althott^' 
it is known that many have received spiritual benefits f rem tfifl 
cause, but few can be added to the Church. Their gtay is too dwrt) 
but they carry with them the seed of etern,al life. 

On the last Sabbath in June, Mr. Kerry had the pleasure d 
baptizing three women, one of them was a Bengalee, the wife of 
one of the Native Preachers : one was the daughter of the BBtOfX 
Deacon and the second was the daught^ of our aged and esteemed 
Assistant Missionary, Mr. William Thomas. Other inteicstiiig 
candidates are preparing for the sacred rite. One of theee is a 
Burman youth, a scholar in the Benevolent Institution, who tp?*' 
every sign of sincerity and true piety. He has desdred to be Bap- 
tized for the last three months. 

The Sunday School is also going on very well. Mr. Kerr; 
pays it a monthly visit, when he conducts a Children's Service. 

Since his removal to Calcutta, Mr. Kerry has made it hie dilfcf 
to go out as frequently as possible with the Native FareachecB.' 
There are two who act under his direction and they are sometimce 
Joined by others. The street congregations vary much in numbea, 
but generally, they appear to increase. In the presence of libe 
Missionary the native brethren preach with more confidenoe and 
are less interrupted by adversaries. Street preaching in Calcntta 
has somewhat increased lately. Mr. Kerry often meets Gooliar 
Shah, pastor of the Native Church in South Colinga, with some of 
his friends, and, two or three of the brethren of the EntaUy 
Church are active in the same way with Mr. Pearoe. 


A convert of th© Free Church, also joins our brethren on a 
Monday evening in their labors at the gateway of the Lall Bazar 
Chapel, and preaches with great simplicity and power in Bengali. 
But a preacher is much wanted in Hindustani as there are large 
numbers of Mussulmans and North-oountry men who would prefer 
to be addressed in that language, constantly resident in or visiting 
Calcutta. The congregations at this spot may be from 20 to 200 
persons. There is not, however, much that is encouraging in these 
street labors. The people generally do not ssem to care about the 
Gospel. They do not appear to think that it concerns their ever- 
lasting welfare. Scarcely half a dozen persons will stay through 
an entire address, which never lasts more than a quarter of an 
hour. Even when a discussion arises, the man who originates it 
will sometimes go away without waiting Co hear his question fairly 
answered. " It is a spiritual night," says the Missionary, " and the 
night is very dark. But the morning may be near at hand. I 
trust it is. Whilst the darkness appears to me to be exceedingly 
thick, I do not think there is any reason for relaxation of effort. 
I would that our efforts could be increased, and our laborers mul- 

The following is an extract from Mr. Kerry's report for 1863, 

which was published in the Annual Report of the Sooety in 

1864 :— 

"The congregation has kept up well. Several of the members 
of the Church have been in the habit throughout the year of visit- 
ing the sailors in their lodging houses in the neighbourhood of the 
Chapel, half an hour before the commencement of the Sabbath 
evening service and inviting them to Chapel : thus in addition to 
the usual congregation, from* 50 to 80 sailors have frequently been 
brought under the sound of the Gospel. 

" One of the sailors who attended for a while this year had 
about a year and a half previously when in Calcutta been in the 
habit of coming to the Chapel and seemed more serious than most 
of the men. He told me, and re-called the fact to my mind, that 
one of his shipmates in his previous visit to Calcutta had been 
deeply impressed by the word of God and, as I trust by the spirit 
of God. 'I was now informed that this man sickened and died on 
the voyage Home but died rejoicing in faith in the Lord Jesus 

"The Sabbath School has gone on well during the year." 



It is rather a remarkable story, so will bear narrating:— 
On the 15th March 1831, eight persona were proposed as cudfr 
dates for baptism, three of whom were natives. Four out of the 
other five were received for baptism on the 12ht April, vu., Mr. 
and Mrs. Hajward, Mr. Edwards and Mr. Williams, and on ikl 
5th May 1831, a Mr. Cook was also received for baptism. Jbi 
and MiB. Hayward and Mr. Edwards were baptized on the 3ti(: 
April 1831 and Mr. Cook and Mr. Williams on the 8th May lollov- 
ing. This is the earliest record there is of Mr. J. A. Williani. 
He was only 15 years of' age at the time of his baptism. 

On the 26th May 1833, his three maiden sisters were baptiiecl 
together. Their names were: — 

1. Miss Sarah Williams, the eldest sister. 

2. „ Matilda Williams ,, second ,, 

3. y, Anna Williams ,, third ,, 
but his wife Mrs. Catherine Matilda Williams was never a memW 
of the Church. 

Miss Anna Williams (the youngest) became Mrs. HatUxii is 
1834. On the 10th March 1835, Mr. Williams was permitted lo 
withdraw from the Church, but no reason whatever is on reoori 
as to why he did so, and on the 14th May 1837, Mrs. Hatton's eoih 
nection with the Church ceased, but no reason for this is on reoori 
either. The other two sisters Sarah and Matilda, however, retaiaad 
their connexion with the Church till their death. Th«t datoi d' 
thefr death were as below : — 

(1) 29th January 1860 Miss Matilda Williams. 

(2) 24th February 1863 Miss Sarah Williams. 
Mr. Williams became sick in 1842, so, on the 11th January <rf 

that year, apprehending death to be near at hand, he made hi 

*r^ fll^BT OF Tii!B WILLIAMs' E0TAtB. $€1 

SA in which he descrihed himself as "dieeafled in body, but of 
and mind^ memory and undeiBtanding/' The end came not many 
gfB after, hut the exact date is not procurable as it is not stated 
the Bviial Begistev of the cemetery concerned. That Register 
CV9B him to have been buried on the 19th January 1842, by 

• Bev. W. W« Evans, so that he must have died on that day or 

• previous one. This would imply that he had not joined aay 
ber Church in the interval between 1835 when he withdrew, and 
42 when he died. His age at death is given in the Burial Certi- 
■fbe as 26 yesas 10 months and 2 dayst, and he was buried in the 
itek Cemetery «8 desired in his Will, but the grave is no longer 

A copy of the Will is given below for facility of reference as it is 
iocoment of some importance to the Church, it runs thus : — 
In the name of God Amen. 

1, John Adolphus Williams now of Ruffick Serang's Lane in 

• Town of Calcutta, being diseased in body, but of sound mind 
amory and understanding do make publish and declare this my 
in Will and Testament in manneo: following, that is to say : — 

■ Firstly, — I desire after my decease my body be buried in the 
MKsh Burial Ground d»soently and in a pucca grave placing a 
nA tablet to mark the spot with as littls expense as possible. 

Secondly. — I will that all just deb^ and funeral charges be convenient after my decease. 

. Thirdly, — ^I will that as to my worldly goods and chattels I 
pi and bequeath unto my wife Catherine Matilda Williams all 
yckoosehold and moveable property for her sole and proper use. 

Fourthly, — I also give and bequeath unto my said wife 
hkhfidne Matilda Williams a monthly stipend of Company's 
iqpees thirty (30) per mensem to be paid monthly and every 
Mifa to her by my Executors hereinafter named out of the rent of 
y two houses Nos. 7 and 8 situated in Gunga Dhur Baboo's Lane, 
*w Bazar, within the Town of Calcutta, as long as she remains a 
flow and does not swerve from the path of rectitude. 

But in the event of my said wife Catherine Matilda Willia.m& 
Ang married again, the said sum of Company's Tup^«a >2t&c\x^ ^^^ 


month is to be. paid to my unmarried sisters Saivah and '. 
Williams share and share alike so long as they remauL i 
and live virtuously or to one or either of them that may so ; 
unmarried or to the survivor so long as she will not depart i 
the path of virtue, but in the event of the marriage or deiathi^i 
said wife Caherine Matilda Williams and my said maiden 
Sarah and Matilda, I request that the said sum of Comp 
rupees thirty out of the said inoome be appropriated throng i 
medium of the Baptist Chapel at Lall Bazar to the cause of H 
sions particularly towards the maintenanoe of preaching the Woi 
of God. 

But in the event of my said wife Catherine Matilda Will 
bectoming a widow a second time and being left unprovided 
the said allowance of Company's rupees thirty a month is toj 
to her, upon the conditions hereinbefore stated. 

I also desire that my Executory hereinafter named will i 
payment of the above-noted stipend of Company's rupees ' 
per mensem, reserve in hand all surplus rent or i^ents 
from the said two houses towards meeting the disbursemenii < 
repairs, taxes, etc., of the said two houses as also to provide f 
the payment of the said stipend in the event of the houses i 
ing unlet, as far as these funds will permit. 

Fifthly. — [This clause is omitted as it details certain 
to domestics only and does not concern the family or the Chur^l 

But these last four legacias are not to be paid until my 
cutoiB hereinafter named are enabled to do so from accumu 
of funds in their hands. 

Lastly. — I do heiraby nominate and appoint Mr. Julien \ 
Carrau and Lewis Mendes both of Calcutta to be joint ~ 
to this my last Will and Testament hereby revoking all 
Will or Wills by me at any time heretofore ig.ade and do 
this to be my last Will and Testament. In witness whereof 1 1 
hereunto sat my hand and seal the 11th day of Januaxy itt ^ 
year of our Lord Christ one thousand eight hundred and ;' 

Extract from the Will of Mr. L. Mendes of Bentinck I 
Calcutta :— 

And I hereby devise and baqueath the house in Oree ' 
Lane, No. 6, and the Company's paper for rupees eight hu 
v^hich I hold as Executor of the Will of John AdolphuB Wil 
^> ^he Deacons for the time being of the Lall Bazar Baptist. Oh 

THie 8TQRY OF THE Williams' ESTATJs. 363 

ta hoid upon the Trusts declared by the Will of the «aid John 
Adolplitis Williams, and etc. 

(Sd.) L. Mendes. 
Dated, 25th July 1873. 

(Sd.) Charles W. Hopkins, 
,, Henry A. Jewett. 

Mr. J. L. Carrau had died at Hope Town in May 1873. 

It will be seen from the foregoing Will what the terms and 
oonditione were under which the widow and flbe maiden sisters 
of Mr. S. A. Williams were to get the monthly stipend of Com- 
pany e rupees thirty (30). Well, Mre. Catherine Matilda Williams 
married Mr. John Vallis, junior, in June 1844, after which, 
in accordance with the will, the allowance passed on to the two 
unmarried sisters. She died on the 17th March 1854. Then Miss 
Matilda Williams died on the 29th January 1860 after which the 
allowance passed on to the sole surviving sister, Miss Sarah 
Williams, whb died on the 24th February 1863. 

This last " life-tenant " having passed away the Church became 
entitled to the allowance thereafter in accordance with the Will. 
It was intended that the Church should first be paid the allowance 
and. then the surplus between that and the actual rent realized 
kept in hand to meet repairs, taxes, etc., so that the Church might 
get the allowance even when the house was empty. This arrange- 
ment, however, was deviated from frequently and the allowance 
haa at times been withheld when the funds have not permitted or 
the house has be^i empty. In fact at one time the allowance 
was not paid for several years. However, all things considered 
it was a gracious Providence that inclined the Testator to make 
this provision for the Church, which is more or less of a certainty 
towards the Pastor's support. 

Mr. Lewis Mendes, from whose Will an extract is given above, 
died on the 22nd May 1876. At that time the Officers were called 
EldeiB, and none were designated Deacons. The consequence 
was that two of those Elders had to formally be appointed 


OS Deacons. The first one so appointed was Mr. Hiomas 
Anstin, who was appointed on 28th June 1576. As Mr. Mendes 
had used the plural — Deacons — a second had to be appointed and 
Mr. F. P. Lindeman was so appointed on the 10th July 1876. 

The affairs of th<e' Estate were sutsequently made over to the 
Administrator-Greneral of Bengal in whose hands they have been 
for years and the allowance has been received for some years past 
without interruption. 

It will be noticed from the Will that the hovse has not been 
le(ft to the Church, but only the allowance of thirty rupees. This 
point has been raised mora than once so that the Church 
might know for certain whether if the property were sold 
the proceeds of the sale would come to it or not, be- 
cause, if the latter, the Church, might fund thosie proceeds, and thus 
realize more than thirty rupees a month by the investment. To 
settle the matter finally a reference was made by the Administra- 
tor-General to Counsel towards the end of 1906 at the request of 
the Church and the following" is an extract from the opinion he 
expressed in reply: — 

" In the event of a sale, the Church authorities in my opinion 
would have no interest in the sale proceeds beyond a charge of the 
Rs. 30 A month upon them and would not be entitled to have the 
sale proceeds made over to them.*' 

(Sd.) Thomas R. Stokosj. 

19th November 1906. 

This opinion finally settled the point involved and the 

Church had no alternative, but to accept it. It is however, vsry 

thankful to receive the allowance of Rs. 30 as regularly as it does 

and cannot be too thankful to the Testator for this provision in 

his Will by which the Church has benefited more or less for over 

45 years. 


Ths Pastorate of the Rev. John Robinson. 
(25th March 1868 to 1st June 1876.) 


Iefore giving the details of the events of this period it will 
oeasary to give a brief biographical sketch of Mr. Robinson. 

The Rev. John Robinson. 

Ee was the son of the Rev. William Robinson, the 
r Pastor of this Church,* and was born at Batavia 
le 11th December 1819, while his father was laboring 
lat mission field. He came up to Bengal with his 
: in the early part of 1825 when the latkf had tq 

866 THE erOBY of the LALL-BAZAB baptist GHT7B0H. 

relinquish his work in the Eastern Islands. He received his educft- 
tion at Serampore. He was baptized in the Lall Bazar Chapel bj 
his father on the 29th December 1833, when he was only 14 years 
of age. On the 26th December lSi5, he was ordained to the Min- 
istry in the Lall Bazar Chapel, his father being present on the 
occasion, having come from Dacca for the purpose. For several 
years he was Pastor of the Native Church at Serampore. He was 
appointed Marriage Registrar of Serampore on the 18th February 
1856 and held the post of Bengali Translator to the Government 
of Bengal from the 18th January 1853. 

When the Rev. James Thomas died in July 1858, Mr. Robin- 
son offered his gratuitous services to the Church whenever he might 
b» required, provided the Church sent up a Native Preacher to 
take his Bengali sarvice at Serampore. 

He proceeded on leave to England on the 8th June 1864, and 
left England to return to this country on the 18th September 1865 
arriving in Calcutta <mi the 3rd November following. While in 
England he had married Miss Annie Grant at Scarborough on the 
9tli September 1865, who is aKve at the present time in Scotland. 
She was his fourth wife. 

When Mr. Sale ^atgaed the Pastorate at the beginning of 
1868, he suggested to tiie Churdi to apply to Mr. Robinson and 
he would probably be willing to undertake its overaght. Mr. 
Robinson consented, but no kfttei^ are on record. Being BaigaH 
Translator to Government as stated above be was able to asEume 
the Paotorate gratuitoasly. 

For same time prior to his formaUy severing his connection 
with the Chuitli his health was vny poor and the Churdi had 
to d^pmd on otheiB^ but on ihe Isi June 1876 he finally lesigDed 
the Fastorale and on the 21st Decembev following, a teatinMMiial 
and addmns w«rs preBsnlsd to him and to Mn. SobtnEvm in 
recofnitioii of their seiwi o eB to the Churdi for eight yeais. 

Mr. Rohineoii, however, remained on in C^cutta and at vari- 


me8 4iook part in some of the meetings and eepedally at Mr 
ie's induction service on the 11th December 1877. 
le died on the 28th August 1878, at Banaresi, where he had 
for a change and on the 8th September his funeral sermon 
)reached at the Chapel by his brother Rdv. . R. Bobinson to 
vrded congregation. On the 16th idem a letter of sympathy 
ent by the Church to Mrs. Robinson, which was signed by 
of the members. 


Al Tablet was subsequently put up in th» Cliapel to hia 
)ry, the inscription on which is as below : — 
In loving memory 

Rev. John Robinson 
For eight years Pastor of the Church . -^^ 

Meeting within th^se walls, ^[^* 


Bom at Batavia on tho 11th December 1819. 
Died at Benaree on the 28th August 1878. 
The appointment he held for many years 
of Bengali Translator to Government 
enabled him to 
" Preach the Gospal of God freely " being 
''chargeable to no man/' and it was the 
characteristic of his life to be " always 
abounding in the work of the Lord." 
*' He being dead yet speaketh '' in the many 
souk that have been redeemed and ennobled 
by his earnest ministry and loving spirit. 
" They that turn many to righteousmees 
shall shine as the stars for ever and ever/' 
There is an affecting anecdote about Mr. Robinson in '^i 
and Europe " by M»sredith Townaend (1903) when he went in 
place of his father, who was ill to visit a dying leper, whl^ n6 
to be read in ordea: to be appreciated. 

Mr. Robinson took over the Pastorate on th.e 25th Ms 
1868, and a recognition Tea Meeting was held in the Benew) 
Institution on the 2nd April. 

On the 29th April it was decided to adopt some measure fore 
ing the money necessary to defray the expenses of the "Cydi 
repairs'' and as the outoonLd of this a Committee was appcitf 
on the 13th of May to look into the accounts and take up ' 
whole question of placing the finances on a satisfactory bi 
Their report was presanted to the Church on the 8th July when' 
best thanks of the GEurch were conveyed to them for their tponl 

At that meeting the election of three additk) 
Deacons was recommended by the said Committee and it ' 
decided to take the vote of every member by the issue of » ^ 
cular, but in the meantime two special prayer meetings wwe 
be held that the Church might be guided to a right choice. ! 


'Voting was in favor of Messrs. W. Thomas, J. Derrick and G. J. T. 
JeflFerson, and, on their expressing their willingness on the 5th Auguat 
to accept office, it was decided to hold a special service for their 
induction, which duly took place on the 20th idem, when prayers 
were offered by Rev. Mr. Broadbent of the Wesleyans, Mr. Slater 
of the Congregationalists, and Dr. Wenger of the Baptists, and 
Addresess were delivered by the Rev. Dr. Murray Mitchell of the 
Free Church and Mr. Williams of the Circular Road Church. 

But on the 29th July, Mr. Mendes relinquished his connec- 
tion with the Church as a member and as a Deacon. He had been 
baptized on the 30th December 1832, and had been a Deacon since 
18th November 1838. 

At this stage it became naoessary to consider the state of the 
Chapel roof, and the building generally, and the advisability of 
;general repairs and alterations, so a Committee was appointed for 
the purpooa. In the following month the Committee stated that 
they thought that the present roof might be temporarily repaired 
until the question of the most suitable kind of new roof was decided 
upon. Thay also suggested a new pulpit or platform and its re- 
moval to one end of the Chapel and that the advice of Mr. Rowe 
of the Circular Road Church might be sought. 

On the 30th September the Pastor brought to notice that 
thero was no recognized rule as to membership, in consequence of 
which any person could attend another place of worship and yet 
inetain his name as a member. The outcome of the discussion that 
arose was the passing of a Resolution that resident members, who 
absented themselves from the services of the Church for three months 
or more without assigning a sufficient reason should by so doing 
cause their membership to lapse. 

At the Church MeeWngfof the 21st October 1868 some interesting 
Btatementa were made regarding a work of grace on the ship Alice 
Bitson leading up to the conversion of four sailors, who sought 
baptism, one being an Italiaji. These were baptised on 25th 
October and two more on the 28th idem. Communications were 



received from tliem after they left Calcutta intimating that they 
were all maintaining their consistency and that two more had been 
baptized at Rangoon. 

It is necessary to explain that the ship Alice Ritson, had 
arrived in Calcutta the preceding month (September). She was 
commanded by a Captain Matches, who was a member of a Baptist 
Church in Sunderland and at the request of some of the members 
of that Church he sought out this Chapel. He was a good man 
himself and walked in the fear of the Lord and sought the conver- 
sion of his crew. His efforts were crowned with success; but the 
details are considered sufficiently interesting to permit of the fol- 
lowing extract being mada in extenso from the Minute Book of the 
Church : — 

Wednesday J 21st October. 

A Church meeting was. held this evening, Mr. Robinson (the 
Pastor) stated that he thought that it would be well to- postpone 
the ordinary business of the Church in crder that he might invite 
all present to remain to hear the interesting statements that were 
about to be made. He then said four man on board the ship Alice 
Ritson had applied to be baptized, and stated that he and some other 
friends had paid several visits to the ship and had had a good deal of 
conversation with the men, the result of which was that they felt 
persuaded that the men who sought to be baptized were subjects 
of Divine grace. He then invited Captain Matches, of 
the Alice Ritson to give the Church some account of the work going 
on in his ship, and also his opinion regarding the men who desired 

Captain Matches then made a very interesting statement. It 
had been his practice for the last seven years to have daily worship 
with his crew ; but, for'^e last two years, he had been led to make 
^more earnest efforts for the good of his men, and all the good that 
had been done he felt was through the Sovereign mercy of God, 
and Iiad been the result of earnest prayer. He firmly believed 
the promises of God and relied soley upon His help. 
• V He spoke of the Sunday services he had on board and felt 
they top had brought a blessing. A monthly, prayer meeting was 
regularly held on board in connection with the Bethel Mission and 
the earnest prayers from the men at those nfieetings gave much 
pleasure to all who joined in thein'. The effect of these effor|bs> was 


that everything went on pleasantly on board and he felt ae if they 
w&re ojhB family. With regard to the men who wished to be bap- 
tized he had eveiy reason to believe that they were children of 
God, and hs had found a very marked change in their behaviour, 
since they were under serious impressions. 

Watson, an apprentice on board the ship, who was a member 
of a Baptist Church in England, gave his testimony respecting 
the four men, and stated that judging from their general conduct, 
he felt they were Christians. 

One of the men being an Italian, Mr. Espino had been asked 
to visit him and he stated that he had a long conversation with 
him and found although he had but little knowledge of Scripture, 
yet from his replies to questions respecting baptism and hia 
, general views of religion he had no doubt that he possessed the 
tFue spirit of God. 

Mr. Derrick, who had also visited the ship gave his testimony 
respecting those of the men he had spoken with. 

Mr. Lindeman also gave favorable testimony. 

Mr. Eobinson then made some general remarks on the 
requirements of the Churdb respecting candidaites for baptisiVL 
and cordially recommended these four men for baptism. It was 
than arranged that these persons should be baptized the following 
Sunday, 25th October. 

The names of the four men were Thomas D. Hudson, James 
L. Downing, Peter Grant and Leopoldo Pistoje. 

Wednesday, 28th October. 
In consequ3nce of the sermon preached last Sunday on the 
occasion of the baptism, Mr. J. Scott and Mr. B. Butler of the 
ship Alice Ritson, who were both members of a Christian Church, 
deemed it their duty to be baptized and accordingly applied to Mr. 
Robinson that they might ba baptized this evening, so as to enable 
them to sit down at the table of the Lord next Sunday with their 
shipmates. As Captain Matches was able to speak very favorably 
of their consistent conduct, their application was agreed to and 
thev were both baptized after the usual lecture. 

Sunday, Ut November , 

-This day the four men mentioned in the Minutes of 2l8t Octx>ber 
and the two in that of 28th October, partook of the Lord's 
Supper, Mr. SElobinson taking the opportunity of addressing to 
them some words of earnest counsel. 

We are now appfoaching the i>eriod when special efforts were 


.made to reach the sailors in the Port, but it may be stated here 

that it ia understood that 1868 was the year in which the largest 

niimbsr on record of sailing vessels visited the Port of Calcutta, 

as, after this year^ more steam vessels come to the Port in con* 

sequence of the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869. The number 

of sailing vessels perceptibly declined after this and now the total 

number in the year can be counted on the fingers of one hand as 

they are so few in number. In 1907-08 only one sailing vessel 

entered the Port. 

In 1868 there were 19 admissions in all to the Church. In 

his report to England on the work of this year Mr. Robinson 

stated: — 

"The members are all hearty men and many of them spend 
the Sabbath afternoon preaching the Gospel and inviting sinners 
to come to Jesus." 

On the 28th February 1869, Mr. Robinson preached a sermon 
to children, when Mr. Rodway, the Head Master of the Benevolent 
Institution brought his scholars over to the service. 

On the 28th March anniversary sermons were preached in 
connection with the Pastor's settlement, in the morning by Mr. 
Trafford of Serampore and in the evening by Mr. R. Robinson. 
The Anniversary Tea Meeting was held in a booth on the side of 
the Chapel on 2nd April when Rev. C. B. Lewis presided and 
addresses were delivered by Revs. T. E. Slater and A. Williams. 
A report waa read by the Pastor, but no details from it are in record. 
The collection amounted to Rs. 218. 

On the 12th September another service for children was held. 

There were only eight admissions in this year. The followir^ 
is an extract from Mr. Robinson's report to the Society of the 
work of the year : — 

During the year, beside the Deacons, five or six of our brethren 
haviebeen engaged every Sunday, and as opportunities have offered, 
during the wedk, in visiting the homes of the sick and the poor, 
and the hospitab, where, as well as among the wanderers in our 
streets, they have distributed tracts and offered words of exhorta- 


tion. Three of the brethren are foreigners, and are able to con- 
verse with considerable ease in Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, 
Danish^ Swedish and German, and have been able to distribute a 
number of tracts in those languages. They have also visit&d and 
conveiBed with many foreigners in our hospitals. 

The Church also supports a Native Preacher and the Pastor 
haa the general supervision of the labors of one of the city mis- 
sionaries. These have been engaged generally in visiting and 
preaching twice a day, and the number that hear the Gospel throiugh 
them averages between 800 and 1,000 weekly. 

Nimiber of members given as 136 

Nimiber of children in the Sunday School given as 155 
On the 5th April 1870, it was resolved that the repairs, and the 
tiPDction of a new vestry and lecture room, as stated in the estimate 
prepared by Messrs. Mackintosh Bum and Co., be carried out, 
with the exception of the new portico, and that the firm be re- 
quested to undertake the work forthwith. This they evidently 
did for the Church Meeting of 7th September, was the first after 
fEe repairs had been completed, when it was reported that the 
firm had successfully carried out the repairs, alterations, etc., at 
a total inclusive cost of lis. 9,000, but as the Church had only 
about half that sum in hand it was proposed to borrow the balance 
from Mr. Lewis. 

Mrs. Bobinson, who was in Scotland showed a practidal 
interest in the Church by sending out a remittance for £50, which 
she had collected in Scotland towards the Repair Fund. The 
announcement of this donation was made on the 26th December 

The admission in 1870, were 3; in 1871, 8; and in 1872, 8. 

Towards the end of the year, 1871, the piece of ground on 
the west of the Chapel gateway, viz., No. 30, Bow Bazar Street 
waa rented by the Officers of the Church. This piece of ground 
liad originally belonged to the Church, but slipped out of ita 
pofloeonion many years before under drcumstanoes, which aie 
jfuMj well known, but no serious dSort was made to establish 


tlie Church's claim to it, so the holder continued to remain in 
possefision of it. 

At the beginning of 1872, Mr. Robinson began to find that 
his heavy official duties prevented him from giving as much time 
as he desired to the Church, so he proposed that the Rev. C. Jor- 
dan should join him in the Pastorate, and take an equal share 
with him in the oversight of the Church, which Mr. Jordan waa 
willing to do. It was accordingly resolved to write to Mr. Jordan 
inviting him to the Co-Pastorship in the name of the Church. On 
the Slst of January 1872, Mr. Jordan accepted the Co-Pastorship 
conditionally, subject to the arrangements which might be made 
by his missionary brethren in regard to Serampore. At this point 
a diversion may be made to outline briefly Mr. Jordairs career. 


[Rev. Jqhn Robinson. , 

The Rev. Charles Jordan. 
Hci was born at Dulwich, Surrey^ on the let October 1841. 
Was educated at Regent's Park CoHege, London, and afterwards 
took" up pastoi^al work. Was dasignated as a missionary in Atiguat 


M69, and arrived in Calcutta on the 8tli Kovember following. 
M was intended that on has arrival in this country, he should 
Mrinat Dr. Wenger in his literary work. Accordingly, he was first 
(Utioned at Calcutta till 1871, was at Barisal in 1871 and 1872; 
fNtt Co-Pastor at Lall Bazar with Rev. J. Robinson in 1872 and 
^3. Ait&r leaving Lall Bazar, was Principal of Serampore Ool- 
ttge for 5 years, i.e., from 1873 to 1878. Transferred to Calcutta 
illd placed in charge of the Entally Institution for one year, which 
iras at that time in a flourishing condition. From there, he went 
M» England for 18 months on his first furlough after a residence 
ikl this country of over 10 years. On return to India was stationed 
Ift Howrah for 3 years. He then took up the Pastorate of th-d 
Sfitcolar Road Church, which he held for over 6 years. After 
Aat, he availed himself of a second furlough for 18 months. On' 
^tum to India was attached to Calcutta and did vernacular and 
wfterary work. Availed himself of his third furlough in 1900 on 
Account of ill-health and was away over 2 years. He returned 
ftt the end of 1902, but since then his health has not been good. 
Be retired in consequence with effact from 1st April 1908, after 
ii service of 39 years, and is residing in Calcutta. 

\\' On the 3rd April 1872, Mr. Jordan reported to the Church 
tibiat the services of Miss Butler had been engaged by the Pastor 
ind Deacons as a missionary to the neighbourhood in connection 
with the Church and Siinday School, and those present at the 
iiweting signified their approval of the step taken. 
' ' On tSe 2nd October, it was agreed to hold a series of morning 
payer-meetings during the first week of the ensuing puja holidays. 

On the 3rd December 1873, ths Deacons were authorized to 
obtain from Meesrs. Mackintosh Burn and Co., the best description 
irf-roof that would be suitable for the Chapel, and an estimate of 
ihe cost of the roof that that firm recommended. 

On the 23rd December Mr. Jordan wrote resigning 
te Oo-Pastorahip as it had been arranged for him to go to Seram- 


pore, and when this letter was considered at the meeting on-titt 
following day the Church expressed great regret at his resignatkt 
and its high sense of his past services, and its thankful acknowledf- 
ments for his kind ministrations. 

On the 24th December it was reported that MeesxB. Mio> 
kintoshBum and Co., recommend sd an arched roof on the principle 
patented by Mr. Clark, at a cost of Rs. 4,250, and it was resolvMt 
to ask them to undertake the work together with any slight rep«UB. 
that might be needed. 

On the 18th February 1874, a Committee was appointed toooo- 
sider the estimates furnished by Messrs. Mackintoeli Bum and Go., 
and Messrs Bum and Co., and to arrangd for the new roof bejnf^, 
proceeded with as soon as practicable by whichever firm mi^- 
be selected. 

On the 11th March, it was decided to entrust the oonstnicto 
of the new roof to Messrs Burn and Co., whose estimate amoontet^ 
to Rs. 3,150. 

At that meeting, Mr. Jefferson resigned his office as Treasonr 
of the Repair Fund, and also that of Daacon, and at the followisf 
meeting, which was held on tha 25th idem, Mr. I>erri(^ rangned 
his office as Deacon and withdrew from membership. 

On the 13th April, Mr. Robinson was requested to ask Meflsn. 
Burn and Co., to commence the construction of tbe new zoof', 
immediately, and it was arranged for the servix^es to be held ii 
the school room whilst the roof was being done. 

On the 20th April, a vot^ of thanks was passed to Mr. and 
Mrs. Derrick for their kind assistance during the period of their 
connection (Mr. Derrick joined on the 20th December 1853, and 
Mrs. Derrick was baptized on 27th October 1861), and for their 
valuable services at the Choir. 

On the 15th June, an estimate was accepted for altering tht 
gas fittings, and the completion of the work was reported on the 8tk 

From the 8th to the 12th September, a series of prayer-meat- 


iqp was held^ the last being in the body of the Chapel, which was 
tow ready for use. At the conclusion of these sendees Miss Callow 
Mdy £or use. At the conclusion of these services Miss Callow 
nm presented with. Bs. 100, and a set of Music Books for having 
MRBBided at the harmonium three years. 

The Chapel was re-opened for Service on Sunday, the 13th 
hptember 1874, when Dr. House preached a baptismal sermon 
B ihe morning to a large, and overflowing congregation, in whose 
msenoe twelve individuals were baptized; Mr. Williams 
KiMched in the evening. It may here be mentioned that 
a 1873, twelve persons had been admitted, but 42 were admitted 
Ot 1874. Such a large nximber as 12 being baptized at one time 
nd not occurred since 1837. This served as an incentive to 
Orther efforts, so evangelistic services were held from the 14tb 
O the 19th September, when addresses were delivered by several 
MdnisteiB and laymen. 

A wave of spiritual blessing passed over Calcutta in 1874, 
huing which year tha sister Church at Circular !Eload admitted 
11 in all, i.e., 30 by baptism and 4 by letter. The following is 
m extract from the report of the Pastor of the Circular Boad 
fturch for 1874 :— 

"In no year of the Church a history have so many baptisms 
place. The year has baen one of great awakening through- 

Cidcutta, no less so perhaps than in Britain. Before the 
" services which were held in June, and which were continued 
rifli some intermission to the close of the year, a spirit of great 
Kmestness, and prayer pervaded the different congregations in 
k City, and a great work of grace had been going on among 
to Methodist brethren. Many in our midst had been praying 
Hr • special outpouring of the Holy Spirit, and we believe that 
^ ii in answer to earnest prayer that wc have been so blessed^.'' 

It may be mentioned here that 14 were baptized on the 2nd 
cvgnst 1874, at the Circular Boad Chapel. 

After the 30th September, the land alongside the Chapel on 
le west ceased to be rented. 

On the 6th January 1875, Mrs. Charles Howataon was asked 
she would hold her school in the Lecture H.«AV Iot V^<e 


benefit of tHe Protestant girls of the neighbourhood^ who^ oodi 
pay, the arrangement to last for at least a year. It was op^ied 
a few days after, with every prospect of succesB, but notbing 
further is on record. 

From the 15ti: to the 28th February, a series of prayet meet* 
ings, and special evangelistic services was held. Again from iHa^ 
14th lo the 17th April another series of meetings was held. These 
were conducted by Messrs. Spurgeon and Mintridge, and, it id 
added, that in the course of these services several sailors were 
enlightened and professed faith in the Lord. 

On the 26th May, it was decided to write to the membflw 
whose names were on the Church Roll, but who had disoontinueJ 

At this meeting, Mr. William Thomas resigned his office H 
Deacon, and also his membership. 

On the 9th June, Mr. Austin was unanimously asked to ke^ 
the accounts, and the money of tha Church and Mr. Gk>rdon Rolafr 
son was also unanimously placed in charge of the Chapel prenuBfll^ 
and asked to look after all matters, connected with them. Thert 
was some correspondence he had during his incumbency regardinf 
the east boundary wall of the premises on which an impcNrtaal 
decision was come to some twelve years later. 

On the 15 th June a tea meeting was held at which there wil 
a large gathering of members and their friends. Afterwards tibfl 
meeting adjourned to the Chapel to receive the Pastor's report aft 
the state of the funds connected with the erection of the, new roofi 
and to adopt measures for paying ojff the debt. It was stated tM. 
in the course of the erection of the new roof, it was found that bmm 
of the arches over the doors, and windows were cracked, and that 
the whole system of gas piping needed renewal so that the toUl 
cost had amounted to Es. 6,570, instead of Bs. 4,500^ as pM* 
viously estimated. Towards this Ks. 5,000 had been raised ui 
Bs. 1,500 had yet to be raised, which It.i^aa hoped would ht 


Dne by the 13tli September, tbe anniversary of tbs re-opening 
f l^e Chapel. 

From the 19th to the 25th July, evangelistic services were 
yaan held at which about 18 persons, almost all of whom were 
liloiB, declared themselves on the Lord's side. 

On the 18th August, it was resolved to strike off the Roll the 
bsenting members, who had been written to but had not replied. 

On the 13th September, a large tea meeting was held, and 
fter it a public meeting at which General Litchfield, the United 
bates Consul-General presided and Rev. J. Ross and Br. Thoburn 

On the 7th November, sermons were preached on bahalf of the 
laptifit Missionary Society by Mr. Jordan in the morning and 
[r. T. Evans in the evening. 

On the 14th November, Mr. Robinson stated that under medical 
ivice he would have to give up a portion of his Church work, and 
xjuested the appointment of a Committee to consult what measures 
lould be adoptad. On the 17th idem, the Committee presented 
leir report when it was unanimously decided to invite Rev. C. 
. Brown to work with Mr. Bx>biiison for the present. The Oom- 
littee thought the Church might get a Missionary Pastor for 
s. 100, payable by the Church and Rs. 150 by the Society with 
)Tise, after a year Rs. 125, and so on until Rs. 250 was made up. 
oooirdingly a letter was written to Mr. Brown on the 19th idem 
iviting him to share the pastorate with Mr. Robinson pending 
ie decision of t£e Baptist Missionary Society, and on the 24tli 
em, Mr. Brown wrota accepting the above, and this acceptance 
IS hailed with satisfaction ; but Mr. Brown went to Barisal pend- 
g the receipt of the orders of the Committee from London. 

On the 5th January 1876, it was decided that the officers 
the Church, who were to be elected should be calkd Elders , and 
»t Deacons. It was also decided that 5 should be elected, and 
» following were so elected:— 

1. Mr. Austin, who was appointed Tpaasurer. 


2. Mr. Aratoon. 

3. Mr. Francis. 

4. Mr. F. P. Lindeman. 

5. Mr. Gordon Robinson, who was to supervise everything 
in connection with the building, viz,, gas, repairs etc. ; also to 
be the representative of the Church in the Sunday School. 

It was also considered desirable to registar the attendance 
of members at the Communion by Cards. 

On the 17th January, the reply of the Society refusing to enter- 
tain any proposition for assisting Mr. Robinson was read at * 
special meeting. The Society ordered Mr. Brown's immediite 
return to the mofussil, for vernacular work. 

The Sykes Brothers having offered quarters free, Mr. BroU 
was asked on the 18th January, if he would remain on Rs. 150 j^ 
quartera, to which he consented * subject to his release by tb 
Society. Accordingly, a letter was addressed by the Chunk 
to the Society on the 2l6t January, regarding this matter which wii 
signed by all the officers and members. 

Mr. R. Robinson consented to fill the pulpit until tlie wtara 
of his brother to Calcutta. 

To cheer Mr. Robinson a letted was written to him on the 26A 
January, expressing the gratitude of the Church to him and thitf 
sympathy with him. 

A letter of thanks was written on the same day to the Mbbbh* 
Sykes for their offer of quarters. 

On the 15th February, the Pastor personally thanked tfc» 
Elders at his house for the Church's letter of 30th January, uA 
asked them to continue to make arrangements for the services • 
he was too weak to take them up, so, on the 20th February, tbe 
Elders decided to ask Mr. Kerry to occupy the pulpit. 

On the 1st March^ Mr. Robinson wrote a letter to the ChurA 
thanking them for their good wish>ss and informing them that • 
friend had offered to make good the amount of the debt for tin 
repaiiis so as to free the Church. 


On the 22nd March, th>d Church wrote to Mr. B. BobinAon^ 
anking him for all his acts of kindness to them. 

On the 1st April, the letter of 10th March, from the Society 
osenting to Mr. Brown relinquishing the Society to become Pastor 
as ireceivdd to which the Church replied on the 5th idem. On 
le 7th, Mr. Brown arrived in Calcutta and preached his first 
trmon on the 9th. 

On the 12th April, Mr. Bobinson wrote resigning the pastorate 
od his resignation was accepted, but a week later he was asked 
eiBonally to withdraw it, which he consented to do. This was, 
loubtless, due to Mr. Brown t^endenng his resignation on that date 
vwing to his views regarding eternal punishment, and hi^i resignar 
ion was accepted. 

On the 20th April, it was decided to ask 4 or 5 ministers to 
mpply the pulpit once a month until permanent arrangements 
INore made for a new Pastor, the expenses incurred by them being 
Mad by the Church. A letter of thanke waa written on that date 
to Mrs. 6. Bobinson, expressing the gratitude of the Church for 
dl her services. 

On the 1st and 5th May, circulars were sent to the members 
^garding the arrangements to be mada for a Pastor, and on , the 
^9th May, Mr. Lewis suggesed an interview with Dr. Wenger 
ind himself. 

A special Church Meeting was held on the 24th May at 
"Kch, after much discussion, it was resolved to ask Rev. B. J. 
811is to take Pastoral charge of the Church until some permanent 
ttrangements could be made, and on the 31st idem, Mr. Ellis 
lersonally intimated his willingness to do so. 

At the above meeting, it was pointed out that one of the 
Qders would have to be denominated Beaoon for the purposes 
f the Williams' Estate. 

0^ the 1st of June, Bev. J. Bobinson wrote his letter actually 
QBigning the Pastorate, but he did not despatch it till the 21st 
lem. Tn his letter he and Mrs. Bobinson jointly took their leav-a 


of each member individually. Mr. Robinson stated that hisnervona 
system prevented his calling on them. 

On the 10th July, a farewell address to Mr. Hobinson wu 
drawn up, and on the 30th August, it was resolved to present Ida 
with a gold watch and Mrs. Eobineon with a silver milk jug aad 
sugar basin, costing about Be. 420 in all. 

On the 21st December, a public meeting was held, pranijil' 
over by Dr. House when a testimonial and addresses were preBeoieil 
to Mr. and Mrs. Bobinson in recognition of their eervioes to ike 
Church for a period of eight years, failing health having oofr 
pelled Mr. Robinson to retire from Pastoral charge. 

The following are extracts from Mr. Robinson's rqgOTts ier 
1874 and 1875, which are taJken from the Annual lEteports of tte 
Society. In the latter Report a good deal is said about work amoig 
sailors : — 

"When I last communicated with you about our aff aizB^ k ; 
was to ask the aid of thib Society at Home when our Chapel needflis 
extensive repairs. With much gratitude, we acknowledge th' 
grant of £50. A second sum of £60 at least — perhaps a Uttfc ^ 
more — I have not the accounts near me — was also generoolT 
contributed by kind friends in Scotland, The repair^ of il* ; 
Chapel, and the erection of a large hall, whare Sunday Sdioi 
children might meet for service, and where we might also hxit 
our week-day meetings, etc., cost something more than £900. W« 
could not raise all the money at once, but through the perseveriflf 
efforts of our brethren and friends, we were able in October M 
to pay up the whole amount. Scarcely, however, was this axn0l0& 
paid, before we found ourselves under the necessity of inconiflf 
an additional expense to put up a new roof to the Chapel. IW 
new expense, we will have to meet immediately, and I. hope t* 
shall be able to raise the amount needed in a short time alsMlfc 
entirely among ourselves. 

" Though our numerical strength is not great, yet, I am gW 
to say our congregations have kept up very well. I trust toO^ 
there is much of a spirit of life, and activity b^iinning to to 
manifested amongst us. Our sisters have had one or two meetinff 
for prayer every week among themselves. Several of our joanf 
men too meet onoe a week in the Chapel for prayer. 

" When I last gave you the number of members in our Chnith 


was stated at 136. Sinoe then 32 have boen added to us by 
itism. But, a Church in India, especially one like ourSi is 
j^ to very great changes, and large deductions have been 
de from our number, 20 have been removed by death, and all, 
have good reason to hope, have gone to join the ganeral assembly 
•VjB; 7 have been excluded or resigned their connection 
h us and no less than 36 have removed to other and distant 
ds, or have formed oonnsctions with, other Churches away from 
cutta. Our number now therefore, is 105, yet. of this number 19 
^ removed to other parts of the country who still retain their 
bber^p. The larger number of them are at places where 
!P&is a Baptist Church. 

" Our Sunday School under the able superintendence of Mr. 
)rg6 Jefferson has kept up well, the number on the books is 
:, and the average attendance during the year, 96. 

"The open-air services in the grounds of tha Chapel were 
imenoed in October 1874, and kept up without intermission till 
ril 1875: the addresses v/ere delivered in English, Bengalee and 
adustani, according to the number of those present, who spoke 
I understood either of these languages. Our usual services in 

Chapel have been regularly kept up- and well attended, 
long the European and African sailors, who resort to the 
apeljaeveral • have we believe been savingly converted. A few 
% been baptized, but a large number left the Port after their 
iveision. The following iincidenT, which occurred in March 
y prove intsiresting : — 

"Bibles in different languages to the value of Rs. 20 (£2) wers 
en as a thankoffering to be disposed of to sailors at half-price, 
number of tham were present when the parcels were opened. 
He came forward, and made thir purchases. Others looked 
I longed, but could not afford to pay and were unwilling to 
:e the books on credit. Just at this time a young sailor named 
ttelly came up, and laying a five rupee note on the table said 
it was to pay, as far as it wemt, for those who could not pay. 
ter distribution had been made DoneTly spoke to them in a 
J interesting manner directing his address especially to his 
pmates, who had oftsn mocked and jeered at him, when he 
5lt down to pray in the forecastle. He spoke of the blessedness 
serving the Lord, and urged his companions to come to Jesus. 
I address was listened to with deep attention, and in the 
rse of that week twelve sailors professed to find peace in believ- 
Donelly and two more joined the Church, and were baptized, 
is was on the 28th March 1875). The otherFi though not bap- 


tized gave good groimd for. hope that they had been broiiglit to 
a saving knowledge of the Truth. 

" During the rains, we were not able to continue the outdoor 
services, but they ware again commenced in September, when the 
Brethren Spurgeon and Brown were with us. I cannot tell yoa 
how we missed dear brother Mintridge, who ever took a deep 
interest in these meetings and found them refreshing to his botiI. 
Very early after the commencement of those services in September 
last, a sailor named Allen decided for the Lord, and on the day 
before he left this Port had the oppor^^^unity of telling what thi 
Lord had done for his soul in the presence of about 130 sailors, idio 
had come to a te^ meeting. These meetings for tea and addreseeB 
deserve a passing notice. They are got up and the provmoM 
supplied by our young friends, members of the Church, scnne rf 
whom issue cards of invitation or use other means to bring tbe^ 
sailors in, while others wait in the Lecture Boom to give them a 
welcome. And after the tea, during which much pleasant oonvena- 
tion goes on, addresses are delivered by ministers and others. Our 
dear young friends have found their reward in seeing many awak- 
ened, and being themselves made the means of their conversiOfi. 

" The number this year which at our meetings professed the 
determination to follow the Lord has exceeded 100. 

" We have this year received by baptism and dismission froB 
other Churches 24. 

" The Chapel roof which was constructed last year, and othtf 
expenses connected with the lighting, cost Ks. 6,750, nearly &t 
whole of which, all but Bs. 150 has been cleared." 

The number of members is given rs 155. 



The work among Sailors in Calcutta. 

For much of tbe information in this chapter the writer is in- 
sbted to "A Memoir of Lydia Miriam Rouse/' by her husband; 
/good deal of the information contained in Chapter II. of that 
arresting biography concerns the Lall Bazar Chapel. 
■ ■ Calcutta is situated on the East bank of the river Hooghly, 
^Mmt 90 miles from the sea. Its rise as a Port has been steady 
mt since Job Cbarnock selected the site on the 24th August 
B80. A sketch is given below from Daniell's " Oriental Annual," 
B35, of Calcutta, as seen in his day from " Garden House Reach." 

View op the Shipping in Calcutta from Garden House 
Reach as in 1835. 

Since then the number of vessels coming to tiie Pot\, V^aj^ ^^-rj 
pBi^erMjr increased. The number that ent«eT^d \\) m V^*^*^ \s^ 



given ae 1,151 and in 1903-04 the number is given as 1,310. 
these 623 were sea-going and 687 coasting vessels, and the ^ 
next year the number rose to 1,367, or an addition of 57. Oft] 
1,367 there were 507 seargoing vessels and 860 coasters. The figi 
for 1867-68 were 982; in 1868-69, 887; and 1869-70, 928; bui 
1907-08, according to the recently published report, there were Ij 
arrivals, so that the number seems steadily on the increase. 

Such a large Port naturally has a large floating populat 
When the census of 1866 was taken there were in the Port on 
Census Day 149 sailing-ships and only 20 steamers, whereae 
1881 the numbers were 70 sailing ships and 31 steamers, 
number of sailing vessels began to fall off after 1869 owing to 
opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 and from the figures gi 
about it will be seen that the drop was 79 in 15 years. 

As sailing vessels used to remain for months in Calcutta 
those days there probably were quite 200 of them in the Por 
one time for weeks together in 1867, 1868 and 1869. We I 
already seen that there were 149 actually in Port together on 
Census Day of 1866. Two hundred sailing vessels represente 
large number of sea-faring individuals, who were other than nat 
of India. Taking 40 persons as the lowest figure for the c 
of all hands of a single sailing ship we get 200X^0=8,1 
This figure is probably under rather than over the actual! 
largest number were always here in the cold season. 

The vessels being moored in a quiet river it was easy for 
men to get ashore when not on duty so that a large numbe 
them were always found in the streets in town of an evening 
on Sundays especially. In those days the Port Oommissio 
were not in existence, so th^t there were no jetties to land at, m 
less the Docks at Kidderpore. The HoogUy Bridge had not 1 
constructed. The Port Commission was formed in 1870 and 
Hooghly Bridge was opened on 1st October 1874, and, as to 
Kidderpore Docks, the first vessel did not enter them until J 
1892. The following extract from Statham's "In< 


Reoollecfcions," London, J832, describes very faithfully th^ 
.experiences of the sailors of those times : — 

One of the covered dinghies is generally hired by the Com- 
manders of merchant vessels to attend their respective ships whilst 
in harbotir, hence most of the dinghywallahs (i.e., boatmen) speak 
a little broken English, in which all the oaths of sailoiB are mingled, 
Mid iised without any idea of the meaning attached ; by his partial 
knowledge of the English language, the dinghywallah is a person 
df great importance to the British sailor, and one of the many 
harpies, which pounce upon him ae soon as his foot touches India's 
shores. The sailor leaves his ship cleanly dressed in white jacket 
and trowsers, witb new straw hat tied round with blue ribbon, 
9rnd sometimes with many rupees in bis pocket, — the dmghywalldh 
guesses when this is the case, and proffers his services as "master's 
interpreter," generally observing, ''I go with master, else black 
fellows cheat him," to this the sailor (oonsdous of his total in- 
ability to make himself understood without an interpreter), cheer- 
fully acteedes. When landed at the Ghaut tha dinghywallah as- 
sumes an air of importance as "master's headmen," chooses which 
palankeen master shall ride in ; this, of course, is that the owner of 
which promisee him the largest dustooree (custom); the. sailor 
enters, and away they start for a grog-shop in the Old China Bazar 
or elsewhere, as the dinghywallah piay direct. The consequence 
18 the poor sailor is generally seen the next morning, dirty, forlorn 
.and penniless, vociferating for the ship's dinghy to fetch him on 
board, swearing and blustering, at the many natives, who accosfc 
him, because they do not speak plain English, or endeavouring by 
hard words and still harder blows to force some poor fellow (into 
whose dinghy he has entered) to convey him tp his ship, without, 
flrat exhibiting th^ needful to his money-loving gaze./' 

At that time Jack's chief resort would seem to have been the 
.Old China Bazar, but from a long time back, till within the last 
decade or so. Jack's chief resort- used to be the street running at 
right angles from Tank Square — now Dalhousie Square — ^the' first 
section, of which used to be called Loll or Lall Bazar till as far 
East as Wellington Street; the next section used to be. called 
*Bow Bazar and the third section Boitakhana. In those old days * 
the Chapel fell within the first section hence its name LallBasar 
Chapel, but many years ago the Lall Bazar section was re- 
dttoed to its present restricted length, i.e., as far as the Chitpore 
Road only. The Chapel, therefore, fell in the Bow Bazar section, 


thereby causing much confusion in the mixing up of the iia 
Lall Bazar Chapel in Bow Bazar Street. This is an anon 
which can easily be rectified now by changing the name of 
Cfhapel to Carey Baptist Chapel, 31, Bow Bazar Street which 
been decided upon. As long as the street was the resort of saj 
it was best known to them, and to Christian workers of the 
by its slang name of Flag Street which it got through each g 
shop and boarding-house having its distinguishing flag by w! 
it was known. 

The following extract from the Rev. J. Long's article in 
Calcutta Review on the localities of old Calcutta, which was wri 
in 1850, describes this street at length with accuracy : — 

Lall Bazar is mentioned by Hoi well in 1738 as a famous ba 
Mrs. Kindersley in 1768 statss it to be the best street in Calcii 
full of little shabby-looking shops called Boutiques, kept by b 
people. It then extended from the Custom House to Boitakhs 
Bolts mentions a case of a Governor-G-aneral, about 1770, who i 
ing that Europeans there retailed parria (inferior) arrack to 
great debauchery of the sailors, "sent a guard of sipahis and { 
them lodging for several days in the dungeon of the new fort, 
had just been constructed). Sir W. Jones, 1788, refers to 
nuisance there of low taverns kept by Italians, Spanish 

From the above it will h^ seen how the old books on old 

cutta describe Lall Bazar Street, and, wKere punch-houses 

such places form the resort of ssamen, houses of ill-fame are n< 

far oS which gave the street its name Loll Bazar. The follow 

extract from Mr. Statham's book which has already been c 

^' shows what sort of stuff used to be sold to Jack soma 80 years a; 

A " A great quantity of damaged, or what is called rejected, 

«* ' is sometimes sold here (auction rooms), which is purchased by 

keepara of the low taverns and punch-houses, and I believe i 
many lives are constantly sacrificed in consequence amon^t 
soldiers and sailors, who frequent these grog-shops in Calcn 
such persons not being abls to purchase the prime ale, wl 
fi^enerallv fetches a rupee per bottle, and, having for months 1 
deprived of their native favorite TDevets^e, eagerly embrace 
offer of a bottle of ale for four annas, or about six pence, 
consequence is that after greedily swallowing several bottles, t 


axe often seized witli an attack of dysentery or cholera morbus, 
and I have known many obliged to be carried from these drinking 
bouts to the hospital, and some have died on their passage thither. 
I once tasted some ale thus purchased and shoidd certainly have 
prefeored a glass of vinegar." 

The locality had a bad name In those early days, so that it 
was no wonder that when the soldiers from the Fort began attend- 
ing the services some of the better class of Officers conceived, the 
idea that they came to Loll Bazar for bad purposes.. The follow- 
ing extract from the Calcutta Christian Observer of September 
1837 from a letter signed Gr. Pickance dated Calcutta, 1st July 
1837, shows the state of things: — 

" What a sad spectacle does a ship's company present, hard at 
work on the Sabbath, the same as if it were any other day, and 
making that an excuse for not attending a place of worship. What 
an awful sight to see British, sailors rolling about the streets of 
Calcutta drunk on the Lord's Day more than any other. What 
a paradoxical speciman of Christianity for the heathen to witness. 
May they not with propriety ask. " Do not these men come from 
a country calling itself Christian ? Do not these profess to receive 
the Bible as the rule of life % to reverence the Sabbath as holy ? " 

At the period to which we have now come, viz., 1875 to 1880, 
the locality still retained its bad name and continued to retain it 
for quite 20 years longer. Sailing vessels with European crews 
have been replaced by steamers most of which have lascar crews, 
and the Kidderpore Docks having been opened, the scene has 
shifted from Lall Bazar to Kidderpore and the sight of a seaman 
now in Bow Bazar Street is about as rare as it ussd to be common 
in the former days. Only one large sailing vessel came to the 
Port throughout the whole of tha year 1907-081 

The punch-houses were succeeded by low grog-shops and lodging 
hoxtees for seamen which literally used to abound in that part of 
the town. Almost opposite the Chapel where the large three- 
storeyed building, No. 285, Bow Bazar Street, has recently been 
constructed there used^ even as late as the middle of last century, 
to be a row of low drinking saloons and chop-houses, which were 
much patronised by the seamen of those days. 


Eacli lodging-house had its runner, who used to meet the 9QBr 
men either on the ship when it moored or on the river bank as 
soon as they stepped ashore, and these poor fellows were often 
drugged, and, not infrequently, robbed. The drinking used to 
lead to fighting in only too many cases, and on Sundays especially 
the Police used to have a haard day's work, especially prior to 1875, 
whereas now, owing to the change in the locality, there being no 
grog-shop till beyond Phear Lane, they have literally no task of 
that sort to perform. Not infrequently in former days did the 
Police get badly handled and often it took three European Sergeants 
to overpower a drunken sailor. One house in Bow Bazar Street 
which is still standing could be pointed out as about the most 
notoriously bad, among the bad, 35 years ago, but it changed its 
character some years back and is used in other and better ways 
now. The whole aspect of Bow Bazar Street is gradually being 
changed by the erection of large and handsome places of business 
which more become one of the main thoroughfares of the City, 
so that the next generation will hardly believe the stories about 
the bad character of the locality in the former times. 

In the Memoir of Mrs. Rouse it is stated that the spiritual 
condition of Calcutta prior to 1872 was not what could be desired, 
and, pointing out some of the defects in ihe Christian efforts of 
those days, it is stated :— 

" Sailors had even less care taken of them,'' and then it goes 
on to say: — 

" In Flag Street there was one witness for Christ, the Lall Bazar 
Baptist Chapel. Ever since its erection the Gospel had been faith- 
fully preached in it, and being in the centre of Lall Bazar, sailors 
often dropped in to the services. In 1872 the pastor was John 
Robinson, son of one of the early Baptist missionaries. He was 
Bengali Translator to Government, and was hard-worked in that 
capacity. Yet he found time not only to act as Pastor of the Lall 
Bazar Church without any remuneration, but also to do evangelis- 
tic work not merely among the degraded population around it, but 
among the sailors who thronged the Streets. In this he was ably 
seconded by his wife, who was abundant in labors for Christ." 


In the year 1874, the Methodists heard of the Women's Crusade 
in Ohio, America, so Dr. (now Bishop) Thoburn, who had recently 
come to Calcutta, to carry on their work, suggested that the ladies 
of thedr Church might commence similar work in Calcutta, but, 
though there were difficulties in the way, a band of their ladies 
started in October of that year to take up work in Flag Street. When 
Mrs. Bouse arrived in Calcutta in December 1874, she found this 
work going on, and at once threw herself into it, and from that 
time till she left India in 1880, it is stated, she never missed a 
Sunday in this grog-shop work excapt when absent from Calcutta. 
She joined herself with Mrs. May. The work at first was simple 
visitation of the grog-shops, the distribution of tracts, singing, 
prayer, and personal appeal. But at once the necessity arose of 
finding some place of worship to which the ladies could take the 
men. At first the most handy place was the Lall Bazar Chapel, 
right in the heart of the district, where Mr. and Mrs. Bobinson 
and their people were active in seeking to lead the lost to Christ. 
There was a large tree (it is not so conspicuous now) at the en- 
trano3 of the Chapel compound, and when the ladies could induce 
the men to come out of the drinking dens they would point to 
that tree and say "go in there. ' Many a soul was thus led to 
Christ. Tea-meetings were often held, and these as well as tlie 
Sunday services were much blessed. 

The liberty will now be taken to reproduci; some extracts from 

Mrs. Bouse 's diary, which are in -the Memoir on account of their 

connection with Lall Bazar: — 

Sunday, April {1875), 

The Irishman Donelly gave a most interesting account of him- 
self. He went to California to the diggings ; all he got he drank 
and gambled away, so that instead of improving he got worse and 
worse. He went to San Francisco, and, there, having gambled 
every cent, be walked, as he could not pay for conveyance, to the 
harbour, hired himself as a sailor again and went on board deter- 
mined to make away with himself. Going on board one day he 
heard singing; he went to hear it and found that some persons 
were singing, " Jesus, lover of my soul," when they came to that 


line, "Otlier refuge have I none," he said to hinaself, "Thafi 
my case, I have no refuge, I'll fly to Him." He did nob obtam 
peace at once, but at last was able to rejoice in believing and wn 
baptized about a month ago. He is a bright active Chnstian. 

This is the very seaman mentioned by Mr. Kobinson in lui 
last report, and the incident therein mentioned should be read 
in conjunction with that mentioned above. 

Thursday, 29th April (Wo). 

Heard a veiy satisfactory account of James D — Mr. Kolrifr 
son (Pastor of the Lall Bazar Church) felt much pleased with hi 
decision, and he prayed, so sweetly poor fellow. He is by thi 
tinie no doubt far away — may the Lord keep him and teach hin 
daily more of Himself. 

Another sailor, a Norwegian, was seen sitting after the Suik 
day evening service. Mrs. Robinson asked him how it was with 
him? Oh I am so happy. Are you a believer? "Yes." Since hot 
long ? " Last Friday evening. ' " Were did you find Him? " H^ 
in this Chapel, sitting over there." "Did any one speak to you!" 
"No one but Jesus and now I am so happy." Thus the Lordii 

This man would seem to have been one of those influenced 

for good by the special services conducted by Messrs. SpurgeoB 

and Mintridge, from 14th to 18th April 1875. 

Sunday, lift Avgud* 

Called first at A's, several men about joined in singmg and 
promised to attend Chapel. Some very attentive and seemed deeply 

On Monday a man said to Mrs. Eobinson, There's a Baptist 
Chapel down there and they are' a devoted lot. A constable tdd 
me there are ladies go out on Sunday afternoon to look after thi 
Jacks and young men come at night and lead them to Chapel and 
we have no rows now with the Jacks on Sunday night. Praise the 
Lord for. His goodness. To Him be all the glory. 

2£nd Stptenihcr. The sailors recovered from cholera left the 
hospital the next day and went to Lall Bazar Chapel. One re- 
mained as a seeker. When asked how long he had thought fieri* 
ously of his soul, he said a "lady spoke to me in the hospit^/' Be 
gave his heart to Christ. Praise the Lord O my sold ! 

Going to Dum Dum in July, at a tea we had, a young maA 
named H. who said. Do you, remember seeing me and some otheft 


in Flag Street ? I was the mate of a vessel, and my companion a 
young man named O'Donnell. You spoke to us, and we were at a 
tea given at Lall Bazar on 27th January (1875). I have never 
forgotten it. O Donnell has gone to Edinburgh and lives at home 
with his friends, he has turned over a new leaf from that day. I 
have now enlisted in the 40th and have decided for Christ. 

Going to the CofFes-Room, on 15th September, a man came 
up looking very smiling, and said he wanted to come and see me. 
He said further, '' You met me and another man on Sunday, 14lh 
May, and took me to the Coffse-Eoom. I went to Chapel and 
gave my heart to Christ, and ever since I have been so happy.'' 

April 1877. In another hous3 spoke to a number, of men. On 
inviting them to Chapel one said. No, I will not, I have not been 
there for years and don't mean to go, I have nothing to do with it. 
He added more in the same strain and said, What I want is a 
situation and money to take me to my wife and family in Melbourne 
whom I have not seen for four years. I lost my, situation through 
drink. Its no use my trying. We then began to sing and, as 
the words of the old familiar hymn. " There is a ioiintain filled 
with blood " sounded out, he became very uneasy. We continued 
singing, hoping he might be completely broken down, but after a 
while he got up and went away. The next evening, however, he 
was at our Bible-Class at the Coffee Room, and said I wish to 
apologise for what I said yesterday. I did go to Chapel after. 
all: That hymn upset me: I couldn't stand it: I am in great 
trouble. We saw him again, and on Sunday he said, "I have got 
a ship and I'm going on board to-morrow. Will you kindly give me 
your address as I wish to write to you." ''Have yon decided for 
Christ before you leave Calcutta." ''Oh yes," he replied, ''last 
Sunday in Chapel. I'm now going to try to go home to my family. 
That hymn broke me down.'* Thus surprised and thankful for 
the great blessing given upon a few words feebly spoken and sung 
we took leave of Henry A., trusting God would keep him faithful. 
Just another exemplification of the truth that if we seek God first, 
and are right with Him, all other things will ba added." 

One of the saddest incidents (if not tlic most sad) mentioned 
by Mrs. Rouse, is recorded thus: — 

" Sometimes a drunken man will rush out into the street with 
a knife in his hand, driving all before him, and many a young life 
that night have been bright with hope and joy is suddenly quenched, 
while loving friends at home are brought to desolation and sorrow. 
Last July (1880) a young Scotch sailor, only 22 years of age, stabbed 
a native policeman while intoxicated and expiated his crime on 
the gallows." 


In 1878, the Methodists opened their Coffee Boom in 
Bazar, and devoted themselves specially to sailor work, after v 
oomparatively few seamen used to attend the services at the Ch 
so the work among sailors died out. 

Mrs. Selina May. 


It is fitting that something should be said about tbi| 
getic Christian worker before closing this Chapter, and ft« 
of the facts about to be mentioned, the writer is indebted i 
Bouse, but others are mentioned from personal knowledge 'I 
good lady. 

Mrs. May was born in Cornwall, England, but ehft 
divulged the date of her birth, and always objected to 1m 
being known, and her friends respected this feeling. She a 
in this country somewhere about the year 1870. Her hi 
was engaged in the establishment of a jewellery and 
mskking firm for a tew yeais, \iut l\e afterwards set up for h 


39 5 

in biisin€68. Mr. and Mrs. May were at that time members of the 
Weeleyan Church, but subsequently joined th© Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, and wore among those who first invited Bishop 
Thoburn, (then only Dr. Thoburn) to Calcutta. Mrs. May was 
for many years actively engaged in Christian work, and was one 
of the most prominent in the band of Christian workers, who in 
1874, engaged in the Sunday-afternoon visitation of the Calcutta 
grog-shops in Lall Bazar, and its neighbourhood. This visitation 
was carried on for many years with very successful results. A 
number of the sailors and others, who frequented these grog-shops 
were led to Christ, and tho Municipal authorities recognized the 
importance of this work in making the street more orderly than 
it was before. She used often in addition to conduct religious 
services on different ships in Port, and below is given a sketch of 
one such service, which shows Dr. Thoburn at her right hand. 

Sketch of Mrs. May conducting a Servick on the Ship 
*' Battle Abbey.*' 


She liad a bright face, a pleasant cherry address and tact in 
dealing with, the men she came across, and these always took, and 
she was commonly known among the sea^faring class, and aJflO 
among the soldiers as, " Mother May/' Only in July 1908, the 
present writer had occasion to show her portrait to a man, an 
ex-soldier, who had not been in Calcutta for about 23 years, and he 
at once exclaimed, " Oh, That's Mother May," and seemed quite 
pleased to see a face that used to be so familiar in those days. 

Mrs. May was as well suited to speak to soldiers as to sailots, 
and very frequently conducted Soldiers' Meetings, and was the 
means of leading many to Christ. She also engaged in other de- 
partments of Christian work as far as strength permitted. 

In 1899, she went on a visit to Darjeeling with a view to 
recruit her health ; but she was very feeble. The terrible Dar- 
jeeling Disaster occurred on the 25th September, while she was 
there. A number of children of the Calcutta Girls' School, whwn 
she knew well were suddenly killed by the terrible storm of that 
date. She never got over the shock, but passed away a few weeks 
after it, on the 19th Octobar. Her husband did not survive her 
many years. 

The Tablet to her memory in the Thoburn Methodist Church, 

Calcutta, bears the following inscription : — 

In loving memory of 

Mrs. Selina May, 

Wife of Fred. W. May. 

Born in Cornwall, England. 

l)ied at Darjeeling, 19th October 1899. 

Mrs. May was one of the most active founders of this Church, 
who first invited Bishop Thoburn to Calcutta. She was a leading 
worker in the first Sunday School, the founder of the work among 
seamen in which she became widely known throughout the world, 
and for 25 years remained a tireless worker in her Master's name. 
Thousands knew her as " the sucoourer of many." 

And the following is the inscription on her grave at Darjeeling. 


In loving memory of Sclina, wife of Fred. W. May, born in 
)rnwall, England. Died at Darjeeling, 19tb October 1899, 
"Tbe Succourer- of many." 

The following anecdote about Mrs. May, which, has been 
entioned to the present writer ie of sufficient interest to find a 
aoe in this sketch. On one occasion, she was at the grog-shop 
st beyond Phear Lane, where she met an infidel, who was under 
le influence of liquor and using bad language, and wound up by 
/ying that h& did not believe in a God as there was no God. Mrs. 
"ay then told him, she had a book with his name in it. He 
emed astonished at hearing this. She then opened her Bbile, and 
ad from Psl. xiv. 1. "The fool hath said in his heart, there is no 
ad," and looking straight at him said, " There, that's your name" 
id closed the book. The man seemed dazed for a few moments, 
it, recovering himself, said, " All right Grannie, I'll go " in reply 
her invitation to go to the Chapel. 


The ACTma Pastorate of the Ebv. Dr. Rouse. 

(From Ut January to 10th December 1877.) 

Before detailing the events of Dr. Rouse's acting Pastorat 
will be necessary to introduce to the reader the good Doctor, 
his bright little wife, who has been in glory 24 years. It 
also be necessary to retrace our steps in order to fill the gap : 
the 1st June to the 31st December 1876. 


Rev. Dr. G. H. Roubb. 

He was bom at Melton in Suffolk on the 18tii NovBinber 1 
Wab brought up in the tenets of the Church of Bngland, 


friend, who rended in the house. He became a Proteeiant and 
a Baptist, and not long after this daughter's birth, he removed to 
Faversham in Kent, where he became Pastor of the Baptist Church 
in that town. Mr. Denham is stated to have had remarkable lin- 
guistic ability, and this attracted the notice of Dr. Angus, the then 
Secretary of the Missionary Society, who drew his attention to the 
claims of India. Mr. Denham assented, and in 1844 sailed for 
India with his family of four daughters, Lydia being at that time 
in ber fifth year. On arrival at Calcutta, the family remained 
for some time in Calcutta, but in 1845, when Mr. Mack died, 
Mr. Denham was transferred to Serampore. Mr. Denham reK>rgan- 
ized the College, and in time the number in attendance rose i>o 
between 200 and 300 pupils. For many years Mr. Denham was 
the only Missionary at Serampore, and he was also Pastor of the 
English speaking Baptist Church there. Mr. Denham is referred 
to in the highest terms in Mr. Summers' funeral, sermon of the 
Bev. B. Bobinson, preached in December 1901. The family 
remained at Serampore from 1845 to 1855, when Mr. Denham's 
health failed, and it became necessary for him to return to England, 
which he did early in 1856, and, while in England, he did depu- 
tation work. He was returning to India alone in 1858, but died 
at Galle during this voyage out in October of that yeer. 

On arrival in December 1874, Mis. Bouse threw herself 
at once into ''grog-shop work,'' as it used to be called, which she 
was engaged in from 1875 to 1880, some details of which have 
idready been given. She also within the same period devoted her 
time to work among soldiers some interesting details regarding 
which are given in the biography, but cannot be reproduced in 
this narrative. She was also the Calcutta Secretary to the Baptist 
Zenana Mission. 

From December 1874 to October 1878, she seemed always well 
and bright, but in November 1878, had an attack of dysentry, and 
the Doctor said, there was internal tiunouv. 

In February 1880, her weakness assuming an acute form, she 



suffered greatly and was much reduced in strength. In 
1880, she and Br. Rouse went to England. In October 188b ^ 
Dr. Rouse returned to India alone and Mrs. Rouse renumal 
behind in England doing whatever Christian work her strengA 
permitted her to take up. 

On the 13th October 1884, she reached Plymouth with k 
daughter, but looked very frail, yet took part in some of ttl 
meetings. On the 26th idem, she was too weak to go out, W 
rallied on the 30th. After that she gradually sank, until 
passed away on the 9th November at the early age of 45. 

Her life work was practically confined to the brief periDi j 
of a trifle over 5 years, i.e.. from December 1874, to March 18ft 
BO well might we be reminded (in the words of the title of hr 
life) to "work while it is day." 

At the Church Meeting of the 24th May 1876, it was deddi 
that the Rev. R. J. Ellis be asked to take Pastoral charge of U 
Bazar Church till next cold season, or until more pei 
arrangements could be made, and at the meeting of 31st May, Ibi 
Ellis ihtimated his willingness to accept temporary Pastoral diufl 
of the Church. 

On the i3th June, Mr. Robinson's resignation was acceptoi] 
and on the 24th June a letter of thanks was sent to Mr. Eenj 
services rendered in March and April. 

On the 28th June, Mr. Arat<K)n was appointed Minute Seo^ 
tary, and Mr. Austin, Deacon, for the purposes of the WiDiis' 

On the 10th July, an address to Mr. and Mrs. John BoUnMi 
was drawn up, and Mr. F. P. Lindeman was appointed 
Deacon for the Williams' Esfate. 

On the 6th August, all the Elders tendered theip resignatki] 
as some members did not like their appointment, and kept miif 
away from the services, but their resignation wHa not aoceptoi 
On the 27th September, it was resolved ihat Uie Elders Ii4 


mons should continue in their appointments until the new 
0tor arrived or was selected. 

On the 1st October, Mr. Ellis, after the Communion service 
l&ified his intention of retiring from the Pastoral duties on 
sount of the exiatenoa of dissatisfaction, but he would find people 
occupy the pulpit until the 15th, after which, he would cease 
attend altogether. Thus it will be sden that after years of 
let, troublere in Israel again began to let their presence be 
own and felt. 

On the 1st November, a Committee was appointed to oonf-dr 
til Mr. Lewis, and to take the necessary steps £o secure a Pastor 
r the Church. 

On the 22nd November, Mr. Lindeman stated that Mr. Lewis 
d informed him that he believed tEat the Titlej-Deeds of the 
kapel Building were null and void, and that the Society desired 
b Church to procure and support its own Pastor. 

The reply of the Society to the application of the Church for 
4 services of Rev. R. Spurgeon was read. 

It was suggested to draw a code of rules for the government 
d discipline of the Church, but the suggestion was set aside 
r the present. 

On the 4th December, the Church addressed a, letter to the 
Biety asking for the services of Mr. Hallam as Pastor, and on 
a next day they addressed Mr. Hallam. 

On the 21st December, a testimonial and address were pre- 
tited to Mr. and Mrs. John Robinson at a public meeting presi- 
i over by Dr. Rouse. 

On the 27th December, Mr. Austin resigned his office as 
eaoon and Treasurer as he was about to leave Calcutta. (He 
Wed down at Agra, where he died). 

On the 7th January 1877, Mr. Francis and Mr. Gordon 
)1>inson were elected Deacons. 

On the 28th March, a letter was read from Mr. Hallam declin- 
f the Pastorate. Dr. Rouse then offered his services, and his 
?er was ^^aiefuUy accepted, 


It waB proposed to amalgamate the Qospel Hall with tb 
Churchy but tlie matter was deferred for further consideiitaaii, 
and never brought up again. The Grospel Hall wae where KM 
of the Plymouth brethren used to meet. It wae suggested lo li 
'Mrs. House to come and work in connection with the Chunb. Ok 
the 18th April, Dr. House asked for some membeire to ftaad i 
short time before each service at the gate to invite passing soldkii 
and sailors to come in. 

On the 23rd May it was decided to cement the floor of Ai 
Chapel, and it was resolved to keep under consideration the projed 
for building a preaching shed near the gate. This project ww eti^ 
dently lost sight of for it has never been carried into effect. A 
preaching hall would be a great centre for Christian work. 

On the 10th July Mr. Ellis died al' Madras and on the M 
much regret wa^ expressed at his sudden death and a letter tf 
condolence was sent to Mrs. Ellie on the 1st August. 

On the 13 th September the Church received copy ci a lethf 
from the Hev. J. Smith, of Delhi, in England, dated the IVk 
August, offering to bring out a Pastor for the Church on exoeedu^ 
easy terms, and on the 17tb idem, Mr. Smith's letter waefl* 
sidered, and a reply sent thanking him for his interest in A* 
Church and stating the pay offered. 

On the 26th September, Mr. and Mrs. Jefferson were iN^ 
mitted as members and Miss Gonsalves on the 31st October. 

On the 2nd December th? Church received Mr. Smith's ktt* 
intimating that a very suitable young man in the person ol & 
Blackie was with him, who would make a good Pastor and Btati>l 
that they hoped to land in the first week of December. On theJri 
December the letter of the Society came to hand intimating ^ 
Mr. Blackie was sent out by the Bev. C. H. Spurgeon and 1* 
friends. The steamer Daiunda with Mr. Blackie on board arriiw 
on the 7th idem and on the next day (8th) Mr. Smiiii J 
Delhi, preached in the morning and Dr. Bouse in the tyeis% 
0^ the nth idem a Te*. wid P\*\ic, Meeting W98 heW 


loome Mr. Blackie who was from the Fafitor'e College. Dr. 

086 was in the chair and, aa retiring Pastor, welcomed Mr. 

idkie. The Rev. J. Eobinson gave a brief history of the Church 

1 recounted some of his experiences while Pastor. Mr. Smith, 

Delhi, then spoke and was followed by Mr. Williams and the 

V, B. Bobinson : Dr. Phillips closed the meeting with prayer. 

the 26tb. December a letter of thanks was directed to be sant 

Bir. Spurgeon and another to Mr. Smith of Delhi. 

The following is Dr. Eouse's report f br the period he held the 

ing Pastorate. 

When Mr. Williams relieved me of the charge of the Circtdtkr 
ad Church, in December 1876 I begun to i^upply regularly the 
Ipit at the Lall Bazar Chapel, as that Church was at that time 
ititute of a Pastor. In February it was found that neither Mr. 
rdan nor Mr. Hallam wotdd be free to take the Pastorate to the 
urch and I therefore consented to act as Pastor for the present, 
sre being no one else available for the post. The arrangement 
B not a desirable one on either side. I had so much of other work 
hand that I could not attend properly to the affairs of the Church, 
d at the same time the Pastorat-e of the Church, formed an addi- 
nal burden which I foun<l it hard to bear. I had neither time 
r strength for Pastoral work, but with occasional help I preached 
4h on Sundays and in the week until relieved by the arrival of 
r. Blackie in December. The congregation was thus kept to- 
tber and, I think, rather improved towards the end and I hope 
i seed sown by preaching will prove to have borne fruit. We 
nerally had a good number of sailors at the service as the reeidt 
the ladies' work in the naighbouring grog-shops, and many of 
am afterwards came to our house (though 2 miles off) where tea 
fl provided for them and an hour or two spent in singing hymns 
d pleasant converse. Some of the mien were thus impressed, 
d I hope converted. One person was baptized during the year, 
r. Blackie has now commenced his work as Pastor of the Church 
i his prospects are encouraging. He could not have a finer 
d for evangelistic work than he has at Lall Bazar. 


IThe Pastorate of the Rev. H. G. Blaceie. 

(From 11th December 1877 to 30th November 1879). 

Portrait of thb Rev. H. O. Blaokib. 

It is hardly possible to give a biographical sketch of 
Mr. or Mrs. Blackie. There is no book from which the reoo 
be drawn, and they were here for such a limited pariod \ 
seems almost like ancient histx)ry to say anything about then 
thirty years. As it is, very little indeed can be said abou 

The Rev. H. G. Blackie. 

He was quite a young man, as his photograph shows 
he was sent out by the Rev. C. H. Spurgeon and his friends 



«te of the Lall Bazar Ohurch. He was thought to be only 22 
of a^. He was trained for the Ministry at the Pastor's OoUega, 
liis was his very first Pastorate. The whole of life was 
» him and he had all his experience to gain. As Dr. Bouse 
in his report to the Society, Mr. Blackie could not have had 
* field for evangelistic work than he had at Lall Bazar. He 
astor foit scarcely two compete years, but he tried to make 
xit of his opportunities for usefulness during that period. On 
th September 1878 he was married to a young lady who came 
om England for that purpose. All too soon he s^me- 


suddenly severed his connsction with the Church 

the 30th November 1879 to take up the Pastorate 

Baptist Cfhurch in Bombay. He remained connected , with 

ombay Church from December 1879 to September 1880 when 


he suddenly changed hie views and went over to the Ply 
Brethren and returned with Mra. Blackie and infant to Eiigliii| 
He came out a^ain in connection with the Plymouth BrethT«iiil| 
remained in Calcutta 2 or 3 years, when, on a visit to DazjeelntI 
Mrs. Blackie died there. A grawy mound is all that marbfcj 
spot in the Darjeeling Cemetery where her remaiuB rest. 

In course of time Mr. Blackie married again and ia at preBeiiil 
settled down in New Zealand, it ie understood, as Pastor oil I 
Church there' and has a growing family of several children. B| 
still takes an interest in this old place by writing to former fri6ii*| 
here enquiring about the work. 

■■ ■■ ^ 

Dr. Rouse as retiring pastor, welcomed Mr. Blackie to tl« 
Pastorate on 11th Deoemben 1877 and on the 26th id«n letW 
of thanks werfe directed to be sent to the Re(V, J* Smith, of DeDn, 
tad the Rev. C. H. Spurgeon. 

On that day Mr. Gordon RobinWn resigned the SecreUij*F 
and Mr. James Callow was appointed in his place. Mr. Bl«tt 
was asked to becomi^ the President of the Sunday School ud i 
was decided to hold a meeting for sailors on New Year's Day, IBW- 

On the 23rd January 1878, it was decided to have a Tea Me* 
ing for sailors on the 27th idem. This is evidently the Tea M«* 
ing referred to in Mts. Rou&e's diary as leading to the coiit«oi* 
of a sailor named O'Donnell and the other man who becamai 

It was resolved to immediately repaid the floor of the CluiP^ 
in the best possible way and at the loWtet price. It was Ao rtf* 
gested for consideration to have a Coffee Room connected with ib 
Church. Nothing, however, came of this piojeet as the MefthodMi 
opened their Coffee Room in Lall Bazar during this year. 

In February, estimates were called for from Messrs. Buintf^ 
Co., and Mackintosh Bum and Co. for general repairs todK 

On the 1st Match a Te^ Mq^^yw^ vraa held for sailors, and <A 


» 29ili idem a social Tea Meeting was held for membeiB and 
rir friends. 

On thye 24th April Messrs. Jejfferson and Kemp were elected 
Moons and the latter was appointed Treasurer in place of Mr. 
Didon Bobinson who resigned. Mr. Callow resigned his office 
Minute Secretary. 

On the 22nd May, Messrs. Kalberer and Bowling were elected 
tiditors and Mr. Gordon Bobinson and his wife resigned their 
BEmbeiship. At this meeting Mr. Blackie's pay was fixed at 
I. 150. 

On the 18th June Deacon Jefferson died and on the 26th idem 
r. F. P. Lindeman was elect>ed Minute Secretary. 

On the 21st August it was unanimously resolved that the 
Uery at the East end of the Chapel should be removed ; the 
ilpit removed from its present position to the East end : a new 
iptistery built in front of the pulpit and the old one filled in, 
lie being taken to have its site marked with marble tiles. Although 
« work was ordered to be put in hand at once it was never carried 
to effect. 

On the 28th August news was received of the death of the iRev. 
thn Bobinson at Benares that morning and it was decided to send 
letter of sympathy to Mrs. Bobinson. On the 8th September a 
Qeral sermon for him was preached in the Chapel by the Bev. B. 
illAnsoil to a crowded congregation. On the 16th idem a letter 
ffj^pathy from the Church was sent to Mrs. John Bobinson 
lifih was signed by most of the members. 

On the 15th October a public welcome was accorded to Mrs. 
lackie at which about 300 persons were present and addresses 
ore delivered by diffexent ministers. 

On the 22nd October, Mr. Kalberer resigned his office aa 

On the 3rd November — a layman — Captain Passingham — 
dttched at both services. 

On the 18th December it was decided to «i«\\ ^>^ ^mcXa^ii ^^ 


carriage shelter on the West side of the compound on tlie under- 
standing that the purchaser took down and cleared all away. Thus 
passed away a landmark of the premisesi which is shown in the 
old picture of the Chapel which forms the frontispiece. It was 
similar to the one which still exists in the premises of the Circular 
Road Chapel. 

On the 21st May 1879, Deacon Kemp resigned office. 

On the 18th June there was a Tea entertainment which realized 
Ks. ^22 pn behalf of the Church funds. 

On the 3rd August, Mr. Aratoon was allowed to resign. 

On the 27th August, Messrs. Wheeler and Nicol were elected 
Deacons and the former was appointed Treasurer. 

On the 29th October it was decided to address letters to Rev. 
C. H^ Spurgeon and the Society about securing a Pastor for the 
Church and these letters were issued on the Slst idem. 

On the 27th November Mr. Lindeman resigned his office as 
Deacon, also his membership, and Mr. Blackie severed his oonnec- 
iion as Pastor with effect from the 30th idem to take up the 
Pastorate of the Bombay Church. 

The admissions to the Church, during Mr. Blackie's incum- 
bency were as follows: 1878, 38; 1879, 6. Most of those admitted 
in 1878 were soldiers, there being 14 from the 54th Regiment 
alone; there were also 6 sailors of the ship Great Victoria. Mr. 
Blackie had a sphere of great usefulness before him in Calcutta 
when be gave up the Pastorate. 

CHAttEK XLirt. 

The Pastorate of the Rev. G. H. Hook. 

(From 2l8t March 1880 to date,) 

AS HE WAS IN 1885. 

R. Hook is still in Pastoral charge of the Church, so a bio- 
3al sketch of him is hardly required. All that need be said 
he was bom on 8th January 1847 at Exmouth, Devonshire; 
3 was brought up in the tenets of the Church of England, 
iving embraced Baptist views, was baptized by Rev. C. H. 
on in the spring of 1869. He was in business for a time 
<re it up and entered tb^ Pastor's College under Mt. 8^Mt- 


geon. From there he was posted first to the charge of the Bapiat 
Church at Keynsham near Bristol as Go-Fafitor^ and from thece « 
full Pastor to Thaxted in Essex, which he joined in 1872. Whea 
Mr. Spurgeon knew that a Pastor was required for Lall Baar be 
selected Mr. Hook, who at very short notice wasi sent out. & 
sailed for Calcutta on the 7th February 1880 and preached Ink 
first sermon as Pastor on Sunday, the 21st March. On tlia 
24th idem, a Public Tea Meeting was given to weloome him. ffina 
then he has held the Pastorate continuously without even a tif 
to England throughout the whole of the 28| years that he hi 
been in this country. 

On the 26th February 1887, he married Mrs. G. J. T. Jeffean, 
the widow of Deacon Jefferson, who had died on the 25tli JbH 
1878 and on the 4th March, she was welcomed at a Tea andPoUk 
Meeting. Mrs. Hook was very useful in the Dorcas Society and ii 
work amongst the poor, but after three or four years her heil4. 
compelled her to go to England and she haa not been able to tctan 

Mr. Hook's Pastorate having already extended ov^ «wiA 
long period of time it will not be possible to treat it in the UM 
manner as the shorter pastorates have been treated. It will tta* 
fore be dealt with as a whole and the points noted below will to 
taken up one by one and all the inmoirtaiit matters that luM 
transpired during the 28^ years under each head will be so dfliK 
with. The points will be: — 

1. Anniversary Meetings and Annual Reports. 

2. Special preachers at different times. 

3. Special Evangelistic Services. 

4. Open-air and Vernacular Services. 

5. Churcli Discipline and kindred matton. 

6. Miscellaneous matters. 

7. Surroundings favorable for Mission and Evangelistic WoiL 

8. Bepairs executed at various times. 

9. Sunday School. 


10. Work among soldiers. 

11. Work among West Indians. 

12. Tract distribution. 

13. Survey of Premises. 

14. Parsonage. 

Although the interval between Mr. Blackie's departure and 
. Hook's arrival was so short yet various ministers had to be 
ed to occupy the pulpit. 

Mr. Hook preached his first sermon on Sunday, the 21st March 
0, and a recognition Tea and Public Meeting was held on 
dnesday, the 24th idem, to welcome him. The Rev. G. Kerry 
, in the chair and the Revs. R. Robinson, W. Norris and W. 
ne were the speakers. 

The first Church Meeting after Mr. Hook assumed the Paeto- 
) was held on the 31st March 1880 at which it was unanimously 
dyed to give him a salary of Rs. 150 a month as from 1st idem. 

As the Chapel had not been repaired for some years the 
icers of the Church were authorized on 30th June to obtain 
mates for general repairs and for any improvements that might 
thought necessary and, on the 25th August it was decided to 
rust the repairs to Messrs. Mackintosh Burn and Co., and to 
opt their estimate for Rs. 4,500, which included the cost of 
•idtuting cast-iron pillars in the Chapel for the wooden ones 
teh were considered unsafe. On the 22nd September it was 
ther decided to hold the services in the Benevolent Institution 
Ue the Chapel was under repairs. The repairs were commenced 
Messrs. Mackintosh Burn and Co. on the 4th October 1880 
I the Chapel was rs-opened after the repairs on Sunday, the 28th 
vember, when the Rev. W. Johnson of Bhowanipore preached 
the morning and tha Rev. W. Norris of Circular Road in the 
ning. The morning collection brought in over Rs. 600. On 
2nd December 1880 a Public Tea Meeting was given in oonnec- 
I with the re-opening. Mr. Dear of Monghyr gave a Donation 
$b|. IfiOQ towards these repairs, {t wa^s aunounced, ^ ^^, 


meeting that tlie repairs had been paid for. The Rev. G. 
Kerry presided at the public meeting. Several missionaries \ 
pres3nt and the Tablet to the memory of the Rev. John Sale w» 
unveiled on this occasion, Mrs. Sale, hie widow, having come ort 
from Scotland especially to be present at the ceremony. 

In spite of these heavy repairs it was decided on the 22sd 
Dscember 1880, to accept Messrs. Mackintosh Bum and Co.^ 
estimate for the drainage of the Chapel compound at a cost o 
Rs. 775. 

On Friday, the 20th August 1880, Dr. Wenger died andonth 
25th idem, a Resolution was unanimously adopted expressing Al' 
loss the Church bad sustained in his death. A social meeting vtf 
to have been held on the 20th idem, but out of respect to th. 
memory of Dr. Wenger it was postponed to the 16th Septemlwr 
when the approaching repairs to the Chapel were discussed ui 
collection books issued. 

In October 1880, the Pastor wrote about the heavy coBfc d 
the repairs to the Treasurer of the Baptist Missionary Society, wh 
sent a donation of £10. 

At, the meeting of the 2nd February 1881, it waa reported tint 
the. Treasurer had received through the Administrator-General of 
Bengal the following legacies from the Estate of the late Mr. t. 
J, Prown, viz., Rs. 300 to the Repair Fund, and Bfi. 60 fopfli 
Sunday School. At the same meeting it was reported that Ux* 
James Young had promised a donation of Bfi. 500 to the B«piif 

At the meeting of the 2nd February 1881, Mr. Whed* 
resigned his post as Treasurer and Mr. A. L. Sykes was appointed ii 
his place, and at the meeting of the 23rd idem, Mr. Wbeeiei^l 
designation of the office of Deacon was accepted. 

The first Anniversary Tea and Public Meeting in celehnta 
of Mr. Hook's settlement was held on the 18th March 1881 whea 
Mr. Hook was given a Lamp and kind wishes were expressed. The 
schoolroom was also refurnished. The Rev, G. Kerry presided <k 


I meeting when the report for the past year was read showing that 
the expenses connected with the Repairs and Improvements had 
n duly paid and that the Church was free from debt. There 
re 17 admissions during 1880. At this meeting it was reported 
t Mr. W. E. S. Jefferson had given a donation of Rs. 50 towards 

drainage. On t*be 20fch March 1881, anniversary sermons were 
ached by Mr. Hook. 

Up to this time Mr. Hook had bean living in rented rooms 
« and there, or with friends, which arrangement besides being 
onvenient had not suited his health, so, on the 25th May 1881, 
iras decided to alter the small rooms at the back of the school- 
nn for his accommodation ; also to put sunshades and glass sashes 
the west windows of the schoolroom to keep out the rain and 
mall bathroom was added. There is no need to go further into 
3 matter as all the details are given in a separate chapter about 
I Parsonage and its donor, Mr. H. Dear. 

On the 27th July 1881, Mr. Nicol resigned his office as Deacon, 
i on the 16th September Mr. W. T. Kemp, who had recently 
m a Deaoqn, died quite suddenly at his own house while talking 
Mr. Hook, who had gone to pay him a visit. 

On the 25th November, a Meeting was held to welcome 
\ A. H. Baynes, the then General Secretary to the Baptist Mis- 
(nary Society in London. The Rev. G. Kerry presided at the 
iblic meeting and addresses were delivered by Messrs. Norris, 
tllams, Br. Phillipa and Mr. Baynes himself. Mr. 
bynes paid another visit to India in the cold season of 
8d-90 and on the 20th January 1890, he went to sea the Chapel 
i Parsonage and stated^that he was greatly pleased at the great 
ditions made to the Chapel property in the 8 intervening 
ais since his last visit, in the Parsonage, new Porch to the Chapel, 
m Pulpit and other alterations he had noticed, and he wished the 
luisch continued prosperity and blessing. 

At the meeting of the 22nd February 1882 doubts were 
pressed s^ to whether the Chapel belonged to the Ch.ux^\vc>t Vi>Oa<^ 


Miaiion and steps were taken to clear tiieae doubtff. On tbe IM 
March it was reported that an examination of the TM 
Deeds of the Ohapel showed that it and the groudi 
belonged to the Chnrcb and not to the Missionary Societj, Mr. 
J. C. Marshman having transferred his purchased right tiiile Ml 
interest in the land and Chapel by the Mortgage^ by a nominil 
payment of Bupees ten to the Trustees of the Church. It VM 
therefore decided to serve notices on 

(1) The Kev. G. Kerry, as Secretary of the Baptist Wmmx] 
Society in India, and (2) the Rev. J. W. iliomas as SuperinienM 
of the Baptist Mission Press in Calcutta, drawing attention to d» 
fact that the Society had no interest in the Chapel or grouiub. 

Also to send letters setting forth the above facts, together witk 
a copy of Mr. G. S. Sykes' Abstract of the Deeds, to (1) The 8* 
retaiy to the Baptist Missionary Society in London, and (2) Jb, 
H. I5ear of Monghyr. 

On Friday, the 17th March 1882, a Tearand-Public-M«ti| 
was held to celebrate the second anniversary of Mr. Hook's p» 
torate, when the Kev. Dr. Eouse presided and some of tlieCSd- 
cutta ministeiB spoke. The Deeds of the Parsonage ^«* 
presented and a gharry and horse given to the FMttf 
with a monthly allowance for the maintenance <rf tki 
turn-out. A report of the Church work for the JB* 
was read. No copy is on record in the Church Book| W 
Mr. Hook in his report to London of the work of 1881 stated iW 
open-aiv services had been held at the Chapel gate which i/lf^ 
to increase the attendance on Sunday evenings, also that beM* 
30 and 40 attended the meetings of the Mutual LnproMM^ 
Society. He gave the number of members at the end of theyB* 
as 86. The anniversary sermons were preached by Mr. Hook O 
the 19th March 1882. 

On the 22nd idem, it was reported that Mr. Dear had dkni 
to defray the expense of removing the railings round the seats il 
the .Cba|)el| but wae informed that the Church preferred AflT 


taining as they were. These, however, were removed yeftffi 
irwards and their removal greatly improved the appearance <rf 
interior of the Chapel. 

On the 21st February 1883, the Church adopted certain rules 
the distribution of the Poor's Fund with effect from that dafee^ 
ed on the principla that distribution can only be made on the 
1 actually available for distribution at the time. 

On the 1st March 1883, a Tea Meeting was held to bid fare- 
1 to Mrs. C. C. Brown, the wife of the Rev. C. C. Brown, who 
I been Co-Pastor for a brief period with the Rev. John Robinson, 
en a gold watch, chain, locket and brooch, were presented to 
' ae a small token of regard for her and appreciation of the in- 
Bst she always took in the Church. 

On the 21st idem, Mr. W. Francis resigned his office 
Deacon, which was accepted and a vote of appreciation of his 
rices was passed. He, howevsr, did not live long after this as 
passed away to rest on the 11th December following. 

•On Friday, the 23rd idem, the rhird Anniversary Tea- 
l-Public-Meeting, was held to celebrate Mr. Hook's settlement 
1 the completion of the Parsonage. It was in reality the house- 
rming for the occasion as Mr. Hook had taken up his residence 
the Parsonage just a few days previously, *.<;., at Easter-time, 
e Rev. G. Kerry presided at the Public meeting and the Rev. A. 
llliains spoke. No Annual Report is on record, but Mr. Hook 
writing to England reported that the open-air services at the 
apel gate had been kept up well during the year. He gave the 
mber of members as 100. The acquisition of the Parsonage 
B referred to. as also the presentation of the gharry and horse 

the last Anniversary. On Sunday, the 25th idem, Mr. 
K>^ preached the anniversary sermons. 

On the 11th December 1883, the Calcutta International Exhibi- 
n was opened which was a grand opportunity for preaching at 
J Chapel gate and the distribution of Scriptures and tracts during 
\ mtire period that it lasted. Until tlae \a^\. ^^^ til ^3a!^ 



Exhibition, which closed on 1st March 1884, the services at the 

gate used to be held only on Thursday evenings of each week, but 

during the last week of the Show the Lervices were held ^very 

evening when the crowd grew greater and greater each evening 

until the services were given up. 

The Pastor wrote thus in 1884 to England about these 6ervice» 

and the distribution of Scriptures and tracts at them :■ — 

"Last December the International Exhibition was held in 
Calcutta, and it gave an opportunity for distributing tracts and 
Scriptures, and preaching the Gospel in various languages, such as 
had never been before, as so many people of different nationalities 
^were ITien in Calcutta for the Exhibition. One of the friends set 
to work to get subscriptions for this object and to obtain supplies 
of tractsk and Scriptures from all parts of India, and from England 
and China. After a good supply of tracts and books had been 
obtained they were exposed for sale and distribution at the Chapel 
gatte, and so many were thus distributed that the stock had to 
be replenished again and again. So much delight was expressed 
by thosa who received them that they would come and say, we 
have read the book with much pleasure and we want to get another. 

'^ While the distribution of tracts and the sale of books was 
being carried on, a vernacular service was also held, and addresses 
were given in English, Bengali, Burmese, Tamil, and Hindustani, 
atid in all these languages there were tracts. Scriptures, and books 
for sale and distribution, as well as in French, Russian, Dutch, 
German, Spanish, Italian, Telugu, Kaithi, Urdu, Hindi, and 
Chinese. In all these languages was the Grospel made known either 
by preaching or by the SCTipture&, tracts and books and not a map 
came to the service without receiving a tract, and with it a few 
eaaMcfeiti words in English or Hind*ustani, either of these two 
languages being understood by them all. Surely it seemed, as it 
was on the day of Pentecost, when 'they all heard in their own 
tongue of the wonderful works of God.' Indeed it seemed as if 
we had better, machinery to work with than had the Apostles, 
for we could give them the Scriptures in their own native tongue ; 
all we wanted was the outpouring of the Holy Spirit to set on 
fire the material that had been collected, and who knows but 
that even now in some distant village, or far off land the light 
may be burning that was kindled here. 

. . '! No praise can be too great to give first of all to the ladies 

who so cheerfully helped all the time, viz., Mrs. Kerry, Mrs. Page, 

^Mka. Ellis, Miss Leslie, Miss Hunt Cooke (who subsequently 


une Mrs K. A. Williamson), Miss Bush (who subsequently 
une Mrs. Smith) and others, all helping in the singing, or spaak- 
in the vernacular or giving away tracte to the people. 

"And then the brethren who 90 willingly assisted, words will 
convey to them the sense of thankfulness there is to think that 
i has such workmen in his vineyard, who so cheerfully and 
dily responded to the call made upon their time and strength 
, tn6 Rdv. I. Allen, who nearly every night gave an address in 
igali. Rev. G. Kerry, Dr. Rouse, Rev. C. Jordan, Rev. Dr. 
)burn. Rev. Dr. Vinton (of Burma), and others who are too 
nerous to mention, but whose names are written in heaven." 

In another account which was written for " the Sword and the 
#el*" the Pastor mentioned ths following interesting incidents 
mecbeid with the above distribution of tracts : — 

" All the tracts and books are stamped with the name and 
Iress of the Chaps-l and also the hours of service, so that if a 
k falls into the hand of a man desirous of getting more book^ 
18 guided by that to the place where they can be obtained. In 

Hospital crowded with the sick of all nations was found a poor 
ikg Chinaman reading one of our books that had b^en given 
ma. at the Chapel gate, for there was the stamp upon it. 

"In going through the streets of Calcutta we are often met 
men, who have read the tracts given th&m at the Chapel gate, 
I th^ have followed us again and again, saying ' If we come 
4e uhurch will you give us another book T* Two Mahomedans 
t 'US while we were on foot visiting some of tha sick members 
tie Church, and they suddenly said. ' Are you the mheh 
oilman) that gave us these good books? We have read them, 
fl you give us more if we oome to you? We have given 
ni. to our father, and he is telling us to listen to your words, 
I bring away some more books.' 

" Only this week a letter came from the very South of India, 
botisand iniles away, saying they had obtained a tract in English 
..'•Educated Natives' from our distribution, having upon it 
' address of the Chapel, and so, putting that address upon the 
^r, th^ had written, entreating us to send on some more to 

"The Ooriyas, of whom there are great numbers in Calcutta, 
' all very eager to get books and when they get one of the Gk>spels 
tlie Ooriya language, they hold it in their hands with such 
'eiiehce and care as if it were to them a fpreat possea&lo^. M."«k^ 
Bins -we have $aid to them, ' You -wiW "bfe c«Jt%\\i\ <ss«c -^^ 


book, because the name of God is written in it. You will lA 
throw it away nor destroy it 1 ' A.nd they have said in retaa 
' Ah mheh (Sur) do you think that we are Satan's children, Is 
throw away God's books T" 

On the 8th January 1884, a Tea-and-Social-Meeting was Ul 
to cdlebrate the Pastor's birthday, with a view to reduce the M 
on the Parsonage. Mr. James Young presided and the Rev. McflfflL 
Kerry, Brown, and Jordan spoke. Mr. Dear promised a cheque 
for Rs. 500 and Mr. Young promised Rs. 1,000. 

On the 21st March the fourth aniiiversary Tea■and-Publi^Me* 
ing was held when the Rev. G. Kerry presided and the Annuil 
Report was read. The Rev. Dr. Thobum spoke oomparing S* 
present with the past state of the Church. A Fancy Sale •■ 
held during the Tea which realized Rs. 150 towards the debt Oi 
the Parsonage. K was stated in the report that the Panonip 
had cost in all Rs. 16,600 for purchase and alterations. The report 
showed progress all along the line, but one thing is not meniioMili 
which is, however, touched upon by Mr. Hook in his report i> 
England. The paragraph runs as below: — 

" One thing more seems to deserve notice and that is the kirf 
sympathy shown by friends at Monghyr for the poor and Bufcrisj 
of Lall Bazar. Throughout the year many boxes of clothing hw* 
been sent for the poor and destitute, and, to crown all, Mrs. Ml 
and General Murray got up an entertainment in Monghyr for 4l 
purpose of purchasing and making clothes for the poor, and irtk 
us over Rs. 88; towards this, James Young, Esq., sent Be. Win* 
kind a way as to make one feel how good God can be thr(m||li ^ 
children. Ah ! if you could see the poverty and suffering aiaoB^ 
the poor her©, you would say there was the ' bitter cry of ouW' 
Calcutta' as well as 'the bitter cry of outcast London.'" 

It may not be out of place to mention here that this "bitt* 
cry of outcast Calcutta " attracted the attention of the auiihoritiv 
before many years more had elapsed and they appointed a Panptfi* 
Committee on which they gave Mr. Hook a ^at. 

On the 26th March, a suggestion to introduce the syBfcemrf 
pew-rents, was respectfully negatived. 

On the 2l8t May tho question was raised as to what shodU 
h0 clone in tlie ca/Be oi a eau^^^.^^ lor \^^i^tiE(ai^ wbp -applifli fV 


ra protection of the Insolvency Court while his case was before 
» Church, but its consideration was deferred and never brought 
» again. 

On the same date it was reported that the late Mrs. O. T. 
otter had left the Church a legacy of £50, equal Es. 540. This 
i to the appointment of Messrs. Wenger and D'Souza as Deacons. 

On the 23rd July, Mr. Wenger was requested to devise some 
beme of certificating members leaving Calcutta and keeping a 
cord of their addresses, etc. On the 27th August he read a 
iper on the subject of absent members and it was resolved that 
should be carefully revised by the Pastor and Officers and then 
Hbted with a list of members and their addresses and a copy sent 
' every member for consideration. It was discussed on the 26th 
Ij^mber, but a consideration of the suggestions was deferred to 
m next meeting, so, on the 22nd October it was decided that it 
it not possible, to retain on the Church-Roll the name of a mem- 
Mr who avowed his intention to take no part in any of the pro* 
•edings of the Church. 

On the 24th December the following important decisions were 
•ived at: — 

(1) To remove from the list the names of all members who 
toont themselves from the Communion Service for six consecutive 
QDths, without assigning any reason, but not until every practicable 
tanpt to win them back shall have been made. 

(2) To correspond at least once a quarter with members of 
ie Church, who are absent from Calcutta so as to keep them in 
ttive sympathy with the Church. 

On the 26th September it was considered advisable to cancel 
• separate registration of No. 19, Zig Zig Lane and amalgamate 
with th« Chapel as No. 31, Bow Bazar Street, and for this pur- 
«e the Municipality wanted to inspect the Title-Deeds, etc. On 
s 26th November it was reported that the Municipality could 
b include the Parsonage in the same number as the Chapel, on 
9 groimd that as they had separate exemption q^x\>\^^^\)^ ^^-^ 


must have separate numbers. On the 21st January 1885, tk 
Municipality stated that the Chapel and Parsonage would be called 
No. 31, Bow Bazar Street and not 31/1 as previously statedly 

On the 31st October, Captain W. May, the senior member d 
the Church', died at Cooly Bazar, (Hastings;. 

On the 3rd December it was decided to publish a yearly Hand- 
book of the Church. Only three such were ever published w., in 
1886, 1887 and 1888 for each of the preceding years. At to 
meeting the importance of exercising the utmost caution in admit- 
ting candidates to Church fellowship was recogni2jed for futuM 
action. A Resolution was also adopted at this meeting expreBSUif 
the deep sympathy of the Church with Dr. Rouse and his fainJj 
in respect of the death of Mrs. Rouse. 

It was decided to have a Fancy Sale in liquidation of tb 
debt on the Parsonage, and a detailed statement of the.wlioletf 
the Parsonage Account wafi printed and circulated to ev«fy nw*' 
ber. In accordance with the above resolution a Fancy Sale wH 
held on the 22nd Dscember 1884, which realized Rs. 541. 

On the 18th February (1885), it was decided to collect monej 
for the purchase of a new Harmonium to replace the one that lui 
been in use for 25 years. An American Organ was purchased ^ 
Rs. 550. 

Mr. W. E. S. Jefferson presented the Church with a, carp* 
to cover the baptistery when closed. ' 

On the 15th March, anniversary sermons were preached} • 
the morning by the Rev. J. M. Thobum, junior, and in ^ 
evening by the Rev. J. Brown. The new organ was used for fti 
first time. On the 20th idem, the Fifth Anniversary Tewa* 
Public-Meeting, was held which was presided over by the Bw. 
G. Kerry. The following ministers spoke, viz., the Revs. C. Jordaa,! 
J. E. Payne, of Bhowanipore and Dr. Rouse, besides the PaaU*' 
No Annual Report is oti teooxd, \iut 17 w^te admitted dttiiiig 188t 

tttfi tAfetpBATE OF THE REV. GK H, HOOK, 4^ 

, On the 12th April a service for children was held ^iidl ao^Pt^^oi^ 
I. the nth October following. ,,:• 

dn the 22nd July, the matter of the persecution of the Chfis^' 
an soldiers by some of the higher Non-Commissioned Officers Wai 
Lscuseed and the men were assured that they might rely on the 
oral ^support of the Church. Another matter relating to the 
•Idiers came up on the 26th August, which was their registration 
jginientally as *' Baptists.*' It was discussed at some length but 
?tion was deferred and the matter was never brought up again. " 

At the meeting of 26th August, the Ewing family and Miss 
jrihg in particular were thanked for their ezertioiis in the recent 
ar<!iha8e of the American Organ. 

On the 23rd September the circular about absenting members; 
luch was signed by the Officers and Deacons, was unanimously 
g^rej&d to with the recommendations made therein and it wa9 
rdered to be placed in tha Minute Book. These recommendations 
aferjed to the removal or retention of certain names, which are 
pecified so that there is no need to detail them. 

On the 21st October (1885), Mr. Wenger mentioned that the 
^cers were endeavouring to ascertain whether any course likely 
> prove successful in obtaining a grant from the District Charit* 
bb Society to swell the Poor Fund of the Church was open to 
lem. It was then mentioned that Protestant Nonconformists 
tm not to be admitted to the benefits of this Society, although it is 
)Berally considered unsectarian. It may be mentioned 
are that a Christian Union was subsequently formed in order to 
rare seats on the Committee of the Society for Nonconformist 
inisters or others so as to have a voice in the administration of 

. funds, but when a representation was made to the Society on 
3 subject in March 1887, it was thrown out on the ground that 
the arrangements by which the money was administered through 
5 Anglican parishes had worked well for 50 years, the Committee 
I not see the need for making any change. - - 


At this point it may be as well to go back to the origin d 
the District Charitable Society in 1830, to see whether it wir 
started on a sectarian or unsectarian basis, but it will have to be 
borne in mind that thera was not at the time of its origin Hat 
same sectarian spirit that there is at thd present day. The follow- 
ing extract is taken from Carey's Oriental Christian Biograpiy 
from the sketch about Bishop Turnar of Calcutta: — 

" The next important stap taken by the late Bishop was the 
formation of the District Charitable Society. There was already 
in Calcutta a Charitable Fund for the relief of distressed Europeau 
and others established in the year 1800, chiefly by the exertionad 
the Rev. David Brown, which continued to be administered Iff 
the select v-astry of St. John's Cathedral, but however, m 
adapted the vestry may have been for the di8tributi<»i of tk 
Charitable Pund of Calcutta some years before, the number d 
European paupers had multiplied to so great an extent, tliatifc 
became necessary to provide for the more full invastigation of tk 
caaes of applicants for relief. Frauds, the most gross were piv 
tised on the public with such facility, that impostors, speculatinf 
on the benevolence of tha community, and making, as it wen^ 
mendicity a; trade, had found no difficulty in procuring from moiief 
lenders advances proportionate in amount to the probabiHty of 
success, which the acquisition of certain leading names to their 
applications foi relief justified a reasonable expectation of ultim- 
a^ly obtaining. To remedy these inconveniences some comprdien* 
sive arrangement was obviously required, and, at the Bishop'i 
suggestion, the Sociaty alluded to was established. It oonsiataof 
several Subordinate Committees, corresponding in number with the 
Ecclesiastical Districts into which the town is dividsd, and of » 
Central Committee of Superintendence/' 

On the 21st December a Fancy Sale was held in aid of thi 
Repair Fund which brought in Rs. 759 p'rofit. On the 23rd idtfn, 
the children of the Sunday School collected about Rs. 90 for the 
Repair Fund which was to be used towards repairing the school* 
room and putting glasses and sun^ades to the remaining windofi 
in it. 

On the 19th May 1886, Mrs. Caroline May, the senior xnemhtf 
of the Church, died at Cooly Bazar. She had been oaptized o« 
the 3l8t October 1839, 

inn PAstOBATfi of the rev. g. h, fitboK. 426 

On the 27th January 18^6, Mr. E. H. Pascal presented the 
knrch with two silver candlesticks for the new American Organ. 

By the 24th February glasses were fixed to five windows of the 
Aoolroom and it was decided to fix glasses to all the windows of 
m Chapel at a cost of Hs. 346 as the inconvenience of not having 
em had been experienced in the rainy season. 

On tha 14th March, Anniversary sermons were preached 
the morning by the Kev. J. Wesley Bavies and in the evening 
r the Rev. C. Jordan. The Sixth Anniversary Tea-and-Public- 
eeting was held on Thursday the 18th idem, but there is 
it&ing on record to show who presided or who spoke at it. The 
istor was too unwell to be present on the Sunday, but recovered 
ilBciently to be present at the Tea-Meeting. 

As already stated the Annual Raports for the years 1885, 1886, 
l4 1887 are in print, so that it will be easier to piece together 
fcrmation regarding those three years under the several heads 
»IlOdrned which will now be done. 

The number of members on 1st January 1888 is given as 115 
Kembei-s. of whom 57 were men and 58 women. 

The Church, although not pecuniarily in a position to assist 
materially other religious organisations with 

te^^^icte. '""^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ deeply sympathised, has yet made 
some small efforts in this diraction which are 

teideiied worthy of record. Thus in 1885 : — 

(1) On the 25th January it made a special collection towards 
ifraying the expenses of Lord Radstock s meetings which amounted 
f" Rb. 20 which was forwarded to the Committee concerned. 

(2) On the 27th September the Rev. J. A. Macdonald 
Cached on behalf of the British and Foreign Bible Society when 
« collection amounted to Rs. 30. 

In 1886 the Rev. Dr. K. S. Macdonald preached a sermon 
L the 30th May on behalf of the Religious Tract Society when 
« eollection amounted to Ms, 25, 

426. THE S^ET 07 tflE tkht-Bklkn, BAPTIST CHUBC^. 

In 1887:— . . 

(1) On the Slst July a collection was taken up in aid of iky 
Tract Society and amounted to Rs. 21. 

(2) On the 9tli October, which was set apart as Misakauq 
Sunday, in aid of the Baptist Missionary Society, sermoDs y 
preached in the morning by Rev. J. Stubbs, of tatna, and in tfcl 
evening by Rev. R. Spurgeon of Madaripore. A sum <rf Bb. 40 
was 5ent to the Society as the proceeds of the two coUectionfi. 

The Rev. C. Jordan, as Pastor of the Circular Road ChiiMki 

. readily agreed to sign jointly with Mr. Hooki 

Circular legaul- circular to Pastors of the Baptist Churches a 

^hei^.*''''^" ^'^^ Seaport Towns in England and ebewhen^ 

bringing to their notice the existence of oar if* 

Baptist Churches in Calcutta, and inviting them to give letiteB 

of recommendation to sailors and other members of their boiignh 

gation coming to Calcutta, so that on arrival here the neceBSiiT 

attention might be paid to them. The Association Secretajy Of 

the Baptist Missionary Society very kindly distributed copiflB <l 

the Circular in Great Britain and Mrs. George Kerry did th 

same in Australia during their visit there. 

The easiest way to deal with thvs subject is to ywe t» 
extenso what is on record in the printed rqW* 
Repairs aod ad- for 1886 ^ which runs thus : — 

^^rAt^k "TheChTirch Meeting held on the 21rt ijd 
subsequently. (1886) authorized the Officers to consider m 

obtain •estimates for all work that appeared oec* 
sary and desirably , but the difficulties-^-chiefly in respect of the a* 
]?orch aiid sanitary requirements — were such, that they wS* 
unable to make any recommendations before 2kt J«lji 
when estimates were accepted, collecting-books iasuad, a nnnAjJ 
of Circulars printed and distributed, and steps taken top 
references made to the undertaking free of cost in various relipj 
magazines and publications, and to those Editors, who eo Jsm 
them, the thanks of the Church are hereby gratefully rendered 

The New Porch with iron architraves and jouAb was ereciJ 
from the second design submitted by Messrs. Mackintosh- Burn »•* 
Co,, strictly matching tiie ^m^^\i^ ^<d.\y^tato architectuni iBst 

1?HB iPAStOBATE OP ttHE BBV. G, k. tioOR. : • A^< 

lick tbe worthy Sefampore missionaries adop^ted wh«i they built 
9 Chapel 78 y^rs. ago (it was opened for Public Worabip ou 1st 
nuary 1809), and the two large architraves that required r^mov- 
5 in the verandah have similarly been replaced by iron ones. 
4aigi4g these last meant rebuilding all the superstructure at a 
ge oiM^lay, and on this account iron was preferred to wood. There 
9r, remain only two .wooden architraves in the verandah, and 
present they are sound. 

The ardi^ roof of the Chapel and the flat one of the verandah 
re not watertight so both were, on the recommendation of th^ 
atractors, half-terraoed and the interior of the former was re^ 
iBtered. Sanitary rsquireaaients were imperfect and have been 
nedied, and amongst the minor improvements effected, menition 
gr be .made of the substitution of good-sized frosted 
adowis : for Venetians in the arch at either ^ide supx)orting the 
>f, thereby letting mors daylight into the Chapel, and the altera- 
u made in* the aisles round Pulpit and Baptistery- to provide a 
aectentr^ance from Chapel to Schoolroom. 

A9 will be noticed a large sum has been expended on gar 
IfiiigB. , A new 2 inch main was laid down from the gasometer at 
brwooe gate to the east of the Chapel, an extra sunlight and 
(Mur of new pulpit standards were provided in the Chapel, two 
w lamp-posts were supplied in the compound (one of which wap 
B gift of Mr. J. B. Norton, who did the gas work) all pendante^ 
d brackets on the premises were cleaned and refixed in diSfferent 
BM:es as required, and the lighting of the premises leaves noW 
thing to be desired. 

The Church is very deeply indebted to, and thankful for, th<i 
nerous help rendered it in this undertaking by Mr. H. Det^r, wfeq 
ntributed towards it in the month of September the princelj 
m of Es. 5,000, he further promised to bear the whole expense of 
]irging and lowering the Pulpit, which came to Rs. 257-10 and 
It ^ected at hi& suggestion, but instead of the sum just named 
»^im>st liberally sent a cheque for Rs. 2,000 on 13th November. 

The two pairs of new swing doors at the entrances of the Chapel 
^ the front verandah were the gift of Messrs. Mackintosh Burn 
d Go., and they have been, together with the Pulpit, regarded 
adding in a marked degree to the improved appearance of the 


The Church applied in June last for some assistance from the 
ptist Missionary Society in London, and desire to take thie 
[K»tunity of expressing their warmest thanks for the response 
ieived in- thfe shape of air order- for Rs. 1,<>00 ind lot >(Jafc N«r^ 


valued €KpreBsioDB of interest and sympathy that characterJBed th 
letters received from Mr. A. H. Baynes (the Secretary of the Sodelj) 
in the name of the Directors.. Equally, too, mention is made with 
much gratitude of the generous donation sent by Wm. BudncDi 
of Philadelphia, U. S. A. This good friend writes that the Ud 
of the late Dr. Judeon, with whom he was intimately acquaiBieii) 
having been baptized in our Church (6th September 1812) nubi 
it doubly interesting to him. 

The New Porch was commenced on the 20th July ; the repain 
to the Chapel and Parsonage were put in hand on 13th Sdptembc^ 
and the Chapel was reopened on Sunday, 31^ October, and i 
Public Meeting was held on the following Friday, 5th November. 
While the Builders werd doing the Chapel, the usual servioeB mn 
conducted in the schoolroom up to Sunday, 17th October, inclTuin^ 
so that on only one Sunday — 24th October — ^weve tbf 

As there is not much more to say about r^airs the wUi 
subject might as wall be dealt with out of hand. On the TSA 
September 1889 Mr. C. Gellett was asked to undertake the 
sary repairs after the rains, the cost was subsequently estamaUl 
to be only Rs. 200 from which it can easily be inferred that thm 
was not very much to be done. But in consequence of the 
of No. 30, Bow Bazar Street, not abating the nuisance about U 
hut regarding which he was served with a notice, a new boundai} 
wall had to be built up on the wast side of the Chapel, and itti 
it was reported by the Treasurer on 20th November, had rairi 
the Bill for the repairs to Rs. 650. 

On the 26th December 1894 the Pastor spoke about the neo* 
sity of repairing the Chapel after the next rains and on the 30tk 
October 1895 the Chapel was re-opened after repairs, which co* 
Rs. 5,000, but there is nothing on record to show what was done. 
The Pastor has informed the writer personally that a great dul 
of the wood work in the Chapel and Parsonage had to be changtlf 
two of the upper rooms in the Parsonage were re-floored, the coa* 
house and stable were re-roofed and much polishing of fumitwt 
and upholst3ring had to be done. This was all supetvieed by lb> 
G. Trusler who, although not a member, gave much time and attii' 
Hon to the work {tee oi e^iax^^^ \>Vkst^\^^ «li<iwing that he 


End to the CThurcb. The Parsonage was also repaired at thttt 

AgRin, on the 21st February 1906, the Pastor stated that 
Ni tune had come to repair the Chapel, so he hoped all the mem- 
OB would do their best to raise funds for it. On the 5th August 
iSkxwing the Pastor reported that the repairs had been begun 
lid that A friend had given the electric installation of lights and 
BB for the Chapel and schoolroom and that the work had been 
mpleted. These repairs cost over Rs. 5,000 as patent^tone Mooring 
id ibaen laid down throughout the Chapel and scboolroom and 
I the railings to the pews were removed. The Pastor himself 
perintended the repairs or the figure would have been much higher, 
e was thankdd for all the trouble he had taken in the matter. 
16 Parsonage was included in these repairs. A gentleman in 
■nerica (Mr. Ambrose Swasey of Claveland) sent a donation of 
I. 1,000. He had visited the Chapel the previous year when cai 
B tour round the world and seemed then much interested in the 
i place. The Chapel was re-opened on tha 4th November. 

In 1907 marble flooring was put down in some of the rooms in 
e JParsonage and patent stone in others ; besides the level of the 
uor^f the lower rooms was raised quite 4 inches. The work was 
mpleted by the 3rd August of that year. 

STow that the centenary celebration is upon us the Chapel and 
UBonage havid been cleaned up a bit with fresh, coatings of wbite- 
«h and paint, but no heavy repairs have been done. Some new 
ival Tablets which are considered necessary have been fitted in. 

.The re-opening servicas after the heavy repairs of 1886 were 
Id on the 31st October when the Rev. J. Brown preached in the 
aning and the Bev. C. Jordan in the evening. The Tea-and- 
.Uic-Meating was held on the 5th November at which' Mr. 'G. S. 
bDB ^presided and the Revs. J. Brown, W. Milne and J. W. 
omas spoke. 

No Toopening services appear to have been held after the 
aii9 of 1889 or 1895- On the 4t;Ji Npvdm\)^T \^Q^, ^V^x^ "Oofe 


Chapel was re-opened after repairs, no special serivices were held, 
the Pastor conducting both services himself. 

It will be best at this stage to say all that has to ba said about 
'the few Anniversary services that have been held since 1886. ^On 
Friday, the nth March 1887, a Tea-and-Publio-Meeting was held 
to celebrate tba Seventh Anniversary of Mr. Hook's pastorate and 
to welcome Mrs. Hook whom he had married on the 26th February 
The Rev. G. Kerry presided, and the speakers wera the 
Rev. C. Jordan, Mr. W. C. Madge, and Dr. McCoy. Mr. Hook 
himself preached the Anniversary Sermons on tlie Sunday following 

On the 18th March 1888 Anniversary Sermons were preached 
in the morning by Dr. ^Rouse and in the evening by the Rev. W. 
Johnson, of Bhowanipore, but the public meeting was not held 
till Friday, the 23rd idem, which was presided over by Mr. James 
'Young, the Rev. Mr. Paton Begg, of Bhowanipore, and other 
'liiinMters and friends spoke of the Church sending its roots down 
deeper into the soil by the poor peoples' meeting on Wednesdays 
when nearly lOO persons are fed and clothed weekly. 

No furthjer Anniversary Meetings were held until the 8th March 
1895, when the Fifteenth Anniversary was held at which it was 
said 300 must have been present. This was presided* over by Mr. 
T.* C. Ledlie and the Revs. Ferrier, Redd, Warne (now Bishop 
Wame), Hart and Brock way were advertised to speak. 

. Since then no further Anniversary Meetings have been held, 
but there are two notable services which must be chronicled. 
These were (1) the late Quean's Jubilee Service on Wednesday, the 
16th Febtuary 1887, when Mr. Hook preached both times, and 
(2) The late Queen's Diamond Jubilee Service, which was held 
jtt 'Sunday, the 20th June 1897. These services were held in 
• a^cordanc^ with the orders of Government. On the 23ird Jisine 
1897 the Church met and recorded its gratitude to God for the 
Jubilee 'and echoed from their hearts most loyally "God save the 


Other ocoasions on which others have preached or conducted 

^ the service some of whom were individuals of 

Occasions on 

Itich ' other per- some note in the religious or missionary circie 
Vbayepieached. ^^ gi^^n below :- 

(1) On the 2Ut March 1886 a service for children was held 
f Rev. W. A. Carroll. 

(S) Pastor George Muller of Bristol preached on the following 
sessions in 1889, Mr. Hook heing ill at the time. 

February 3rd ... ... Morning and evening 

March 10th ... ... Morning and evening 

. ,^ 24th ... ... Morning only 

,, Slst ... ... Evening only 

April 21st ... ... Morning and evening, and, 

on his return from Darjeeling, on 

June 30th ... both Morning and evening 

(5) On the 15th December 1889 nilssionary sermons by the Rev. 
^Robinson in the morning and the Rev. A. McKenna in the 

(.4) On the 14th December 1890 missionary sermons by the Rey;. 
?v J. Price in the morning and the Rev. J. G. Dann in the evening. 

{5) On the 21st December 1890 Mr. W. S. Cainp, M.P., 
reached in the evening. 

(6) On the 28th December 1890 the Rev. Dr. G. Pemtecpst 
veached in the morning and Mr. W. S. Caine, M.P;, in tbe 
reioing. ' 

(7) On the 12th and 19th April 1891 the Rev. Dr. A. Gardeh 
Iriser, the father of Sir Andrew Fraser, late Lieutenant-Governor 
f Bengal, preached in the evening only on both dates^ 

(*) On the 1st May 1891 the Rev. Dr. J. L. ittiinips, otjthjB 
idia Sunday School Union, preached in the morning and the 
0V. A. J. Maclean in the evening. 

{9) In 1901 the Rev. A. Haegert preached in the evenini^ 
I 27th Januarjp and again in the evening on tTfi^ lONJci'^^TWKt^^ / 


These details Lave been given a& some of the persooe named 
have entered into their eternal rest. 

On the 2l6t July 1886 the use of unfermeuted wine at tl» 

Communion Service was sanctioned as long u 
Church mattoPi. -. i_ i. 

available and has been used ever since. 

On the 27th July 1887 it was decided that the Pastor at tlH 
Wednesday evening service, preceding the Communion Servieei 
should establish the practice of making special referenc3 to the 
approaching Communion Service and the duty devolving on ChnrA 
Members to attend it, so that any who may have been remisB ii 
this matter might ba invited to attend. 

On the 23rd November 1887 it was decided to send letta 
at the commencement of each cold season to the Baptist Wk 
sionaries working in stations whero there are soldiers, asking iJuB 
to let this Church know of any men coming to Calcutta, who hi 
been attending their services. 

On the 4th July 1888 a letter was received from the fin 
Officers, viz., Messrs. Sykes, Tuck, D'Souza, Purcell and Weogff 
stating that they wished to resign because the majority deddel 
against them at the last meeting. Their resignation was aoceptrf 
with regret. The present writer is the only one out of the fee 
who has rejoined, which he did on the 21st February 1906. 

On the 20th April 1892 a paper, which the Pastor had disfi 
up, was printed and circulated for tHe spiritual guidance and oounid 
of the members of the Church. 

On the 2nd March 1898 tha Church mourned the secetfioDii 
several of its members to the Seventh Day Adventists. 

The Survey of the premises in 1887 was a tedious and trooU^ 

some matter, but naturally it was reeatdedlf 

Survey of the en- •' o • 

tire PremiseB in the Officers and members of the Church U tf 
^®° important one inasmuch as the site, being in tk 

heart of the city and on one of the main thoroughfares, is of ooi' 
siderable value. As the writer represented both the Church aJ 
the Trustees and had so mwcU to do with the matter fervofuBjt 


kd there is so mucli to reoord, in order that it may not be lost 

g^t of hereafter^ be thinks it best to devote a separate Chapter 

the subject. 

As far back as 1819 the young men of the Church formed 

, themselves into a Society for the purpose of 
B Snoday SchooL *■ tr 

Starting a Sunday SchooL No details can be 

■tied as to what was done after that, but it can only be presumed 

mt after having carried on for a while the effort died out, be- 

use in February 1843 the depressed starts of the Sunday School 

18 brought to the notice of the members. 

The next entry that can be traced does not occur till 24tli 
ogust 1854, which was just the time that the Young Men's 
^istian Association was started in Calcutta. On that daCe it 
u resolved to have a Sunday School if one could be raised, and 
: the 15th October 1854 it is stated that the Sunday School 
is started from that date, implying that the Sunday School had 
en TOvived. 

The next entry is on the 30th March 1859, within a very short 
Bd after Mr. Sale took up the Pastorate, which runs thus: — 

"A Resolution was passed that the Sunday School should be 
oognized by the Church. Mr. Mendes was appointed Superin- 
Bdent and Mrs. Sale Lady Superintendent." 

This would imply that the work had been carried on regularly 
Me 1854, but had not b^en recognized by the church, and those 
keiested in it wanted this defect remedied. 

The Annual Reports that were sent to England by Mr. Sale, 
r. Kerry and Mr. John Robinson show that the work was pretty 
jpacualj carridd on, as will be seen from the following : — 

Mr. Kerry wrote in 1861 : " The Sunday School is also going 
yeay well." In 1864 he wrote: "The Sunday School bat gone 
well during the year." 

Mr. 'Sale in his r^iort for 1867 gave the number of childt«stx 
tbe Soodaj BAod am 150, 


Mr. IRobinfion in his report for 1869 gave the number as 
155. In his report for 1874 he stated the number to be 144 and 
the average attendance during, the year as 96. 

But unfortunately the three printed reports already referred 
to show a considerable falling off from the last figure. Thus : — 

1884 ... The average for the whole year is given as ... 39 

1885 ... Ditto Ditto ... 42 

1886 ... Ditto Ditto ... 34 

1887 ... Ditto Ditto ... 39 

and eventually by slow degrees the attendance became smaller, and 
Bmaller, until the School died out altogether some few years ago, 
Und, sad to say, has never been resuscitated since. 

i. On Sunday evenings. — These used to ba well attended 
all the weeks of the oold season, but were given 
Open-air Services, up in the hot season. In 1885 Captains Lloyd 
and Williamson of the (sailing) ships Bajore 
and Brownrigg , respectively, frequently spoke at them, but in 1886 
they were mostly conducted by members of the Church and con- 

2. On Friday evenings, — At this service an English address 
was usually given at the outset followed by others in Bengali or 
Hindustani, with hymns in English, Bengali and Hindustani inter- 
mixed. They used to begin with the approach of the cold seaaon and 
close with the approach of the hot season. At the commencement of 
the season beginning with November 1885, an awning was purchased 
so as to keep the dew off and this was the means of causing more 
Office Babus to coma in and to stay longer as benches were arranged 
in rows and quite 80 people could be seated together at one time. 
These men used to sit all through the service and, of oouree, otbsdrs 
had to stand but although the meeting lasted an hoiir and a half 
the men seemed unwilling to go away. 

When the meetings were resumed from 6th November 1885, 
the attendance was double what it had been during the first 
quarter of the year. Over 1,000 persons (of all classes) must h^^ve 


heard the word preached each week during the hour and a half 
that the meetings lasted and quite 1,200 tracts used to be given 
away at each gathering, but this tract work will have to form a 
separate Section as there are some interesting facts to mention. 
As the result of the preaching this season several young men had 
serious talks with the Pastor and some even asked for baptism. 

At tha last meeting in March 1886, the attendance seemed 
wonderfully large and when the meetings were resumed on the 
12th November of that year the large attendance kept up. The 
rest of the report for 1886 is so interesting and encouraging tha,t 
the writer must be forgiven for quoting it in extenso: — 

*' Towards the end of March (1886) a young Mahomedan 
stepped in as he was passing down the street with a companion, 
the impressions then received leading him to come the next time, 
especially as that was to be the last service of the season. From 
this closing service he felt more than ever his need of Jesus, and 
decided to become a Christian. He sought interviews with the 
Pastor, who at the time was laid aside by sickness, necessitating 
the deferring of his visits till the Pastor's recovery. The 
young man came regularly, was kept under observation for some 
weeks, and given Christian instruction, was baptized in the Chapel 
on the 25th April and was taken up the next day to Serampore 
for further instruction. Here he remained for about four months, 
when a suitable temporary appointment was offered him which he 
gladly accepted; since then he has been supporting himself and 
has maintained a consistent Christian life and is respected by 
those with whom he has worked. 

A few months after his baptism we had the pleasure of bap- 
tizing in the Chapel another young Mahomedan who is of a good 
family. He, too, has maintained a consistent Christian life and 
is supporting himielf . As may be inferred, both these young men 
have had to give up all for Jesus. 

' Tzi the early part of April a Missionary mentioned that as 
he was preaching a little while before that at a mela (fair) about 
40 miles from Barisal, a Babu spoke to him at the close of the 
discourse about his message and seemed in an anxious state. On 
questioning him further the missionary elicited that he had first 
heard the Gospel at these open-air services at our gate. 

•We have now before us the case of a young Jew, who has 
at^tended these meetings and who has expressed a wish to become 



a Ghristian. As he reads. Hebrew be has been furnished with a 
tract in that language and has been supplied with a New Testar 
ment in English, which he can also read, and we pray God to lead 
him to trust in Jesus unreservedly. 

We have been much encouraged by some Babus continuing 
to attend now who used to attend in 1883 when we first started 
thesd services and we have reason to believe that there are many 
secret disciples among those who are present weekly. 

Without hesitation we can say that thousands have heard 
the Word preached at these meetings, and when the sefed is sown 
broadcast in this manner some must fall into good ground, but 
only the Last Day will reveal all the good that has been done. 

When the services were resumed in November 1887 the 
awning was extended by 10 feet so as to accommodate a larger 
number of people, and even this extension has proved insujKcienb 
and it will have to be still further extended. 

The Open-air Service under the Awning as seen fhom the 
Chapjsl Verandah, 

THE Pastorate of the rev. g, h. hook. 487 

: the two Mahomedan converts referred to above tlie first 
led to maintain a ooneist^it life and continued to support 
:. The other worked his way to England and was received 
lember into the Adelaide Place Baptist Church, Glasgow. 
AS studying at the Glasgow University under the auspices 
Baptist Union of Scotland with a view to coming out as 
jher to the Mahomedans of this country. 

irther details will now be given about the latter. Ho was 
phew of a Nawab. His father had a Bible given to him 
he used to read in secret in the palace of his brother the 
. The son used at times to see his father reading this Bible 
]sB ensued, so when the father died the young man's mother, 
ig he might like to have the Bible gave it to him. Through 
i; it he came to see the truth of Christianity. It came, 
r, to be known by his uncle the Nawab that he was in the 
>f reading the Bible so spies were set to watch him and 
to the uncle. One day when he was having a quiet read 
Word of God he was astonished to see his uncle suddenly 
Qie room. The Bible was immediately seized and burnt 
She young man, who was told by the enraged uncle that 
iiir had become a Christian at heart by reading it and that 
|d lather kill him than have him become a Christian and 
r bring disgrace upon the family. The uncle then left the 
the yoTing man up in it. He, however, by some 
to escape and come down to Calcutta. Arrived 
where he could meat with Christians who would 
truths of the Christian religion and was directed 
in Bow Bazar where preaching, went on every week 
So he came, as stated previously, and remained in 
^^pembeirs of th^ Nawab's family had come down in search 
even asked Mr. Hook of his wher&aboutsi, but he 
give tbem the information they sought for. As already 
ifter his baptism he went on boardship to escape pursuit 
irked hia way to Scotland. He remained at t»!i<& QcV^s^^^f^ 


University for quita two years and while there all his expewn 
were paid by Sir Peter Mackinnon. Through the influence of ih 
latter he was eventually sent out as a missionary to the Mahomft' 
dan slave dealers on the East ooast of Africa among wbom 1» 
labored some few years, but with what result is not known. Et«- 
tually he contracted a fever which necessitated his immedute 
removal, but he died on his way back to Scotland and was burW 
at sea. 

Thd following interesting incident relating to these services i. 
mentioned by the Pastor in his report for 1891 : — 

" Then the faithful testimony of those who have found CW 
is working silently like the leaven and we see men strangely moiJ 
by these unseen forces. One tall fine, up-country Hindu, bekfflf 
ing to the Viceroy's Bodyguard, came to our vernacidar seniwi 
some three or four years ago, and I gave him a copy of the Qo^ 
of Matthew in Hindi and talked with him and prayed for Mi 
conversion. That man found Christ. The next year when to 
Bodyguard came down from Simla with tho Viceroy, he earned 
me as a believer in Christ and brought another soldier of theBofr 
guard. Then I gave them the Gospels of Luke and John in Hiaft 
and sat while they read to me the story of the Prodigal Soft- 
Then we prayed together, and when leaving they said, wego** 
Simla, and we shall read tliis story again, as I have read i^ ^ 
my comrades when gathered round the camp fire at night. Sob* 
of them used to come for years running." 

These services were successfully carried on for some years mo* 
but in course of time the attandance fell off and the services Sfi 

The first season after the present writer rejoined the CSwA 
i.e., in November 1906, the services weive re-started, but, ^^ 
well known, a marked change had taken place in the spirit of Ai 
people in the interval. 

As none of the Offioa Babus would come to them the Ei^ 
address had to be given up and the attitude of the men ^ 
very antagonistic to tho Word preached, so that attention W* 
directed more to the lower classse, and of these only a few eotf 
be persuaded to oome in. It was only wh«i the ladies sang ■ 


^«li that apme few ventured in. Tracts were flung away, 
seined to be afraid. 

This evil spirit grew instead of abating and when the me^t- 
; were resumed in November 1907, just after the Squares were 
ed to public meetings by an order of Government, it was found 
b the attendance was still smaller and then mostly of the cooly 
6. Tracts were given only to those who asked for them. It 
; frequently found that some individuals were habitually spitting 
I (bdtel) on the Chapel Tablets at the gate as a mark of insultJ^ 
I generally on a Saturday night so as to be seen on Sunday. 
fKxm as they were cleaned under the direction of the Pastor 
I was the signal for a fresh desecration. The Superintehdent 
Police next door was duly informed and he said this was being 
le to the signboards of all Europeans in those parts. He set 
Utables to watch and the Chapel servants were on the alert, 
' no one was caught in the attempt. This went on for several 
Aa after which the said individuals got tired of the game and 
re it up, only to adopt a more dangarous attitude. 

One morning in May 1908 the servants discovered a suspici- 
i looking shining round article on the west side of the Chapel 
tli^ South of the small verandah on that side and reported 

> matter to Mr. Hook, who had it sent to the Superintendent 
Police next door. The Superintendent did not take long to 
oover. what it was. The Pastor was now on the alert, when, 
ioB astonishment, a week after he himself when going round 

> premises discovered a similar package in the very same spot 
eife the previous one had been placed the week before. This 
3 was sent over to the Superintendent. Both were dangerous 
J bombs. This was very soon after one had been placed against 

Andrew's Bengali Church in Lower Circular Eoad, almost 
H)site the new St. John's (Roman Catholic) Chapel, Sealdah. 
ft matter was kept quiet, so that it should not appear in the news- 
^ lest the members of the Church and congregation should 

alarmed and only thi^ee or four persons w«c^ mlo^xtCL*^^ <A Si&% 


fact by tlie Pastor. Thus the good Lord mercifully preaeaTedSi 

house from being damaged by adversaries as there would Beem te 

be no doubt that something that was said in some recent preaduof B, 

at the gate must have given offence. This would inxiicate M 

there wa^ not a good feeling towards Christians and the GhriBtui 

religion and all should ask the Lord to bring about a speedj 


But to turn the subject, let us now look at the Tract wxk 

that was done in the three yeaxs, 1885, UK 
Ti«!t distribution. ^^^ jgg^ ^^ ^^^^ j^^ jggg ^^^^ 

"Over 1,200 tracts are given away at each meeting. Ihm 
mostly in demand are Bengali, but a large number of Eng^ 
Uriya, Urdu and Hindi ones have been given away and enqiuii* 
have been made for Hebrew and other kinds that do not htfpfli 
to be in stock. Since the starting of the Burma Ezpeditifm ibn 
has been a steady demand for Burmese tracts^ also several So^ 
ture portions have been sold as well as copies of the Life of C3nM 
in Bengali. 

'' A tract with the Chapel stamp seems to have found its mj | 
down to a large city in South India. The reader wanted anoUiflr 
copy BO sent a post-card addressed to the Lall Bazar Chapel. S 
happened to be one of a set which had been obtained from Madnif 
and, as the stock had run out, a fresh supply had to be obtaiud 
and on receipt of the same, the applicant was duly fumiahed wiill 
the one he wanted, which he promised to read carefully. Abf 
months later came a letter from two young men from a plsoe in 
the vicinity of the same city expressing a wish to come up to 
Calcutta to be baptized, but as for several reasons, this was wt 
considered advisable they were discouraged from taking this itqp- 

It is estimated that over 1,200 tracts are now distrilrated 
every Friday and about 500 every Sunday and in other ways, 
that quite 35,000 tracts have been distributed during 1885, mikr 
ing a total up to date of 65,000 since the work was vigmnij 

The report for 1886 is best given in extenso ; for alihmi^ 

it is somewhat long its interesting details will not make it sees 

tedious. It runs thus: — 

The tract work is one of the features of the Fidday evening 
meetings, but has branches in various directions which mikflit 
^parate report desirable. A tract is a silent messenger, mbiA 


la its own mission to a'^omplish in God's time and way, both 
; wliich will be rev>^ed hereafter. 

These silent messengers have been distributed in the houses 
E aome people near to and far from the Chapel and the distri- 
iifem» have been much cheered by the eagerness with which they 
Kve been sought for. 

Packets have been sent at varying intervals to our soldier 
wubeis of the Liverpool Begiment in Burma, and we have 
mved abundant testimony in writing of the welcome they have 
jet with. We have also haid the pleasure of hearing from one who 
is returned from Burma, of the readiness with which they were 
KMved as soon as ever the packets arrived. 

A number are distributed every Simday evening at the Chapel 
lie while the open-air service is going on. As each is given 
ny it is accompanied with an invitation to come to the service, 
id many a stroller down the street, or stranger, has come in 
ho might otherwise have passed on without entering. On one 
SBuion a tract was offered to an individual who seemed a stranger. 
Bang the Chapel stamp on it he remarked, '' How strange, I 
la wondering how much further I should have to go in search 
I ihe Chapel, and here I am at it.'' He seemed quite struck 
itih the coincidence. 

The largest number, however, are distributed at the Friday 
Mtuig, and it is no easy matter to get together such a large 
mnber as we need. A small supply of English ones was ordered 
Ht from England, and was added to by a grant from the well- 
nown fizm of Messrs. S. W. Partridge and Co., and the local 
"tact Society has, as usual, generously supplied us to the utmost 
^ their ability; about 3,000 in English for educated Natives 
a?e been given us by the Madras Tract Society, 2,200 in Uriya 
f the Mission at Cuttack, and a large number in English and 
^Dgali by the Methodist Publishing House of this city. One 
ieod sent up some in Burmese from [Rangoon, another from 
dcatta has supplied a few in Hebrew for our immediate use. A 
ird sent up a good supply from Barisal, and two ladies furnished 
with a lot of Bengali ones when they left Calcutta. In this 
ly Gk>d has met our wants, but as these are very large, we b^ 
iristian friends not to forget us. 

In our last report it was stated that "over 1,200 are distri- 
fced every Friday." This statement seemed to astonish some, so to 
irfy ourselves about the number a pretty strict tally was kept 
one of the services in the early part of the year, and we were 
prised ourselves to find that o\ier 3,000 T^ete <i\&\!t^\)X^^ ^^ 


that particular occaeion without any special induoement or attna 
tion being put forth. This satishes us that our eebimafce cas 
safely be raised to an average of 2,000 for each servioe, vhidi 
will give at least 36,000 for the 18 Friday evening meebingi d 
the year. The joy manifested by people of different nationg or 
races at seeing a book in their own tongue has to be seen to be 
realized, the eye sparkles and the face brightens as the tract b 
put into their hands, and they stand for a few moments eagerly 
reading the opening lines. 

At one meeting the tract entitled "The Sinless Prophet" in 
Mussulmani-Bengali was given to a Mahomedan employee of an 
office, he appears to have taken it home and read it that very 
night to a company of Mahomedan friends in his village, all of 
whom were so struck with it that several copies were asked for 
the very next day. Some Burmese ones were sent to one of th« 
Christian soldiers in the Field, and when he distributed them to 
some of the friendly Burmese the cry was for more as these wen 
so nice. 

Sufficient stress, cannot be laid on the importance of (wet 
work as these " silent messengers " go where probably the living 
voice may never be heard. 

The report for 1887 runs as below; — 

There is a growing desire for Hebrew tracts and they aw 
much asked for, but are difficult to procure. Supplies of varioiu 
kinds have been kindly sent by Colonel Millett (M. M. P. M.) d 
the Pimjab, and other friends, who takes an interest in such irork. 
The Babus treasure up their tracts and bind them up when they 
have collected enough for the purpose. A good sign is thai 
specific tracts are now being asked for, clearly showing that Aey 
are carefully read and pondered over. Though there are tracts 
in about 37 languages and dialects always in^stock, now and again 
a particular kind is asked for which does liot happen to be on 
hand. Large supplies have to be kept in hand to meet the larg^ 

For a considerable time Miss Bush (who subsequently 1* 
came Mrs. Smith) conducted a Cottage Meeting 
ag e mgs. ^^^ West Indians and was the instrument in 
the hand of God of the conversion of many of them, who «*• 
sequently were baptized and joined the Church. After she loft 
Mr. J. H. Belchambers carried on these meetingsi and appoars 
to have won the affection and respect of the men. Though Mr. 
Belchambers has been de^d ^e^et^l 'jears, yet as the writer ^m 

I^HB ^ABTOtiAT^ OF THE REV. G. H. tiOOX. i4t 

Udag to CSiapel one Sunday morning in July. 1908, he was 

eeted by one of these West Indians and addressed as " Mr. Bel- 

MEnbers" although he does not bear the slightest personal re- 

nblance to that departed servant of Qod. 

For years Miss Gonsalves had charge of this work, which was 

Mfltrib ti f subsequently taken over by Mrs. Hook. In 

kULng to the 1885, 430 garments of various kinds were given 

to 20 men> 64 women and 104 children. In 

86, 429 garments were given away to 32 men, 106 women and 

children and in 1887, 524 garments were given away to 550 

m, women, and children, besides 300 loaves of bread with cheese, 

», etc. 

There waa also a District Visiting Society, which did good 

work in the seasons 1884-85 and 1885-86. One 

Wstrict Visiting j^strict was allotted to each member for visita- 

tion and tracts distributed amongst the residenti 

the ]>isbrict8. 

In December 1886 a Mutual Improvement Society was started, 

the object of which was set forth as being "the 

Sfc^oBleS?'^^" T^^^^^* ^^^ spiritual improvement of young men 

above the age of 15.'' It held on its way some 

W years and then died out. 

Miss Bush, who has been previously referred to, also carried 
on work among soldiers and used to gather a 
jWork among pretty good number to her meetings, but even- 
tually she had to leave Calcutta for Fyzabad 
ben the Regiment to which her soldier-hmband (Lanoe-Oorporal 
nith) belonged was transferred there. Aftsr an interval of a few 
jaiB Mr. J. H. Belchambers took up the work among the soldiers 
id used for years to go down to the Fort to conduct meetings 
Qong them. 

There are now some miscellaneous items to note. 

In December 1886 the Rev. G. Kerry offered to give a 
C5fcure on Australia in aid of the General Fund. The title of 
B lecture was Britain in the Southern HeTmsjV^r^. "^^ ^'^^ 


delivered on the 26t}i January 1887 and brouglit in about 
Rs. 70 to the Fund. 

It was decided to give the members an opportunity to bring 
a New Year's O&ring for special mercies received, on the fint 
and second Sundays of January 1887. The same thing was repeated 
on the second Sunday of January 1888. 

On the 9th October 1887 Mr. H. Dear, of Monghyr, died ai 
Munsooree and in him the Church lost a truly valuable and 
generous friend, and, on the 25th January 1888 the Church wu 
informed that he had in his will left Bs. 5,000 for the Poor's 

On the 26th of March 1890 it was reported that the Tablet 
to the memory of the Rev. J. Penney, which used to be in the 
Benevolent Institution had at the request of Bev. A. McKemii 
his son-in-law been placed in the Chapel. 

On the 18th April 1891 Mr. Hook was appointed a member of 
the Pauperism Committee, the work connected with whidi be 
found very trying. 

On the 6th March, 24th April and 2nd October 1892 there 
were large gatherings in the Chapel at baptizing services. On 
the first occasion seven Europeans and two Bengalis were baptiied 
and many were unable to get inside the doors. On the next oocir 
sion six Europeans, £ve Madrassies and one Assamese were b^ 
tized and no standing room even was left. All these, however, 
did not join the Church. 

On the 29th June 1892 there was an all-day prayer mMtiog 
from 6 A.M. to 9 p.m. when the Pastor was in the Chapel all the 
time to unite with all who came to intercede with God lor » 

On the 24th August following the Pastor stated that be Hoped 
to hold three months' revival services conmiencing from the Sni 
Sunday of October. 

On the 24th January 1894, the Pastor stated that the Bor. 
Miles Grant; evangelist from Boston had offered hia servioeB fcc 


tibree montliB' evangelistic services, with a Bible School for week 
nights and the Church accepted his offer. 

' On the 2l8t March the Pastor reported that the Municipality 
was about to raise the rate of taxation on the Chapel and Pareon- 
age and Mr. Belchambers was asked to see the Municipal autho- 
rites about it and on the 25th April he reported that the matter 
had been settled with the Municipality and he hoped for a re- 
duction of the present rates. On the 25th May they consented to 
Induce them. 

On the 20th November 1895 the Pastor stated that Mr. 
Cunningham from America had been assisting him in the work 
of visiting the poor and the members. 

On the 12th June 1897 the Great Earthquake visited Calcutta. 
l%e cornice of the Chapel verandah fell and several of the arches, 
besides the roof, were cracked. 

On the 5th August 1906 ths Pastor stated that on the 10th 
May he had received a Notice from the Municipality that the 
taxes would be doubled and to appear on the 16th idem if he 
wished to raise any objection. This he had done when it was 
decided that no taxes should be paid thereafter on the Chapel and 

On the 2nd September 1906 the following individuals were 
appointed Deacons: (1) Mr. F. A. Brown (to be Treasurer), (2) 
Mr. E. S. Wenger (to be Secretary), (3) Mr. N. Morris, (4) Mr. 
T. E. Alexander, (5) Mr. F. Sunder, (6) Mr. E. J. Brown and 
(7) Kev. G. C. Dass. This last has since died. 

On the 2nd February 1908 Mr. Wenger asked the members 
to furnish him with any information they could for his projected 
Centenary History of the Church. He also wished them to con- 
sider whether the Centenary would not be a suitable occasion for 
the following: — 

(1) to change the name of the Chapel to "Carey Baptist 
Chapel " instead of Lall Bazar Baptist Chapel as at present? 
which is confusing. 


(2) to put a oommemorative tablet on the front wall of the 
Chapel as Government has put up on the front of the 
Mififtion House at Serampore, to indicate date ol opening. 

(3) to put up a second tablet similar to Dr. Judson's to 
coinmemorate Bev. Luther Rice's baptism. 

(4) to put a third tablet on the front wall of the Parsonage 
to oommemorata its Donor Mr. H. Dear. 

On the 29th March Deacons' Meetings were restarted, the first 
being held on that date. 

The following is the list of admissions since 1880 : — 

1880 ... 

... 17 

1881 ... 


1S82 ... 


1883 ... 

... 16 

1884 ... 


1885 ... 


1886 ... 


1887 ... 


1888 ... 


1889 ... 

... 9 

1890 ... 


1891 ... 


1892 ... 


1893 ... 


1894 ... 


1895 ... 


1896 ... 


1897 ... 


1898 ... 

... 13 

1899 ... 

... 9 

1900 ... 


1901 ... 


1902 ... 

... 8 

1903 ... 

... 3 

1904 ... 

... 6 

1905 ... 

... 8 

1906 ... 


1907 ... 

... Nil 

1905 ... 


Graii4 Total ... 329 

Some 52 others' have ako 
been baptized within the 
above period, who did not 
join the Church. 

The Parsonage and its Donob Mb. H. Deab of Monghyb. 

A Parsonage, or residence for the Pastor of the Church, had 
a a long-standing want. The Rev. John Robinson had con- 
'«ed the idea of trying to procure one, but at the end of his 
torate expressed regret that he had not been able to carry 
nto effect. The Church during his pastorate had erected the 
Dolroom at the back of the Chapel and had also given the 
Lpel a new roof on Clark's patent principle. As theae two 
jects demanded a good dsal of money and attention, ite hands 
e pretty fully occupied throughout the whole of Mr. Robinson'i 
borate. As Mr. Robinson gave his services to the Church 
buitously, the Church was thus able to set apart for other 
poses money which under ordinary circumatances wouM have 
Q expended on the Pastor's salary. But in the fulness of time 
. quite unexpectedly the Lord himself opened the way in regard 
i Pastor's House without the Church having to worry itself over 


Mr. Hook states that the acquisition of the Parsonage came 
lit on this wise. Ha went to live in the Schoolroom in the 
ly part of 1881 and one day quite unexpectedly Mr. Dear of 
nghyr happened to call on him. He saw the uncomfortable way 
whiidi he was living and enquired if it were not possible to build 
procure a residence for him, promising to give something him- 
' towards the cost. That very day as soon as he went back to 

Hotel he sent a cheque for Rs. 2,000. On another 
r Mr. Nicol, the Secretary of the Church, called on 
im great distresa of mind as he was without a situation. They 
[•prayer together after which Mr. Nicol seemed relieved by the 
iri^nce that he would get a situation, which he did shortly after. 
, Hook mentioned about Mr. Dear and his gvit ^.n^ \}ckjs^ ^'^jsK 


sallied forth to the regions at the back of the Chapel to see if there 
was any suitable house near at hand. When near the gate of No. 
19, Zig Zag Lane, Mr. Jore, the occupant of the house, saw tJiem 
and invited them in. He then enquired of them what had tabu 
them out and Mr. Hook mentioned that they were in search of a 
house that would be suitable for the minieter'B residence. On thii 
Mr. Jore told them that as his sister had recently died they wen 
thinking of selling that house, so Mr. Hook immediately adnd 
him to let them have the first refusal of purchase for the Churdi} 
to which Mr. Jore readily assented. 

What followed is given in the order of sequence. 

On the 25th May 1881 it was decided to alter the small nxntf 
at the back of the Schoolroom for Mr. Hook's accommodation, when 
a small bathroom wae added for his use. 

Also to ask Messrs. Mackintosh Bum and Co. for an estimite 
for the building a Pastor's House within the Chapel compound. 

On the 27th June the estimates of Messrs. Mackintosh Bon 
and Co. w&re reported to be as below: — 

1. For a lower roomed house ... ... Rs. 13,000 

2. „ Upper „ „ ... ... „ 22,000 

At the same meeting it was stated that No. 19, Zig Zag Ltfi 
would probably be for sale within a year at a figure InI0V 
Bs. 8,000 and it would be better to buy it and modify it tiku 
to go to the expense of erecting a new house. 

Mr. Kerry, the Indian Sscretary of the Mission, was asked to 
write to the Society at Home to enquire to what e!ztent tb^ wodi 
help the Church about the Pastor's House. On 27th July * 
was reported that Mr. Kerry had written Home making ttv 

On the 24th August Mr. Hook reported that Mr. Jo», fc 
owner of the house, had promised him the refusal of it and that lfr> 
Dear had promised a donation of R^. 2,000 towfirds the pniduiW 


On; the 22nd February 1882 il was reported thai Mr. Jore had 
reed to sell No. 19, Zig Zag Lane for Ks. 8,500 and it was 
idded that the property was to belong to the Church and not to 
e Mission as the Church accepted all responsibility for it. 

On the 15th March it was reported that an examination of the 
rust Deeds of the Chapel showed that it and the grounds be- 
aged to the Church and not to the Missionary Society, Mr. 
C. Marshman having transferred his purchased right, title and 
.terest in the land and Chapel by the mortgage to the Trustees 
' the Church. He had in fact been asked specifically by the 
hurch in their letter of March 1839 to make it over to them 
hich he did by the nomimal sale of the property for Ten Rupees. 

All this having been explained to Mr. Dear it was reported 
1 the 22nd March that his misapprehensions having been removed 
D wished the house No. 19, Zig Zag Lane to be conveyed to the 
Ixurch on similar terms to those in the Trust Deed of August 1839 
> that it might, with the Chapel premises, form one property. 

On thd 24th May it was reported that Mr. Jore, the owner of 
To. 19, Zig Zag Lane, wanted the house taken over at once by the 
Swrch, so Mr. Dear on being written to consented to advance the 
Bmaining Rs. 6,500 on condition that the house would be 
mrtgaged to him at a fair rate of interest which he would forego 
f the principal were paid within 12 months. It was resolved 
M the house should be conveyed on behalf of the Church to such 
ttrviving Trustees of the Chapel as are residing in or near 
pfeatta and that they be authorized to sign the mortgage to Mr. 
IjMr on behalf of the Church. 

i:- On the 21st June it was reported that Mr. Dear had engaged to 
iN the Bs. 6,500 which was required for the purchase of the 
^Mor's House instead of lending it, but it was necessary to 
ppoint some one to intervene between the Church and the 
hiscees to receive the house, so Mr. A. L. Sykes was nominated. 

A Committee was appointed to consider and arrange for such 
^airs and alteratioip as should be done when ti\i^ '?«le^Q1^^'B5^^»^ 



should come into the possession of the Church. The Committee 
comprisad the Pastor, Deacon Francis, Mr. F. P. Lindeman, Mrs. 
Kerry, Miss Gonsalves and Mr. A. L. Sykes. as Treasurer and 
Honorary Secretary. 

On the 5th July it was decided that the Trustees should have an 
opportunity for perusing the draft Trust Deeds before tbey were 
"faired" and submit their suggestions to the Church Meeting. On 
the 26th July the said draft Deeds regarding the Pastor's House 
ware after modification approved and were ordered to be sent for 

On the 22nd August the Parsonage was conveyed to Mr. A. L. 
Sykes and on the same date given over in Trust to the Trustees 

A view of thd North verandah of the Parsonage is given below 
and another of the South verandah is given on the opposite page. 


View op the North Verandah op the Parsonage. 
The amount of land was 10 cottahs, 4 cbittacks and 16 square 


On the 23rd August Mr. Sykes reported that the Deeds of Con* 
eeyance of the Pastor's House had been signed and that the house 
WK8 now fully the property of the Church. 

On the 20th September a letter was received from the Secretary 
>f the Society in London expressing their interest and sympathy 
in the effort to provide a Pastor's House and conditionally pro- 
oaising a sum not to exceed Rs. 1,000 if it should be absolutely 

On the 25th October the Bill of the Attorneys (Messrs. Beeby 
md Rutter) for the conveyance to the Church of No. 19, Zig Zag 
Lane, amounting to Rs. 700 was reported to have been paid. 

It was decided that the Superintendent of the Baptist 
lifission Press be af ked to receive into his hands for safe custody 
Q the iron safe of the Society on behalf of the Lall Bazar Baptist 
fhurch, the Deeds of the recently acquired minister's residence; 
\XBt the same may be kept, together with the other Deads be- 
>nging to the Lall Bazar Baptist Church, which are already in 
le custody of the Society on behalf of the Church at the said 

kOn the 22nd November the Secretary reported that the Deeds 
o. 19j Zig Zag Lane had been deposited at the Baptist Mission 
a, Calcutta, and a receipt for them given by the Superintedent 
^be Press. 

B Tlie estimate of Messrs. Mackintosh Burn and Co. for repairs 
iff alteratiom to the Pastor's residence amounting to Ra. 9,750 
a$ discussed and certain items were eliminated reducing the 
late to Ra. 6,496 and they were asked to put the work in 

at once. 
I Aa ther^ was sufficient old material in good order from the 
jr's residence it was decidsd to get a native mistry to build a 
ca stable for Rs. 100 instead of a tiled one. 
On the 21st March 1883 it was reported that the gift of the 
iaptist Missionary Society, viz., Rs. 1,000 to the Pastor's House 
'xmd had been received and it was suitably ackiio^\eid%^^. 


It was about Easter of this year that Mr. Hook took up Im 
residence in the Pajnsonage. On the 23rd March a tea aad public 
meeting was held to celebrate the third annivereary of the Pasfcor'B 
settlement and the completion of the Parsonage. 

On the 23rd May Messrs. Mackintosli Bum and Co.'s extra 
charges for the Parsonage were passed. 

On the 8th January 1884 a tea and public meeting was held 
with a view to reduce the debt on the Parsonage. Mr. Dear sent 
a cheque for Rs. 500 and Mr. James Toung promised a donation (H 
Rs. 1,000. 

On the 21st March 1884 the fourth anniversary tea and public 
meeting was held comprising a Fancy Sale during the tea wbid 
realized Es. 150 towards the debt on Che Parsonage. It was re- 
ported that Mr. James Young had sent in his donation 
Rs. 1,000 towards the fund. 

It was also reported that the Parsonage cost in all Bs. 16, 
for purchase with alterations. 

The alterations, that have bsen made in th© Parsonage within 
these 26 years have so much improved it that it is now an altogether 
different building and is a calm and quiet retreat in the very heart 
of the city and just suited for a minister's residence where all 
perfectly still, being away from the noise of the traffic of the hfflj 
thoroughfare in which it stands. 

Mb. H. Dear of Monghyb. 
He was bom at Dobrozyn in Russian Poland on the 1^ 
January 1812 of Jewisfi extraction. He came to this ooiint? 
when young, i.e,, about the year 1825, and eventually settled dofi 
a*i Monghyr, where he came under the spiritual influeaoe of Jxi* 
A. Leslie while stationed there, by whom he was baptized in 18* 
When steamers began to run up-country Mr. Dear was appoints 
ac first Steamer Agent at Monghyr and afterwardj brtiB^ 
a successful timber contractor when Railways were first open* 
out in this country and thus accummulated a considerable fortOK- 
^e was always sympatliQtiQ t^^^xd^ the poor and inoBt of W 



ibioDB were for tiieir benefi!t though his bounty ateo flowed 
nr social and religious directions. His name first oocurB as a 
to the Benevolent Institution in 1845 and as a contributor 
» Lall Bazar Church in 1864. When the proposal waa 
I for the purchase of a house as a Pastor's residence, 
oerouely paid all the expenses for the purchase and 
icuring of it legally as the property of the Church 
ntributed in all nearly Ks. 10,000 out of the Es. 16,600 

PoBTBAiT OP Mb. H. Deab, the Donob op the Pabsonage. 

ly expended in purchase and alterations. A few years 
when the Church contemplated the new portico which 
jh a handsome feature of the Chapel and other heavy 
tions and repairs, he contributed several thousand rupees to- 
the cost. In fact at that tim© he seemed raised up of God 
the stand-by of the Church, and, whenever the Church asked 
lip, he gave it generotisly. The charities in his will were 
as he left a large fortune. 


A tablet is erected to his memory in the Baptist Chapel at 
Monghyr, where he worshipped for 47 years, the inscription on 
which reads as balow : — 

to the Memory 


Herschell Dear, 

Born at Dobrozyn, Russian Poland, 

January 1st, 1812, 

Disd at Mussoorie, October 9th, 1887, 

and buried at Monghyr, 

December 9th, 1887. 

This Tablet 

is erected to his memory 

by the members of the Churcb 

and Congregation 

worshipping in this Building 

(of which also he was a member 47 years) 

and other friends, 

as a token of love and esteem 

for his Christian Character, 

Catholic Spirit, 

and Philanthropic Benefactions. 

"Ths memory of the just is blessed." 

As there is no tablet to his memory in the Lall Bazar Chapd 
it would seem appropriate to put one up on the front wr.I! d th? 
Parsonage stating that he was the donor of it. 


The Oldest Church Member and her Sister. 

The name of the oldest Churcli member as to both age 
I Church connection is Mifis Catherine Virginia Gonsalves. She 
5 iborn at Cochin in the Madrasi Presidency on the 15th February 
►0. Very little is known of her father Bernard Gonsalves as 

was very young when he was lost at sea. He was a Spaniard 
birth but was brought up as a Protsstant. He was the Chief 
Lcer on board the Brig Britatmia which traded to Calcutta 
I the various coast ports. This vessel was lost in a terrific 
lone with all hands in the latter part of 1831 i.e., within a few 
Qths after her sister's birth. Her mother Mrs. Catherine 
asalves was born at Penang on the 14th July 1813. Her maiden 
ne was David but Mr. Gronsalves met her in Calcutta on one of 

voyages and married hsr here towards the end of 1828. She 
ompanied him on his first voyage after the marriage and was 
iy eleven months. Aftsr that she settled down in Cochin, where 
^herine was born. After her husband was lost at sea Mrs. 
nsalves remained in South India visiting different friends 
turn. The second daughter, Elizabeth Marian, was 
n at Coringa, in the Madras Presidency on thd 15th June 
►1. There was no other child, for only 5 months after the birth 
this one Mr. Gonsalves perished. Aft^r spending 5 years in 
ith India Mrs. Gonsalves considered it best to join her own 
'ple at Calcutta where she arrived in 1836 with her 2 girls. 

When the latter were considered old enough to go to school 
y were sent to the Benevolent Institution where Mrs. William 
Vinson (formerly Mrs. Lish) was the Head Mistress, and Miss 
isalves still remembers her although she was then under 9 year* 
ge. Mrs. Robinson died in May 1838 and was succeded b'^ "^t^. 



Robert Bayne, whose health failed after only a short reeidence in 
this country, when she had to go Home. Then came Mrs. W. W. 
Evans, whose memory is still cherished by Miss Qonsalvee 
who had become a teacher herself in the school under Mrs. Evans 
before that good lady died and it was under her influence that she 
was led to consider the concerns of her soul. 

Special attention was always given to instructing the girls 
and young women of the school in needlework, woolwork and every 
thing of that sort so that they might, if necessary, earn a litUi 
money for their own livelihood and this practical instruction has 
come in very handy to Miss Gonsalves, who for many years past 
has been able to add something every month to her precarious 
income by the sale of fancy articles made up by her. 

Mrs. Gonsalves was baptized on the 28th February 1841, Miai 
Gonsalves herself on 27th February 1848 and ter sister on 24tli 
November 1850. 

From the dates given above it will be seen that as to age Miss 
Gonsalves is near completing her 79th year and that she has been 
connected with the Church nearly 61 years. 

Mrs. Gonsalves married Mr. R. W. CJhill on the 5th Mani 
1841 who had been baptized on the 31st Dec^nEer 1837. Misi 
Gonsalves' sister married on 12th May 1859 Mr. William Thomas 
who had been baptized on 29th September 1850. 

There is a short break in Miss Gonsalves' connection with tlie 
Church for a little over 2 years, i.e., from 18th August 1875 
till 30th October 1877. As she felt that she could not consdentioiialj 
retain her membership she seceded along with several others, M 
when the trouble that occasioned this had blown over, she rejoiitt' 
on 31st October 1877. 

The portrait on the next page shows her as she was in 1B70 
prior to her secession from the Church, when she was in the priiaa 
of life, her ago then being just over 40. Of course she is v«y 
different now in appearance, but there is no later portrait oi her. 


WAS IK 1870. 

Mrts. Chill (previously Mits. Gonsalvee) died on the 4th June 
I and Mr. Chill on the 6th February 1865. 

Mrs. William Thomas died on the 7th September 1896 and 
Thomas on the 26th May 1904 but they had no children. 

After the great cyclone of 6th October 1864 Miss Oonsalves 
her sister Mrs. Thomas were appointed custodians of the 
pel and grounds which they continued to look after until they 
ded from the Church in 1875. On the 7th February 1866 
3 Gonsalves was asked to take charge of the accounts for 3 months 
when Mr. Hassell died in the early part of 1867 she was 
ointed from 27th February 1867 to take charge of the accounts 
iddition to her other duties. After Ma^ \%&% ^Iciib ^^vi^ %:^ljKai 


asked to look after the Chapel and to take charge of the acooi 
once again and she hae baen the collector of the funds even Bino 
In the earlier days of her connection with the Church ehe 
an active worker and an enthusiastic Sunday School teacher, 
her Sunday School class there used to be a lady who was hapfe 
in the latter sixties. Not long after her baptism she married 
went up-country where she remained for over 31 years and, on 


return to Calcutta after that long interval of time, the meel 
between the pupil and the old Suu day School teacher was \ 

Miss Gonsalves naturally can give a good deal of informal 

about the past, and, considering her age, her memory is still i 

clear and retentive. It is from her that the present writer 

gained most of the inionxi^kXioii ^vq«vi. about the ohauges in 


>el building. She is vigoroiiB and active for a person of her 
and is very regular in her attendance at the services. May . 
be spared yet awhile to encourage the younger generations in 
ttew century of the Church's history upon which we are now 

Mrs. William Thomas was of the same meek and gentle spirit 
3r sister Miss Gonsalves, but she did not have very much to do 
the Church after seceding in 1875^ as she resided for years 
her husband at Barrackpore. Sh3 died at the age of 65 only. 
The Pastor has recorded the following remark against her name 
le Church Roll : — 

"Died 7th Septsmber 1896. A good woman who in the long 
less before death was patient and full of peace. She is at rest 
the resfshe longed so much for." 


A Chapteb of Vabieties. 

The old Church Register of 1825 as also those of later yean 
contain some interesting remarks, but there are also some inter- 
esting particulars which might be noted regarding members, ^ 
joined at Serampore prior to the opening of the Chapel in Cal- 
cutta. Thus : — 

1. Siam Doss, — ^Who was baptized on 4ih Apiil 1802, 
"was murdered near Chins.urah in September 1802, \Aen 
returning to Serampore from a preaching tour. Thirteen penoBB 
were arrested as being implicated, but none oould be convicted." 

2. Bhdrat, — An old man of the Soodra caste, who was baptued 
on 4th July 1802, "was converted through' a oonveisatioB 
with Siam Dass. Died in Calcutta in January 1815 at the age 
of 96. 

3. Petumber Mittra. — Who was baptized on 4th July 1802. 
Suspended: became insane. 

4. Boodhesa. — A Mahomedan convert, who was baptized on 
22nd January 1803 : Suspended on 17th January 1806 and ma* 
great opposition to the Gospel, but reper»*^ed afterwards. 

5. Seetaram, — Who was baptized on 27tli February 1803: 
Was the means of the conversion of several others. 

6. A ma^e.— Baptized on 3rd July 1803: Excluded f op !»• 
morality on 30th May 1806. 

7. Puhma Nuhhu — from Assam. — Who was baptized on 23id 
October 1803 : Relapsed into idolatry, 1804. 

8. T'o^amm.— Baptized on 25th March 1804: Died in the 
faith on 5th July 1804. 

9. Hurree. — Baptized on 1st April 1804: Went back and 
hence excluded. 


10. Dee'p Chand, — Baptized on 6th January 1805 : Relapsed 
bo idolatry but was restored to Communion in November 1808. 
ed on leth September 1813. 

11. Lochan. — Baptized on 23rd June 1805: Died among 
e heathen in the early part of 1806. 

12. Bishoonaut, — ^Baptized on 18th August 1805. Relapsed 
bo idolatry. 

13. Giridhur. — ^Baptizied on 1st December 1805. Aban- 
ned his faith and was excluded in the early part of 1806. 

14. Seeboo Boy. — ^Baptized on 1st December 1805. Died in 
e faith in June 1806, but his corpse was forcibly burnt by the 
ople of his village. 

15. Earn NuL — From Lucknow — baptized on 6th April 1806, 
Ecluded on 5th September 1806, as he turned a Mahomedan. 

16. Santiram, — Baptized on 3rd August 1806. Denied Christ 
id died aftarwards. 

After the date of the opening of the Chapel, we have : — 

1. Umuree. — Baptized on 1st April 1810. A very excellent 

2. Mrs, M, D'Rozario, — Baptized on 30th December 1810. 

3. *Mr8, A. Petruse. — ^Baptized on 28th July 1811. Ex- 
aded on 21st February 1826 for having two children sprinkled. 

4. *Mr8. Thomson. — Baptized on 27th October 1811. Ex- 
uded on 21st February 1826 for non-attendance. 

5. Mr, ' . — Baptized in 1811. Excluded for denying 

le doctrine of the Trinity. 

6. Joseph de Sylvia. — Baptized in 1812. Died happily at 
flhet in 1827, leaving behind him a character honorable to his 

7. Mary. — Baptizsd in 1812. Blind. At Oooly Bazar in 

8. Mrs. Trilute. — Baptized on 15th AugUv,t 1813. Wa^ 
rowned on her way to Meerut* 


9. *A female. — Baptized in 1819. Excluded on 22nd Nov- 
ember 1825, for fornication and for regularly breaking the Sabbaft 
by going to market on that day. 

10. A female. — Baptized in 1810. Excluded for intoxi» 
tion on 12tli February 1828. 

11. Charles Chodron. — Baptized on 25th March 1821. Ai 
English seaman. Immediately after his baptism h^ went forth into 
different parts of Bengal preaching the Gospel. Latterly lie w- 
turned and settled among us as a Bangali preacher and '^ied 
regretted in September 1832. 

12. *Mi88 .—Baptized in 1822. Excluded 16tk 

February 1830. She had declared that she would not attend tl» 
Chapel again and she seemed to have lost all concern about religioii 

13. George.— K Malay— Baptized on 29th May 1825, bW 
Bom at Tapemooli. 

14. *A native named Eoo'p was refused admission to tk 
Communion in July 1825, because he was Rs. 300 in debt and wn 
not making any effort to pay it off. 

15. Mr8. .—Baptized in 1826. Excluded in Apd 

1828. She died a few weeks after her exclusion. 

16. Ramkishur. — Killed at Sulkea in September IW 
whither he had gone to preach the Gospel. 

17. Mr. James Williams. — Baptized on 26tli November 182i 
Missing for several years, January 1832. 

18. Mary Gordon. — ^Baptized on 27th December 1829. Dw* 
happily on 7th January 1831. 

19. Nicolas Lambros. — Received in 1830. A native of 6i«* 
who died happily in Calcutta on 8th February 1832. 

20. Mr. William Robinson. — Baptized on 30th Septsober 
1832- Went to Assam and after many years of a godly coune, dW 
on the 27th August 1863. 

21. Mr. John T'oef c?.— Baptized on 29th September 1833. A 

*A11 theae tooklpUce daring the Paitorate of the E t. W. BoblnBon, vkl 
ia stated to have been a Btrict d\«Q\.^\VTv».Tva.Tx. 


a^istent and spiritually-ihiiided man. Died on the 13th May 

22. *In 1834 a gentleman is stated to be too fond of Balls 
d Plays. He had been reproved " for attending a Ball and the 
leatre, but he will not submit to reproof. To prevent further 
monition he wished to withdraw.'' 

23. Mr. /owc5.— Baptized 24th September 1837. Died trust- 
g in Christ, 10th May 1838. 

24. Mr, E, Eoberts. —lieoeived in 1839. Killed at Delhi in 
e Mutiny of 1857. 

25. Miss Jessie TFcZZs.— Baptized 28th June 1840. Died 
.ppy in the Lord on the 26th August 1863. 

26. Mr, W, J. Ruper, — Received on the 15th. August 1840. 
Led in the Lord on the 19th February 1870, after a long and 
eful life, at the age of 67 years and 8 months. 

27. Mrs, Julia Hill, — Received from Dacca on the 9th Nov- 
aber 1842. Died very happy on the 3rd November 1869. [The 
'^sent writer used to visit this aged saint in her room in the 
aneral Hospital, Calcutta, regularly every Sunday for months 
>fore her death and was always greatly refreshed spiritually by 
8 visits to her as she was always so bright and cheerful]. 

28. Mrs, Pascal D'Rozario. — Baptized on the 26th October 
k5. Died on the 6th December 1870, after a consistent couz«e. 
er hope was firm fo the end and she died happy in thd Lord. 

29. Mrs, McLean. — ^Received on the 3rd April 1845. Died 
>ry Budd^ly on the 8th October 1870, after a correct Christian 

30. Mr, John Hendrie. — ^Baptized on 26th October 1861. 
led of apoplexy on 14th April 1871, and was found dead in his 

31. Mr, Callow. — Received from the Agra Church on the 
th March 1862. Died after a godly and consistent course trust- 
l in Jesus, on the 9th February 1874 at Hastings. 

32. Mrs, Benson. — Baptized on 24th September 1%^^. T^\s^^ 


464 SHB eroBY of the lall*bazab baptist ohxjbob. 


^'veiy happy'' in the Lord on the 3rd August 1876. "Very 
happy " were her last words on earth. 

33. Captadn William May, — Baptized at Circular Soid 
Chapel on May 1821. Died on the 3l8t October 1884, after a long 
life in the service of Christ. 

34. Mrs. Caroline May, — ^Baptized on 31st October 1834. 
Died on the 19th January 1886. A good quiet woman, who feared 

35. Miss Mary Arm Carlow, — Baptized on 25th June 1848. 
Fell asleep in Jesus on the 14th November 1890, sweetly and peace- 
fully after severe suffering ; but to the last she was. full of triumph 
'and peace and now she is for ever with the Lord. 

36. Mr. W. Francis.— Baptized on 29th March 1863. Died 
on 11th December 1883. He was a useful man and did much good 
in his visits among the poor and the sick. 

37. Mrs. Crowley. — ^Received from the Dum Dum Churcb 
on the 30th June 1880. She lived to a great age — ^nearly 100 yean 
— and was always a quiet good woman. She died quietly and fnll 
of peace on the 18th August 1898. 

38. Mrs. Blake.— BaL^tized on the 26th September 1880. 
Died on the 14tb December 1886. The 27th Psalm was her joj 
and comfort all through her long illness and now she eleepe in 

39. Mr. W. E. Jfarf in. —Baptized on 28th November 1880. 
Died on the 6th March 1889, after yeans of suffering from goak 
He was a man well versed in Scripture and it waa a comfort io 

40. Mr. W. T. -ZTcm^?.— Re-admitted on the 24th Augmk 
1881. Died on the 16th September 1881, of heart disease in tbe 
arms of the Pastor while conversing with him and so passed awaj. 

41. Mrs. J. Ensell. — OEleoeived from the Church at Bimlq* 
tam on the 26th November 1883. Died at Gooonada on the 31ik 
July 1886 of typhoid fever supposed to have been contracted dwnf 
Street preaching. 


43. Mr. H. J, Dessa. — Beoeived on transfer from the Church 

Cuttack on the 23rd May 1888. After lingering for some months 

great pain and weakness, which he bore with unwavering patience 

fell softly aaleep in the arms of Jesus on the 30th December 


43. Miss Phillips. — Received from the Church at Rangoon 
the 24th August 1892. She was a devoted Christian woman, 

lo volunteered to go as a Doctor to the Bombay Plague Hospital 
d died at her post there in August 1898, deeply regretted by 

44. Miss Isabel Gladys Brown, — Baptized on 1st July 1894. 
ill asleep suddenly in the midst of work for Jesus in August 

45. Miss Mary Lilian Freeman, — Baptized on 25th April 
>96. Died at her post as Nurse in the Medical College, Calcutta, 
I the 12th December 1901. She was a meek and quiet Christian 

Some disciplinary rules and regulations have bean adopted at 
ndry, and various times, but they iiave not. been as strictly 
Ihered to as such matters used to be in the earlier years of the 
hurch's history as for instance in Rsv. W. Robinson's time. In 
1006 days it was more or less of a real ordeal to an ordinary person, 
an or woman, to enter the Church as the candidate had to appear 
^raonally at the Church Meeting and be prepared to answer ques- 
ons from any of the members present. 

Among other sad remarks is " committed suicide, '' and it is 
onarkable that several who were excluded died not long after 
leip exclusion leading one to attribute it to mental remorse. 

Among the more encouraging notes, are, "became a Mis- 
onary," " became a Deacon." It is a very remarkable thing how 
lany of the early members of the Church became Missionaries 
nd were taken on as such by the Serampore Missionaries or by 
be Missionary Society. 

jfiB is the case in every Christian Church there h.^^^ \>^<^\x 


seasons of spiritual prosperity and adversity : seasons of harmony 
and peace, as also saasons of dissension and turmoil, to say nothing 
of temporal prosperity and the reverse. The hearts of the several 
Pastors have been full of joy and gladness at times, but just the 
opposite at other times. But through all, the Church has been 
upheld and has been in existence for over a century and it remains 
for those who are now connected with it and for those who aw 
interested in its cxistance, to make the second century of its exist- 
ence, upon which we are now entering a continuous season of joy 
and gladness in regard to its spiritual, moral, temporal and social 
prosperity, and God grant that this may be the sincere desire and 
earnest prayer of every pious heart. 

Until the 17th February 1839, the Church was termed a 
mixed Church, i.e., because it comprised Indians and others and 
the two languages, — English and Bengali — wero used in the services 
and at the Church meetings, but from that date the Indian Chris- 
tians were at their own request, given a letter of dismission so as 
to form a separate Church of their own with Headquarters at ona 
of the villages to the south of Calcutta. Even at the present time 
it may still be called a mixed Church, but in another sense. All 
the services are in English, but some of the members since 1839 
have besn Indian Christians, who were sufficiently educated to 
follow a service in English. There have also been Burmese, Chinese 
and Karen Christians, who could follow a service in English. At 
present there are European, East Indian, West Indian and Indian 

It is a remarkable fact that Mr. W. H. Carey, a son of Mr. 
Jabez Carey, who was a member of the Lall Bazar Church for 
years, has omitted all reference to the Chapel in his list of Chapeb 
on page 227 of Volume II. of his book The good old daya of Hon'Ne 
John Company, which was published as recently as 1882. A 
reprint of it was published in 1907. 

The Deeds and Documents of the Parsonage. 

The first document is the Lease and Eelease dated respectively 
3 and 2nd April 1816 from Elliott Voyle to Bodney Cottcrell 
atham with power of attorney annexed thereto from Lieutenants 
»lonel Voyle to Messrs. Palmer and Co. 

The Lease and Rslease from R. C. Statham to James Oliver 
re are dated respectively the 14tH and 15th September 1821. 

Power of attorney from Mrs. Gilchrist to Colonel Voyle dated 
th February 1827. 

Helease by way of Mortgage — James Oliver Jore and Ann his 
fe to Edward Harris is dated 21st March 1827. 

After that there is no document till the 9th October 1850, 
len there is the attested copy of the Will of James Oliver Jore. 

The Pottah from the officiating Colkctor of Calcutta to Mrs. 
an Jore is numbered 86 and bears date the 29th June 1853. 

The attested copy of the Will of Mrs. Ann Jore bears date the 
Itli March 1871. 

The attested copy of the Will of Jane Olivia Clarke bears date 
.e20th May 1881. 

The cas3 with Opinion of Mr. T. R. Stokoe r^Lall Bazar 
Aptist Church bears date the 23rd June 1882. 

The conveyance between Mr. C. E. Jore and others, and Mr. 
rthur Leslie Sykes, (2) the Bond of Indemnity from Mr. C. E. 
)re and others to Mr. A. L. Sykes and (3) the Declaration of 
rust and Conveyance and Dsed of Trust from Mr. A. L. Sykes to 
le Rev. J. W. Thomas and others, all bear date the 22nd August 

The Bills of Messrs. Beeby and Rutter Nos. 1149 and 1,150, 
»th bear date the 22nd September 1882 and are for Re. 107-6-0 
id Rs. 857-6-6 respectively. 


Since the 22nd August 1882 no freBh Trust Deed has been 
drawn up sa several of the Trustees are still alive, and long may 
they live. 

The Redemption Certificate for the Parsonage land bears date 
the 13th September 1888. 

The extent of the property ie 10 oottahs, 4 cUttacks and 16 
square feet. 

The old entrance having been in a back blind lane the property 
was acquired at a somewhat cheap figure. The Chapel itself un- 
fortunately sufifere from the disadvantage of only a narrow frontage 
on Bow Bazar Street. A wider frontage there would materially 
have enhanced the value of the property. 

The Survey of the entire Premises. 
N February 1887 the Local Government passed their Act for 
arvey of Calcutta and not long after, appointed Lieutenant- 
el William Barron of the Survey of India Department to 
on the Survey and also set apart a Deputy Magistrate for 
1 duty to enquire into disputed matters and make awards in 
dicial capacity. 

liis survey was an important matter to the Church and there 
> much that had to be done, and so much correspondence 
bad to be carried on that it is considered necessary to give 
whole chapter to the subject. 

!he first entry in the Church Minute Book runs thus : — 
'Oth April 1887,— The Secretary [Mr. A. N. Tuck] 
I that in the course of the discussions that arose 
year over the general repairs then eflPected, the need 
aving an authentic plan of the premises came into 
inenoe the Church officers deemed it advisable, however, to 

the erection of the new portico, and, as soon as the repairs 
all paid for in January last they desired Messrs. Mackintosh 

and Co. to make a survey of the premises. On the 12th 
ii that firm submitted a plan of the premises with a certificate, 
I of both of which will be found at pages 197 and 198 of the 
jh Letter Book (Vol. Ill), the original plan being submitted 
3 meeting and the certificate read. The Secretary proceeded 
.te that Messrs Mackintosh Burn and Co. were asked if, from 
aioe to old maps, etc., they could give an opinion as to whether 
ncroachments on the premises had taken place and, if so, in 

direction. Their reply, dated 13th April (page 199, Letter 
) was read and as this certifies that none had taken place 

1854, the present generation at any rate is not responsible 
aving permitted any to have taken place and the supposition 
i reasonable that the measurement of the land, was incorrectly 
I when it was acquired by the Serampore missionaries in 1806 
te first instance, and has not been verified subsequently until 
present time the original Trust Deed having been drawn up 

son of one of them who would have no reason to question the 
•urement in piaking the premifies oyer lo Tlx'W!^^ft^> ^xA^Om 


short renewal Trust Deed of 1877 does not re-capitulate the termfl 
of the Trust which it is not necessary that it should do^ but this 
may be taken to imply that legal formalities being complied mth 
no further investigations were considered necessary at that time. 
A reference to the Church Koll showed that there were only six 
members of the Church who were in that position in and previous 
to 1854. The Secretary, in conclusion, submitted MoBsa 
Mackintosh, Burn and Co.'s Bill for making the survey and 

(/.) That the Church approves of its action of its Officers in having 
secured an authentic plan of the Chapel premises^ and requests the Treaswrf 
to pay Messrs. Mackintosh Burn ^ Co,*s BUI of Rs, 961-0 for the survejf 
from the Repair Fund, 

{2,) That the original plan of the Chapel premises^ and the accom- 
panying certificate from Messrs. Mackintosh Burn ^ Co,, dated 12th March 
1887, togethfr with their letter, dated ISth April 1887, and their receipted 
Bill for the Survey^ he deposited with the Chapel Trust Heeds in the 
Cm tody of the Superintendent of the Baptist Mission Press ^ Calcutta, on 
behalf of the Church ; copies being retained by the Church Secretary in the 
Church Letter Booh. 

(5.) That a copy of the plan of the Chapel premises he sent to the 
Officer in Charge of the Cadastral Survey of Calcutta now in progress^ and 
that he be asked as a special favor to have his survey of the premise 
made as soon as possible, and compared with ours, returning our plan as 
soon as done with. 

An animated discussion ensued as to whether this was a duty 
devolving on the Church, or upon the Trustees of the property, 
half of the Trustees being in England, presented additional diffi- 
culty, whilst communicating with them would cause much delay, 
the point was also raised of the possibility of the official survey 
not coinciding with, that furnished by Messrs. Mackintosh, Bum 
and Co. and the desirability of delaying registration until it was 
known that the two surveys agreed with each other. 

It was eventually resolved. 

(4.) That we defer the question of registering the survey plan drawn 

up by Messrs. Mackintonsh Burn (j- Co, until receipt of a reply from ihe 

Officer in Charge of the Cadastral Survey, Calcutta^ which shall he bnmght 

before the Church before any further action with regard to registration be 



Messrs. Mackintosh Burn and Co/s certificate of 12tb March 
1887 runa as below: — 

"We have carefully surveyed the Lall Bazar Baptist Chapel 
and Parsonage premises, No. 31, Bow Bazar Street. The area of 
land contained within these premises is by actual measurement two 
biggahs, thirtesn cottahs, thirteen chittacks twenty-three and three- 
fourth's square feet. 

B. C. Ch. Sq. Ft. 

(2 13 13 23|) We have also perused the 

documents connected with these premises in the custody of the 
Superintendent, Baptist Mission Press, and find that the area of 
premises No. 31, Bow Bazar Street, is stated to be, both in the 
original conveyance of 1806 and in the Trust Deed of 1877, two 
biggahs four cottahs and eight chittacks a little more or less, and 
the area of No. 19, Zig Zag Lana (now the Parsonage and in- 
corporated with premises No. 31, Bow Bazar Street) is stated in the 
conveyance of 1882 to be ten cottahs, four chittacks and sixteen 
square' feet a little more or l-ess. The area of the premises as now 
found by actual measurement is therefore fourteen chittacks and 
thirty-seven and a quarter square feat loss than the area given in 
the documents. Wo herewith submit a plan of these premises 
prepared by us and return the "Abstract of Title Deeds'' relating 
to these premises." 

The following is a copy of Messrs. Mackintosh, Bum and Co.'s 
letter of 13th April 1887 :— 

We have pleasure to enclose herewith plan of the Chapel pre- 
mises Lall Bazar and beg to inform you with reference to your en- 
quiry that we have carefully gone into the matter of encroachment 
and have consulted the Municipal Survey Map of 1854 and are 
certainly of opinion that no encroachment has taken place in the 
above premises. 

On the 26th April it was decided to send a copy of 
Messrs. Mackintosh, Burn and Co.'s plan to tha officer in charge of 
the Cadastral Survey of Calcutta and ask him to have a survey 
made as quickly as possible of the Chapel premises to compare with 
that plan. It was further decided not to register that Firm's plan 
until receipt of a reply from the Survey Office, which, when received, 
should be laid before the Church before further action was taken 
in regard to registration. On the 4th May an im^oTi^-xA, ^Y^<(:>aL^s3s^cs^ 


took place as to whether the Church or the Trustees should register 
the Survey plan and assume the responsibility of pointing out the 
boundaries. It was thought that the Trustees should do this so 
the Secretary was instructed to. communicate with them. 

On the 19th May the Trustees resident in Calcutta met the 
Secretary and discussed the situation and Mr. Wenger was deputed 
to meet the Surveyor because of his position as a Deacon of the 
Church, and they recommended the Church to procure a Govern- 
ment Survey plan of the premises and deposit it with the Trust 
Deeds, which would obviate the expense of registration. At this 
meeting Mr. Wenger was appointed by his fellow Trustees as tlieir 

On the 25th May it was reported that the Survay papers had 
been placed with the Chapel Deeds in the Baptist Mission Press. 
At this meeting the Church authorized Mr. Wenger to act as he 
might think best in its interests in the matter of the Official 
Survey. On the 23rd January 1888 Mr. Wenger reoeivjsd a printed 
notice from Lieutenant-Colonel Barron, the Superintendent of 
the Calcutta Survey to attend at the premises on the 27th idem, 
bringing bills for rent paid to the Collector or Pottah for rent-free 

On the 25th January it was decided to redeem the Ground 
Rent of Rs. 1-14-10 per annum payable on the Parsonage on 30 
years' purchase and to place the Redemption Certificate when 
granted with the Parsonage Deeds in the custody of the 
Superintendent of the Baptist Mission Press. At this meeting 
Mr. Wenger informed the Church about the notice having been 
served on him. He asked for further instruction and was 
informed that they had none to give him. 

On the 27th January Mr. Wenger met the Surveyor at the 
Chapel premises and pointed out to him the boundaries claimed as 
below : — 

(1) A narrow strip of footpath in front in a straight line from 

Me survey of tiiE ENtlftS t>kEMIB^B. 47^ 

the Police premises to East buttress of gate pillar and strip from 
the West pillar in a straight line West aa far as wall adjoining 
Cabinet Shop then South to join the wall. The representative of 
the Municipality consulted his map and seemed satisfied that £he 
claim was valid. 

(2) Boundary foundation of wall on West alongside Cabinet 
shop as far South as servants* outoffices. On this being explained 
to the representative of No. 30 Bow Bazar Street (a peon) he dis- 
puted the claim on his master's behalf and was instructed to tell 
his master to submit his claim in writing. 

(3) Boundary wall on East of Chapel and North of part of 
Parsonage which was re-built by the Church in 1886 was told 
that the owner of No. 33 Bow Bazar Street claimed this wall as his 
as being a part of a continuous wall all round his premises, so Mr. 
Wenger was told by the Surveyor to present his claim in writing 
within a week. 

On the 29th January Mr. Tuck and Mr. Wenger in going over 
all the Documents concerned found the following discrepancies in 
regard to the Chapel land : — 

B. C. Ch, Sq. Ft. 
Original Pottah No. 98, dated 22nd October 

1789, gives ... ... ... 2 16 8 

Trust Deeds and Conveyance of 1806 give ... 2 4 8 
Kedemption Certificate No. 373, dated 15th 

September 1860, gives ... ... 2 1 2 33 

Messrs. Mackintosh Bum & Co.'s Survey plan, 

dated 12th March 1887, gives ... ... 2 3 10 71 

An examination of Simma' Map of Calcutta of 1849 on the 
11th February gave the impression that the West boundary of the 
premises as shown in that map included the Cabinet shop and an 
examination of an old map of 1820 on the 22nd idem confirmed 
that impression. This wouM imply that the encroachment must 
have taken place between 1849 and 1854. 


On the 22nd February Mr. Wenger reported to the Chureh 
what boundary walls he had claimed and what action he had taken 
about Pottahs and Deeds ; also that in conjunction with Mr. Tuck 
all the Chapel Deads had been very carefidly gone through, and 
what further action he proposed to take. 

On the 12th March the Deputy Gommifisioner of Police 
furnished copy of the correspondence of 1877 regarding the Eart 
boundary wall. 

On the 21st March Mr. Wenger stated that he and Mr. 
G. S. Sykes would appear before the Collector of Calcutta on the 
3rd April with documents in connection with the applicatkn 
to be permitted to redeem the Parsonage ground. 

At this meeting Mr, Wenger made a further report about the 
projected survey and stated among other things that the quantity 
of land mentioned in the Redemption certificate eorresx>onds with 
that shown as belonging to the Church in Simms' Map of 1849, 
and is the same as the Church is now in possession <f, but the 
measurements given in that certificate, the Trust IKdeds and Messn. 
Mackintosh Burn and Co.'s recent Survey differ. Also that OM?- 
respondence with the Police in 1877 regarding tibe East boundaif 
wall showed that the wall belonged to the Church. 

On the 25th April the Secretary (Mr. Tuck) reported that hi 
and Mr. Wenger had completed the case on behalf of the Chajpal 
to lay before the Judicial enquiry or arbitrators by which it irti 
hoped to substantiate the boundaries claimed. 

On the 2nd May, Mr. Wenger reported the result of his vii 
to the Collectorate on the 28th April with Mr. G. S. Sykes. B» 
30 years' rent had been paid in as well as the ground wnt fe 
the current year and a receipt had been given for the momj. 
The Kedemption will take effect from the Ist April 1889 and fc 
Kedemption Certificate will issue about July next. 

On the 23rd May, Messrs. Tuck and Wenger presented their 
report on the Church Deeds and Documents and three careWlf 
prepared lists of Documen^Bi -w^te ai^^ended to it. 


On the 30th July, the Deputy Collector appointed for the 
purpose came to investigate the boundary disputes and gave the 
following decisions regarding the boundary walls: — 

1. That tha whole of the wall East of the Chapel and North 
of part of the Parsonage belongs to the Church. 

2. That the right to rebxdld the boundary wall between Nos. 
30 and 31 Bow Bazar Street belongs to the Church. 

3. That a Notice had been served on thd possessor of No. 
30 to remove the roof of the hut, which rests on the Church's 
pillars and to prevent the water running over into the Chapel 
premisss within 15 days. 

4. That the Church may claim from the Municipality some 
compensation for the two strips of land in the front footpath. 

The Kedemption certificate of the Parsonage land bears date 
the 13th September 1888, and shows the quantity of land as 10 
cottahs 4 chittacks an3 16 square feet. 

On the 26th September, Mr. Wenger sent in his report on 
the boimdary dispute and was thanked for his trouble. 

On the 9th November, the Appeal of the possessor of No. 30, 
Bow Bazar Street, for the Boundary wall was dismissed by the 
Board of Kevenue, L. P., and on the 21st idem it was reported that 
the Appeal against the Superintendent of Survey giving the Church 
the boundary wall to the East of the Chapel and horth-East of 
part of the Parsonage was dismissed by the Board of Revenue, L. P. 

On the 24th July 1889, the Pastor statsd that the piece of 
land at the Chapel gate known as No. 30 Bow Bazar Street had 
been offered to them for sale and it was very desirable for them 
to get ?t for vernacular and open-air services. On the 21st August 
Mr. Belchambers stated that Rs. 4,000 had been asked for No. 
30, and he had offered Es. 3,600 and thought that the Church 
might get it for that figure if it did not seem too eager to purchase 
it. The matter therefore fell through. 


Kf3l XIStAflUME 



Z A ft 


No plan of tli© preinjs3s was ever fui-nished hj the 
and the plan in the Siirvey sheet is too technical for- r^prodj 
so a copy of Messrs. Mackintosh Bum and Co/s Survey j 
given above. 


The changes made in the Exterior and the Intsbiob 
OF THE Chapel and Parsonage. 

The date on which the foundationnston© of the Chagel was 
laid has not been traced : but the Architect was( Mr. James Rolt, 
and in the old books it is stated that the construction of the Chapel 
did him credit. It took j-aare however to reach the stage of 
completion, what with the opposition of Government and the 
insufficiency of funds. 

The sketch which forms the Frontispiece shows the Chapel as 
it looked on the 1st January 1809, when it was opened for Divine 
Service and the one below shows what it looks like at the present 
time. Its appearance is more imposing now than it used to be 
in 1809. 

VjKW OF thjj bxtkbiob of the Chapeii as at the pbesent tim^. 



Dr. Carey stated that it would be 70 feet square with galldea 
ou three sides and that general description will hold good at ik 
present day, the figures being 71X61 as measured recently. The 
main building is just as it was in 1809. The outer walls are OTsr 
three feet thick, and though there have been severe storms and 
earthquakes within these 100 years they hava remained intact and 
have at no time been injured. 

A good many changes, however, have been made in the ex- 
terior of tha building. To begin with the frontage. At fint 
jhilmih (screens) were placed over the front steps only part of tin 
way down, but later on they were brought to where they aie now. 
Then jhilmils were placed on the East and West sides and had 1» 
be renewed when blown down by storms. After that the atepa 
were shortened and later on they were made still shorter in 1854 
and a flat^roofed portico was thrown out. The sketch below shoii 
what the flat-roofed portico looked like. 

QBy kind permission of the Baptist Missionary Society, lHmia»>) , 

In 1886 ths steps were still further shortened and roiffldii 
off and the above flat-roofed Portico being reported unsafe, i 


was pulkd down and replaced by the present handsome portico 
which gives the Chapel rather an imposing appearance from the 
street and sets it off so well that it is the admiration of all visitors 
and even paesears down the street. This handsome Portico cost 
over Re. 4,000 owing to the difficulties experienced in constructs 
ing the grand pillars which support it. After these pillars had 
been partially constructed thsy began to sink and it was then disr- 
covered that they had been constructed on wells the tope of which 
had bean merely built over, but the wells had not filled 
in and the covering gave away when this weight was 
put on it. The wells had then to be dewatered and 
among the things brought up were many little earthen 
cupe such, as are usad in grog-shops at the present day, 
clearly showing what sort of structures there must have been on 
the adjoining grounds, viz., places where drinking used to go on. 
Some of these vessels were preserved by Mr. Hook for several years, 
but have been given away one by one as curiosities to American 
visitors. The last of them was taken by tlie Hon'ble Mr. J. Wana- 
maker in 1902 : he filled it with earth from the compound which 
he termed "sacred earth." After the wells had been dewatered 
they had to be rammed with concrete to stand the weight of such 
heavy pillars. The material thus thrown into them raised the 
cost considerably an item which had not been anticipated. 
Aftar the pillars had been partially built for the second 
time they were allowed to stand for a while to see if 
they would sink again, but the ramming had been done 
so effectually that no further sinkage took place, so they 
were built up to their full height. No sinkage has taken 
place within thesa 22 years. The work had been entrusted to 
Messrs. Mackintosh Bum and Co., and was personally superin- 
tended by their senior partner, Mr. W. M. Osmond, who was 
specially interested in this feature of it. 

Of course, the alignment of the compound had to be altered 
to enable conveyances to drive under this Portico and also to 


approach the Parsonage at the side. The opportunity was taken 
to improve the entrance gate at tlie same time. 

The two small side verandahs have remained just the same 
all these 100 years. 

In the old picture of the Chapel it will be noticed that there 
is a range of buildings on the liglit hand side, very much like tlw 
present range connected with the Circular Boad Chapel. This range 
was originally intended for the palkis of the olden days and their 
bearers. Palkis were then the usual mode of locomotion as 
reference to any book on old Calcutta will show. In course of time 
as other kinds of vehicles came into fashion they foimd a shelter 
in this range. Mr. Lawson, when he labored in Calcutta, had a 
buggy. But the number of vehicles seeking shelter must have 
been very small as the members of the Church were mostly poor 
people who walked to the Chapel, consequently some of the spaces 
were closed in for some of the very poor members to live in. Hute 
and small bungalows were constructed for others, so that at one 
time quite a number of poor members used to live within the 
Chapel compound, until quarrels arose and all had to be turned 
out. By degrees this ranga got into disrepair and was so far gone 
in Mr. Blackie's time as not to be worth repairing, nor could the 
Church afford to build a new range. It was, therefore, sold off 
by public auction in December 1878 on the understanding that 
the purchaser should take it down and clear it all away. This 
was done and it has since then never been re-built as very few 
of the members could afford the upkeep of a conveyance, and now, 
with electric trams, there is no longer the same necessity as in 
former days to maintain one. 

There have been several changes, in the roof. The first loof 
was constructed of perishable material, in fact paper has been 
suggested to the writer. Anyhow, it was the roof that first 
needed attention and at one time things came to such a pass that 
the roof had to be supported and the congregation that assembled, 
it is traditionally reported, had to sit with their umbrellas up when 


rained during the service. Next ttere was a gablo roof with 
agles. After that a zinc roof was substituted and when there 
3 heavy rain the noise from the roof was so great that the voice 
the preacher was hardly audible. This roof was. blown off 
>irely in the great Cyclone of 5th October 1864 and a concrete 
►f was made. In September 1874 an arched roof on the prin- 
ce patented by Mr. Clark was constructed at a cost of over 
. 3^000 and this roof has remained over the head of the con- 
^gation ever since and seems to have answered very well. The 
Lght from the floor to the arch of the roof is 33J feet. 

A narrow veSitry ran back from the South wall of the Chapel 
th© back wall of the compound, but at present only the extreme 
uth portion of it is in existence. In September 1870 the inter- 
ning portion was thrown down and a commodious Lecture Room 
bs erected. Seats are provided in it for 100 individuals^ but 
more could easily be seated whenever necessary. The sketch 
the opposite page shows the interior of this Hall. 

This, with the general repairs that were then carried out, cost 
I. 9>000. A passage was made at that time between the remain- 
g X>ortion of the old vestry and this. Hall and in 1881 a small bath- 
ont was constructed alongside the vestry for the Pastor's personal 

The entrance from the verandah into the Chapel used to be 
'"one main entrance door which was just in front of the pulpit 
d traces of this door still remain. In later years two entrance 
OXB were substituted^ one towards the East and the other towards 
B'West with a screen in front of them supported by stanchions. 
1886 these were removed and Messrs. Mackintosh, Burn and 
r; pi^esented the Church with the present pair of swing doom in 
air rteady which are a decided improvement on the former articles. 

AiS to the interior of the Chapel th6 Pulpit might first be 
femed to. The first pulpit appears to have been a very elevated 
now onoj somewhat like that at St. Andrew's Church, Calcutta, 

. ■ . 31 


with an entrance into it from the narrow vestry at th* Yatk, 
This first pulpit, which was the one used by the Berampoie 
missionaries, was taken off from its pedestal and V fK oa m i to 
Serampore, where it is shown to visitors among the Cax«fy ^tiia. 
Many Americans would have liked to have carried it wwwf, 'm a 

The Beading Desk from which the Hymns and NotioeB iMd to 
be given out by the Deacons in the old days is kept in the liiBMSIflire 
Hall and is still used as a pulpit at open-air aervioea. Muy 
Americans have tried to persuade Mr. Hook to let them* hAw it. 
A sketch of it is given on the next page. 

In course of time the first pulpit had to be pulled dowB aa ife 
was considered unsafe and another not altogether unlike it wm 
substituted for it in November 1843, the construction of which waft 
superintended by Mr. E. Gray, who took only Rs. 300 for it^ 
while the estimate stood for Rs. 900. No sketch of this pulpit 
exists, but it is. stated that the late Bev. Thomas Evans preached 
in it shortly aftsr his arrival in this country in the later fifties and 
said that it reminded him of being at the masthead as it shook £o 
much. Having been a sea-faring man himself, he knew fntwa 
experience what he was talking about! This pulpit continued i<> 
be used until the pastorate of the Eev. John (Robinson in who^ 
time it used to shake so much when he declaimed excitedly thaJtt^e 
congregation feared that he and the pulpit would fall dmm 
together. Hence steps were taken to put up another in its plaoe. 

This pulpit was taken off from its pedestal and serves u fl 
pulpit in the Schoolroom for week-evening services. In Apn! 1674 
one like a rounded platform was substituted for it. This ffOffrthw^ 
to housed until 1886 when the present platform pulpit WM 
constructed which was paid for by Mr. Dear of Monghyr^ who iai 
himself suggested the change. The cost was Es. 300. It is lower 
than the rounded platform of Mr. Bobinson's time. 

The next article to be mentioned is the Clock, which must lukve 
bsen an exceptionally good one in its day when new, as it is i2i£ 


The old Beadikg Desk which has been ik use since 1809. 


mtical ODe that was put in by Mr. Gray in the early forties and 
J tliiie served the Church for over 65 years. It may not be known 
all that Mr. E. Gray took over his watch and clock business from 
:. D. Hare, the great advocate of education for the Bengalis, and 
3i4> when the change in the business took place the joke already 
>ntioned was current. 

The flooring of the verandah was of the usual kind at first, 
t after a time it was^changed to Chunar stone. A proposal was 
ide in 1886 to have tesselated titles laid down, but the expense 
13 considered prohibitive, so the Chunar stones were turned and 
ily those that were too far gone were replaced by new ones. 

The approaches to the galleries from the front Verandah are 
ill just as they are shown in the old picture. 

The flooring of tbs inside of the Chapel was also of the usual 
ind at first, but in course of time that of the aisles was changed 
nd marble tiles were laid down. The kind of flooring under the 
►ews was a matter of much consideration in different years and after 
. time asphalt was laid down. For years there was no matting, 
mt eventually it began to be put down under the seats, having to 
>e renewed from time to time as it got worn out with use or rotted 
rom the damp — anyway tEe expense not infrequently was found 
leavy for the funds of the Church, when finally in 1906 it waa 
^solved to put patent stone down under all the seats and thus 
^0 away with mats and their recurring expense of renewal. The 
choolroom also had patent stone put down at the same 

At one tims there were no glass sashes or sunshades to the 
endows, but in 1886 glass sashes were put to all the windows and 
^iishades to some, and the remainder had sunshades put in 

By degrees the railings enclosing and dividing off the pews 
''Ve been removed, the final lot being taken away in 1906 which 


has improve the appearance of the interior of the Chapel and has 

given more sitting space. Seats are provided for 

UpTtobt'" 134 367 individuals upstairs and downstairs, but 

— under this new arrangement additional seats ooold 
Total 367 . ^ 

easily be provided for 150 more individuals when- 
ever necessary. When ths last lot of railings was removed 
in 1906 it was found that the portions that were embedded 
in the asphalt were quite rotten and full of white ants. 
As the railings in the proximity of tbe Baptistery and 
pr^aaching platform were removed the floor under thi^n was 
laid with marble tiles which has much improved tbd appearance of 
that part of the Chapel. 

In former days there used to be a table pew immediately under 
the pulpit which accommodated the Pastor ^d officers at the 
Communion Service. 

The matter of the Punkahs may afford interesting reading at 
the present day. It must be borne in mind that the swinging 
punkahs began to be used in Calcutta in the early twenties of the 
last century. Bishop Heber in his Journal gives a detailed 
description of them as they struck him on his landing at Calcatta 
in 1823. The first entry on the subject that can be traced in the 
Minute Books runs thus : — 

" March 7th (1844) Messrs. Gray, Hassell, Page, Tulloch and 
Thompson were requested to ascertain the practicability and 
desirablensBs of punkahs for the Chapel." 

"May 9th The Sub-Committee was requested to consider 
whether it was desirable to proceed in the business of putting up 
punkahs or not." 

Here the matter remained in abeyance till the 11th March 

1845 wh&n Mr. Hassell promised to hang up the punkahs and to 

collect the money to meet the expanse. Next we have 

"April 10th (1845) a Committee was appointed comprisiiig 
Messrs. Floyd, Shaw, L. Mendes, Burgess and HaflseO 
to enquire into the practicability of hanging the punkahs and to 
act accordingly." 


This implied that the punkahs had been bought but the 

•difficulty was the hanging. Then on 

^ May 19th, — The Committae reported that the punkahs could 

XiOt be hung except at great cost, eo it was resolved to sell them off/' 

'* September 9th. — ^The price offered for the punkahs being 
very little it was resolved to keep them for the present. " 

As the next hot season set in we find the following entry : — 
" March 10th (1846) it was resolved to receive estioLates and 
plans for swinging the Punkahs." 

' Nothing more is recorded about this matter until 1851 when 

the Church took the matter in hand more seriously than it had 

done since 1844, for we read: — 

"May 19th (1851). — A Sub-Committee was appointed 
comprising Messrs. Hassell, Shaw, Burgess, Mendes and Carran to 
get Estimates for swinging punkahs in the Chapel, as it was 
considered desirable for various reasons to have them and to raise 
funds to meet the cost." 

After thid the records are silent, so the punkahs must have 

been hung up that year (1851). They were of the cumbrous kind, 

being framed sheets of canvas; however these were better than 

nothing. There is no doubt that they mi^ have been appreciated , 
for we next read that on 19th May 1854 it was decided to put 

punkahs into the Yestryi 

In course of time these cumbrous framed punkahs were replaced 
by pole punkahs with Holland frills and subsequently the Holland 
f rilla gave way to mat frills. All these were acceptable in their day, 
l>ut finally in 1906 through the generosity of an anonymous Donov 
the pole punkah gave way to the electric ceiling fan. The generous 
donation of this gentleman covered the entire cost of electric 
installation throughout the Chapel and the Schoolroom. These 
electric fans are pleasant in their way and labor saving. They are 
also cheaper and cleaner, but they are prone to get out of order and 
fail sometimes when they are most required. Sketches are given 
l>elow of South East and South West comers of the inside <rf the 
<fhapel as fitted with pole punkahs. 


View op tepj East end of tub interior op the ('hapel with 


View op the west en'd op the interior op the Chapel with 



The matter of tlie lighting does not form such intei^eeting 

F&ading as such details are not on record. At the first ther« were 

fche very old-fashioned wall brackets with candles ; next the candles 

•were replaced by castor oil, afterwards came Argand lamps, in 

September 1SB4 as the other lights interfered with the cumbrous 

framed canvas punkahs. Then came kerosene lights. It may not 

1>e credited thftt as far back as 16th November 1847 "the proposal 

to light the Chapel with gas was put to the vote and lost" but it 

had to be introduced later on. It was in use for many years, but 

in 1886 the piping was entirely re-laid and this lighted the Chapel 

more brilliantly than before. Messrs. J. B. Norton and Sons on 

that occamon presented the Church with the lamp post on the West 

side free of charge. In 1906 gas gave way to the electric light, which 

though very welcome in many ways has at times gone out when it 

was very inconvenient. Thus, on the 31st March 1907, just after 

the last of three individuals had entered the Baptistery all the 

electric lights went out, so that the Pastor had to baptize this 

third candidate in the darkness after which the Pastor and the 

candidate had to grope their way up out of the water as best they 

could in the dark, which was certainly vary inconvenient! But 

when all the electric lights are tumcl on and burn properly, the 

Chapel looks rather pretty as has been admitted by many visitors. 

ThuB there has been a considerable advance from the candle of 

1809 to the electric light of 1908. The sketch on the opposite 

page shows the whole length of the interior of the Chapel looking 

towards the West. 

The Baptistery is just the same as it was in 1812 when Dr. and 
Mrs. Judson and the Rev. Luther Rice were baptized in it. 
On the 2l5t August 1878 when Mr. Blackie was Pastor, 
it was unanimously resolved "that the gallery at the 
Eafit end of the Chapel should be removed, the pulpit fihifU'd 
from its present position to tha East end, and that a new Baptistery 
should be built in front of the new pulpit, and the old one filled up, 
care being taken to have its site marked with marble tiles." 


Although this was unanimously resolved upon and the order waa 
actually given to have it carried into effect alt once, nothing wm 
done. Man proposed but God disposed, and we thus have at the 
present day the identical historical Baptistery of 1812. Every 
American visitor to the Chapel invariably asks if it is the very same 
one in which Dr. Judson was baptized, and, through the inter- 
vention of God's good hand, we are able to say that it is 
the identical one. 

As to Galleries, there have always been three, but until 1881 
they were deeper, extending more forward and approaching nearer 
the pulpit. In that year they were reduced in depth by severd 
feet, and, as the wooden pillars supporting them were found to be 
rotten, cast-iron pillars were substituted, which still exist. In 1906 
it was found that the wooden sockets in which they had been 
placed were rotten so the pillars had to be fixed into the patent 

As to the Compound when the Cadastral Survey of Calcutta 
was made in 1887 it was decided that the Church was the poaBCBBor 
of the boundary wall to the West of the entrance gate, and also 
of those to the East of the Chapel and North East of the PaZBOOip. 
The owner of No. 30, Bow Bazar Street gave tnmUe 
about the tiled roof of his hut in 1889 andhewaaeei^ 
with '' Notice to abate the nuisance," but, as he failed to do 
so, the Church built the wall up much higher. Not long after^the 
man constructed a pucca two-storied house. Perhaps if fbe 
Church had pressed its claim to the ownership of that land^ttcy 
might have got it back, but the opportunity was lost; Anjull'. 
the Church might fhat year (1889) have purchased that plot cf had 
for Kb. 4,000, but one of the officers advised tha offer of Bfl. 8,€00 
only, so this opportunity was also lost to the Church. 

There is evidence that this portion of land was formerly in the 
possession of the Church, but it was shown by the Survey Certificate 
given by Messrs. Mackintosh Burn and Co. in March 1887, that if 


had ever been in the possession of tEe CHurch it had slipped away 
rlor to 1854. The tradition as to how it came to slip away is that 
. the days when the Native Christians used to live within the Chapel 
impound one of them became involved in debt and mortgaged his 
ut and the land around it to an outsider and the mortgage was 
diver redeemed so the mortgagee took possession. Probably the 
^cers of the Church of that day did not know anything about 
le transaction. The Deacons of the Church actually 
seed this very land from the possessor of No. 30, 
ow Bazar Street from 1st October 1871 to 30th September 
574 at Re. 8 a month for open-air services. There 

no doubt that it would have been just the spot on which to build 
Sail for meetings or lectures, being immediately on the roadside, 
id it oould also have served as a Book Shop and Tract Depot, such 

there is alongside the Doremus Home in DhurrumtoUah Street. 

Thb Communion Bbbvice which was pbesbnted to Db. Carey 
by the govbbnmbnt. 

(^ is a duplicate of the set at S\ John^s Churchy Calcutta,') 


There are two other matters which must be mentioned before 
this Chapter is closed, although they do not concern the exterior 
or the intarior of the Building and they are 
1. The Communion Plate 
2. The Harmonium. 

In regard to the former there can be no doubt that it has come 
down from the days of the three Serampore Missionaries as it is 
altogether unique. The flagon is more like a jug of the prasent day 
and is very heavy. It is very large and was evidently designed to 
meet the requirements of a large Church. The sketch on the pre- 
vious page shows it off. 

The tradition regarding it is that it was given to Dr. Carej 
by Government for use in the new Chapel after the Chapel was 
opened to condone for the part taken by the Magistrate in 
hindering the erection of the building. It is a very handsome ani 
valuable Communion Set, in fact so much so that it so attracted the 
attention of the Hon'ble Mr. John Wanamaker when in Calcatte 
in 1902 that he had a replica set made from it by Messrs. Solomoa 
and Co. for which he had to pay over Bs. 800. The varioui 
articles are of pure silver. It is a duplicate of the set presented 
by the East India Company to St. John's Church, of which there i 
a sketch in the Rev. Mr. Hyde's book, The Parish of Bengal. 

The entries in the Minute Book about the introduction of fl» 
Harmonium are about as interesting as those about the introdnfr 
tion of punkahs, and about seven years also intervened before the 
Church agreed to the proposal. Here are the entries: — 

2^th Avguat 185 j^. — It was decided to send a Circular to •O 
the members relative to the suggestion to introduce a HannoniiUB 
into the Chapel. 

2l8t September. — The greater number of members being agaW 
the introduction of a Harmonium it was allowed to lie over. 

26th June 1861. — It was determined to- submit to the wM> 
Church by Circular the proposal to introduce a Harmonium, ^ 
wards the purchase of which Rs. 525 had been promised, and 
unless two-thirds of tlie members supported the proposal it wooM 
be rejected. 


24th July, — ^The voting being in favor of the introduction of 
d Harmonium, one was presented to tbe Church by the principal 

This Harmonium, which is still in the Parsonage and is very 
eet-toned, did duty till 1885 when the following entries occur. — 

18th February 1886, — It was decided to collect money for the 
irchase of a new Harmonium for the Chapel to replace the one 
at had been in use 25 years. 

^6th March, — It was reported that a new American Organ had 
)en purchased for Ks. 550, and this instrument is still in use 
that it also has held put very well. 

The Parsonage. 

In May 1886, Mr. Dear sent sufficient money and timber to 

Dstruct a South verandah to the Parsonage, but the construction 

a two-storeyed bathroom at the West end of the house was 

ferred. Jhilmils were subsequently put to the above South 

randah by the Pastor years afterwards . 

In 1907 the Pastor had the floors of the lower rooms and 
randahs all raised and some were laid with patent stone and 
hers with marble tiles so that it has a very pretty appearance. 
lere is, however, no electric installation. 

The Cooly Bazab (or Hastings) Chapel. 
CooLY Bazar is a Suburb of Calcutta. It is said that it 
derived this name from the number of coolies employed in tht 
construction of the present Fort, which took several years to com- 
plete. These coolies formed a regular village down there. In 
course of time a Government colony was formed consisting chiefly 
of Warrant Officers and Conductors of the Ordnance and Oommis' 
sari at Departments, and, in addition, there are now men con- 
nected with the Harbour Master's Department. This suburb ii 
now generally known as Hastings owing to its proximity to EM' 
ings Bridge, which was built in 1833 and is so named in honor cf 
the Marquis of Hastings. 

At the very outset of the work started by the missionaries is 
Calcutta, some of the members of the Church and adhecents livri 
there. They used to have meetings in each other's bouses, or a^ 
tend those at the Fort, or even come to Calcutta; and the mii- 
sionaries and the Native Preachers used to go and conduct servioei 

The Bev. Wm. Eobinson used to do so once a waekf 
but it was probably in a private house as no mention is made d 
even a Bungalow Chapel, as those structures were termed in tinm 

But by degrees the numbers residing at Oooly Bazar increaarf 
so that it was only in the usual course of things ihat on tiie llA 
August 1842, some of the membems expressed a strong desiie ^ 
have a small Chapel erected there for the accommodation of ttt 
members and others resident in that vicinity. A Sub^Jommitiia 
was accordingly appointed to report on the desirableness and pi*^ 
ticability of the scheme. This Sub-Committee oomprised He80- 
May (better known as Captain May), Mendea, Haesell, FIoj^* 
Page (afterwards B«v. J. C. Page), Beid, Burgees and Eyper. 




The Sub-CJommittee apparently did not lose much time in the 
matter, for, on the 21st of tho same month, a meeting was convened 
to consider their report. As this report was favorable and en- 
couraged the Church to proceed, they were requested to mate the 
necessary arrangements for erecting a Chapel. On tJie 8th Sep- 
tember 1842, the Sub-Committee asked the Church to advance them 
Bs. 200 as a loan until the necessary funds for the erection 
of the Chapel could be realized by an application to the public 
and this was agreed to. On the 5th January 1843 Mr. Page 
resigned the Office of Secretary to the Sub-Committee. 

A& matters were advancing we find that on 12th February 
1843. the following gentlemen were requested to act as a Committee 
to conduct the services at Cooly Bazar, viz., Messrs. Gray, Irvine, 
Mendesi, Floyd, Hassell, Mendies, Thompson, D. H. Chill, P. 
Anslam, Thomas, DeMonte, Shem and Ram Hurree and of these 
Mr. Floyd and Mr. Chill were requested to converse with the 
Independents about their Chapel at Cooly Bazar and report to 
the Church. On the 9th March it was stated that the building 
of the Chapel was commenced. 

At this stage it becomes necessary to give details of the work 
that was being carried on by the Independents in Cooly Bazar and 
the following details are taken from Ehe Calcutta Christian Observer 
of November 1856 in which it is stated that their labors com- 
menced in the year 1830 when the Rev. James Hill, Pastor of Union 
Chapel, established a week-day service, which was conducted in 
the house of a Mr. James Hill. A small bungalow was afterwards 
rented for the purpose of Divine Worehip. As the ccngr^ation 
continued to increase in the year 1837 a Bungalow Chapel was 
erected. This being a frail and inexpensive building in the year 
1843, the Rev. J. H. Parker with the cooperation of the residents 
and others, began to take measures for erecting a pucea Chapel. 

From the foregoing it will be seen that the Independents at 
the very time (1843) that the Baptists wiere erecting a pucea Chapel 
also conceived theideaof constructing a pwcca Chapel to replace their 


Bungalow Chapel of 1837 and thus the two Denominations at one 
and tlie same time were engaged in raising funds for the con- 
struction of pucca Chapels. The Baptist one was opened on the 
2nd November 1843, while the Independent one was not opened 
till the 1st January 1847. 

But we have gone too far and must retrace our steps a little. 

On the 11th. August (1843) it was reported that the building 
of the Cooly Bazar Chapel was completed, so the Committee was 
instructed to inspect the building and prepare for the day of 
opening. It was accordingly settled on the 5tli October that the 
«Chapel should be opened (D. V.) on the first Thursday of November 
which was the 2nd of that month. 

The following account of the opening of this Chapel at Cooly 
Bazar is taken from the Calcutta Christian Observer of January 
1844 :— 

New Chapel at Cooly Bazar. 

" A very neat Chapel, and a School-house in connection with 
this Church has been recently erected in- the Cooly Bazar, where 
there is a prospect of much usefulness among the natives. The 
Chapel was opened on Thursday the 2nd November, when an appro- 
priate sermon was preached by Sujaat Ali in Hindustani. The 
Rev. Messrs. Leslie and Pearce were present and the attendance 
was very numerous, so that many were compelled to stand outside 
the building. The Chapel, School-room and Teacher's house have 
cost about Rs. 1,200, towards which the Jubilee Fund Com- 
mittee kindly contributed Rs. 300. (This was the amount the 
Church had raised in 1842 towards the Mission Jubilee Fund.) 
The remainder has been obtained from various Christian friends, 
through the exertions of the members of the Lall Bazar Church. 
To all these dear friends our best thanks are presented, whilst our 
earnest prayer is that this new effort to extend the means of grace 
may be crowned with the Divine blessing. A collection was made 
which realized Rs. 81." 

Miss Gonsalvee, the oldest member of the Church, recollect 
being present at that opening service, and a gentleman still living 
who was born in Cooly Bazar, remembers being taken when a email 
boy by his father to that Chapel. His father being connected 
with the Ordnance Department resided at Cooly Baza): at that 


ae. He was a memb^ of the Lall Bazar Church, so very natur- 
7 attended the Baptist Chapel down there. It should 
re be borne in mind that this Chapel was erected merely 
8uit the oonveniencd of the members of the Lall Bazar 
lurch who resided in that locality. No separate Church was 
nned with a Pastor of its own or any separate Register of mem- 
rs kept up. 

In the Annual letters from the Lall Bazar Church to the Bap- 
t Association of Churches, which used to assemble at Serampore, 
e Cooly Bazar Chapel and its services were almost invariably 
Perred to. Thus we find the following statement in the letter 
the 10th December 1844 :— 

" Divine serviose have been continued in the little Chapel in 
e Cooly Bazar. Three English services, viz., those on Tuesday 
ening and Sabbath morning are kindly conducted by the 
i8si<mary brethren and a prayer-meeting oh Saturday evening 
r the brethren residing in that locality. There are also three 
rvices in Bengalee and one in Hindi every week.'' 

In the letter of the 21st December 1846 it is stated : — 

":Beside the usual services held in the Lall Bazar Chapel Divine 
Torship has been conducted both on the Sabbath and week-day at 
ooly Bazar both in English and the native languages as also twicd 
week in Bengalee at Kidderpore. The English services at Cooly 
ifizar has been conducted for the most part by our late" Pastor, 
Ir. Evans, who, as long as his health permitted, never failed to 
fctend and some of whose last effor